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Sport Drink Facts and Fictions Research Paper

… Results: Compared to placebo (water), ingesting glucose are regular intervals during the steady state portion of the task significantly improved performance; however, the addition of caffeine did not improve performance significantly compared to glucose alone. Conclusions: The sample size was small and incompletely randomized. Another weakness in the study was the use of water as a placebo, which would not taste the same as the other two beverages. In addition, the cyclists were all caffeine users, so the effectiveness of caffeine would depend on how much caffeine the cyclists typically consumed. Despite these limitations the authors were able to show glucose supplementation increased performance by 4.6% compared to water alone. When caffeine and glucose were combined, the average performance improvement was 9.0%, but statistically the…. [read more]

Sports Science and Sports Medicine Term Paper

… (Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003)

When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick, 2003) These routines are also followed by many professional and college teams, NCAA Division I women's college soccer players, Norway handball teams, all with significantly improved ACL injury statistics. (Patrick, 2003)

Another area that has developed increasingly in sports science is exercise physiology. It is specifically the study of how people respond to acute and chronic exposure to physical stress in a variety of environmental…. [read more]

Sports Medicine Research Proposal

… Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a primary focus of sports medicine is the rapid recovery of patients, which drives many innovations in the field (Sports Medicine).

Three General Areas of Sports Medicine

Sports medicine can be divided into three general areas: clinical sports medicine, sports surgery, and the physiology of exercise.

Clinical sports medicine

Clinical sports medicine includes the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries and the design of exercise, improvement of performance and nutrition programs for maintaining peak physical performance. It includes the study of the effects of different levels…. [read more]

Sports and Steroids Thesis

… Sports and Steroids

Steroids and Their Effects

Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald & Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they were used to treat under-nourished patients and induce their healing after surgery. It was in the 50s that competitive weightlifters discovered steroids to improve athletic performance. Athletes of other sports took after them, so that gradually, at least one out of15 male high school seniors in the U.S. has used the drugs. Some of them just want to increase strength and size, while others want to grow up faster to catch up with peers. Anabolic steroids can be bought over the counter in some countries,…. [read more]

Sports and Gender Discrimination Term Paper

… The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity.

Cultural And Social Assessment

Feminist theory states that women will be given equal rights in sports and media however this equality doesn't exist and there exist a problem for women's full exposure in media. Masculine homogeny also fails to be maintained through media and sports.

According to Gramsci's (1971) concept of hegemony was examined with social classes. Hegemonic masculinity supports hierarchical male dominance which places women below men. Sports is considered as a primary force that cultivates hegemonic muscularity in the western societies along with negative ideals and differences of women who…. [read more]

Sport Psychology the Evolution Research Paper

… There were no significant differences in perceived psychological well-being among the sports groups themselves." (Edwards & Edwards, p. 9)

Paradigm Shifts:

The increased emphasis on mood regulation and other methods of self-directed emotional control is evidence of a general paradigm shift in the way that sports psychology is pursued. This is to be expected the text by Johnson (2006) indicates given the relative newness of the field in general and the continued advancement in the discourse on cognitive psychology as a discipline. For many paractitioners in the field, this would contribute to a merging of the theoretical and the functional as the field evolved. According to Johnson, "in the mid '90s, expectations about the future of sport psychology were diverse. While some researchers claimed that…. [read more]

Athletic Coach I Have Garnered Term Paper

… "A pronating foot rolls toward the inside. A supinating foot rolls toward the outside. A Morton's foot is a combination of these two abnormalities." (Levy 199).

A pronating foot can result in knee problems from the joint being repeatedly twisted. I have found that most people with a pronating foot can be treated with a simple arch support, but naturally, this is not the right answer for everyone. I have learned that, "For 10% of runners, an arch support provides too little lift, and for another 10% an arch provides too much lift. These 20% of runners need a custom-made shoe insert, or orthotic device." (Levy 200). This is why -- for my distance team -- although I require every member to use an arch…. [read more]

Sports-Related Concussion and Statistical Study Essay

… Tactical Responsibilities

According to De Salvo et al. (2007) statistical techniques are not only used to assess players performance but the results and conclusions of these analyses are used to design and develop position conditioning and player's individual training plans. It is a contemporary sports science practice to use manual as well as technological tools to gather quantitative data and analyze the data using mean, percentage, standard deviation, and probability components of statistical techniques (Szymanski, 2003). The increased usage of these techniques has modified the applicability of traditional game planning practices. A position coordination analysis is also performed using computerized match analysis system. Match analysis techniques are also applied to opponent teams to assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Advantages and disadvantages

There are advantages and…. [read more]

Flow States and Sport Essay

… It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs and behavior of individuals. This makes it ideal for the technique, which elicits change at unconscious level to be highly effective. This is an indication that hypnosis is a critical technique that offers the drive for the development of positive change in the sporting performance and the concept of flow. Hypnosis is essential in enhancing the ability of athletes to overcome performance anxiety and jitters before the competitions thus gaining optimum performance. This is because of the ability of the technique to facilitate the acquisition…. [read more]

Racism in Australian Sports History Essay

… The Girri Girii Sport Academy enters the academy with high self-efficacy. Generally it has been believed that students with positive-identity are possibly to be associated with the success of the school and in order for the school to attain a positive self-identity then the students have no option except perceiving value in schooling.

According to (Craven, 1989)), the aspiration of evaluated Indigenous students as well as the results based on the self-concept indicates that of course indigenous students do have lower self-concept as derived from the academic facets of self-concept. Other researchers have associated identity to vocational education and illustrate that individuals tend to connect to the practices of their communities by valuing place and its learning impacts. There suggestion is on effective programs in…. [read more]

Psychology in Sports Thesis

… Sports Psychology

Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and the psyche for the task ahead. The topic of sports psychology has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years. Athletes and trainers alike recognize that being successful in the sports arena involves more than physical strength. It also involves mental strength and stability. The purpose of this discussion is to explore psychology in sports and the impact that the techniques utilized in sports psychology have on athletes and their ability to perform at an optimal level.

Psychology in Sports

Sports Psychology is defined…. [read more]

Career of an Athletic Trainer Term Paper

… The most respected and accepted educational facilities are accredited according to standards created by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Education (CAAHEP), a division of the American Medical Association (Hibberts). Many students major in exercise science with a specialty in athletic training. In most cases, they also need to obtain a state license or National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification in order to work as an athletic trainer and "to become certified, trainers must complete 1500 hours of athletic training, and pass the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification exam" (AHEC). Training includes many different factors, including nutrition, psychology, human anatomy and physiology, exercise physiology, first aid, therapy, injury prevention, administration, and many other aspects of sports psychology, medicine, and management (Hibberts).

There are…. [read more]

Sports Management Term Paper

… This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the field of business management for years since the market is more competitive and marketing management has shifted its concentration from inherent performance like production to outward objectives like satisfaction and customers' perception of service quality. But the term service quality has only focused in the field of sport and recreational literature during the last twenty years. SERVQUAL that indicates the conventional disconfirmatory model was considered…. [read more]

Exercise Science the Physiological Benefits of Childhood Research Proposal

… Exercise Science

The Physiological Benefits of Childhood Exercise

The problem of childhood obesity has worsened in recent years as children tend to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators which include juvenile diabetes, increased risk of heart disease and diminishing physical dexterity. Therefore, the research conducted here makes as its primary focus the positive implications of regular physical activity and exercise for children. Considering the anatomical implications of regular healthy exercise, the research will reveal an array of benefits to immediate and long-term health maintenance.

The physiological indicators produced by the exercise science discipline illustrate that there are causes in terms of both shaping emphasis and preempting risks…. [read more]

Why Does Gender Matter in Sport? Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Matter in Sports?

There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and perpetuated differences that make gender matter in sports, though these gender definitions are being challenged. In addition, studies have found gender differences in injury, specifically regarding concussions among high school athletes. In any event, due to current circumstances in sports, gender matters.

Gender Definitions

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males (Messner, 1989). Furthermore, a public masculine identity is fundamental for males within society (Messner, 1989). The actual content of any individual's identity comes from that person's choices in areas such as…. [read more]

Steroid Use in Sports Term Paper

… ¶ … steroids in sports. The author works to explore the topic and brings to light several cases in which it has been a problem. Steroid use in sports is not just a problem in the professional circuit, but has crept its way into high schools and colleges across the nation. The author explores the use of steroids in that environment as well and suggests solutions to the problem.

Children across the nation are conditioned their entire lives to want to excel in sports. Watching their parents watch them from the stands encourage children to try even harder the next time. They hear their parents brag about their last game over dinner, or at a party and they learn that excelling at sports gets their…. [read more]

Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational Term Paper

… The study is limited because of the small sample size and amount of time allocated to conducting the study. The study did also show that even among students who did not report participation in sports, a high level of self-esteem exists. Thus the researcher may conclude that while sports participation may relate to an overall sense of wellness and high self-esteem, a number of factors probably contribute to this rather than one factor. Additional studies will have to be carried out to determine the exact relationship that exists between sports participation and self-esteem.


Interview Questions Athletes

1) Do you believe your involvement in sports has impacted your self-esteem in a positive manner?

2) Do you feel pressure to act a certain way or behave…. [read more]

Marketing Plan a Sports Enterprise Essay

… The engagement of the sports center representatives in public relations through the granting of interviews in the local media and the hosting of conferences to promote the benefits of a sports center, and also the offer of their sport center.

The delegation of representatives to schools in order to promote the offer of the sports center. In this effort, it is important to also ensure that the information is passed on to the parents, through, for instance, the issuance of printed materials for the children to take home and show their parents.

5. Implementation and control

A final issue which has to be addressed at this stage is represented by the actual implementation of the sports marketing process, which could be completed as revealed below:…. [read more]

Gender in Sports Research Paper

… Gender in Sports

In the opinion of this author, in the sports of modern society, the status of male and female should be equal. To support this position, we well examine the history and development of male and female sports and then contrast it with the status of males and females in sports in modern society. The reasons for this status will be examined including genetics and sports technology, government input and commercial input into the sports field. This evidence will support the author's opinion that Now, female's status is fast approaching the male's because their ways of training and playing sports are becoming closer.

Contrary to popular opinion, there are ancient models for the equality of men and sports in the ancient world. In…. [read more]

Sports Injuries Competitive Sports Participation Term Paper

… Therefore, adults should take a positive approach, set reasonable expectations of their children's physical and psychosocial abilities and learn to control their emotions.

It is imperative for parents to remember and emphasize children's motives for sport participation (having fun, being with friends, learning skills, improving health and fitness, etc.) and not to substitute them with their own motives (winning, earning social prestige, pursuing sport career, etc.)

Organization / Administration

Sport administrators should have a thorough understanding of structural and functional differences that exist between children and adults and design sport programs that are safe in both training and competition.

Special education / certification programs (clinics, seminars) have to be organized and systematically implemented for coaches working with the children of the defined age group.

Not…. [read more]

Sports Participation and Socioeconomic Status Research Paper

… It is simply part of their culture.

In a society that has made competitive sport a way of life, it is not hard to see the difference between it and the problems in America where SES plays a more pivotal factor in determining who can play for a longer period of time and who is denied access to playing sport competitively for long. In the U.S., the society is more complex and much less simplistic like it is in developing countries like those in Latin America. In the U.S., many children may be from low SES backgrounds but they will still have the TVs, the video games, and toys to play with inside so as to keep them busy since they cannot go outside…. [read more]

Science/Technology on the Modern Era Essay

… But how has the Women's Movement affected family structure?

The Women's Movement and the Family

Steven Mintz (2011) laments the women's movement because he sees it as a destroyer of the family unit, which was the basis of the social fabric that held America together. To give examples of the destruction, he cites the doubled divorce rate, an increase in "female-headed homes," and the quadrupling of cohabitation outside the bonds of marriage. Mintz points to the sexual revolution of the 1960s as the fountainhead for these changes. He also gives the Women's Movement its due:

Militant feminist activists like Ti-Grace Atkinson denounced marriage as "slavery" and "legalized rape." The larger mainstream of the women's movement articulated a powerful critique of the idea that child care…. [read more]

American Universities and Corporatization Research Paper

… University Sports Scandals Aren't a New Phenomenon

College sports programs actually began to become troublesome a hundred and fourteen years ago, when, at the turn of the century, scandals and an over-abundance of student frenzied behaviors caused administrators to establish oversight committees to regulate football (Kissinger, et al., 2009). Moreover, by the 1920s, some historically black college and universities' football programs (some dating to 1892) were called into question because of the fact that educational goals -- and eligibility requirements -- for black athletes were put on the back shelf in favor of sports success stories (Kissinger, 2009).

Kissinger references a 1930 study by Savage that showed that once student-athletes graduated, there was nowhere for those individuals to work based on what they had learned…. [read more]

Ticket Prices and Athlete Salaries Research Paper

… 167). Although there remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies in this area, these findings are consistent with the studies to date that have shown that the increase in athlete salaries has affected professional sports negatively because they contribute to the growing perception of these players receiving inordinately excessive and even exorbitant sums in return for their efforts, placing their tickets at levels that are no longer affordable for many average consumers (Jozsa & Guthrie, 1999). For instance, these analysts report that, "Escalating ticket prices may have contributed to lower attendance" (Jozsa & Guthrie, 1999, p. 80). In support of these assertions, Jozsa and Guthrie cite the following:

1. NFL ticket prices averaged $36 in the 1996 season; at $25 a seat, the New…. [read more]

Marinol Medicine Is Designed Research Paper

… In addition to the side effects of Marinol, scientists and researchers have found several other problems with the drug. Firstly, the Marinol is far more expensive than medical marijuana because of what is required to produce the medication. The medicine enters the body through the mouth but takes a long time for the body to break down and then process. According to Max & Joy (2001):

Dronabinol's greasy consistency presents several problems to a drug manufacturer. First, it makes the compound difficult and expensive to purify. Second, because dronabinol does not dissolve readily in water, only a fraction of the orally ingested compound reaches the patient's circulation. That amount is further reduced by the action of the liver, which recognizes dronabinol as a contaminant and…. [read more]

Safety Decisions in High School Thesis

… In fact, complete and reliable data is a programs, rules, education, and policies. The goal is to prevent, mitigate, and treat exercise and sports injuries. The Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention is to translate that information into better prevention, and public health and sports medicine outcomes.

Research Questions

Two quantitative research questions are relevant to this research project. Although the questions focus on two different issues with regard to safety in high school sports, the questions essentially address the same construct -- inadequate funding of high school sports. The focus of the overall research study is to examine the impact that inadequate funding of high school football has on student player safety. Issues of safety would be evidenced by inadequately maintained or…. [read more]

Use of Steroids in Athletes Term Paper

… Steroids Among Athletes

Steroids are a class of prescribed drugs, used to treat abnormally low amounts of testosterone, body wasting in the case of AIDS and other disease conditions involving loss of body mass (National Institute of Drug Abuse 2006). Anabolic steroids contain hormones or hormone-like substances, used to boost strength and muscle growth (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence 1998). Steroids were first developed in Europe in the 30s to treat undernourished patients. They were also used for healing after surgery. Weightlifters began using them for competitions in the 50s in order to enhance their performance. The popularity and use of steroids thus spread among athletes throughout the world. Today, at least one in 15 male high school seniors in the U.S. Or half a…. [read more]

Athletes Review Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace Research Paper

… Athletes Review: Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace

The human foot has an extremely complex structure of bones, joints and muscles. Meadows (2006) points out, "The human foot has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. With such a complex structure, a lot can go wrong. While some foot problems are inherited, many occur because of years of wear and tear."

In addition, Meadows points out a number of signs and symptoms that can lead to foot injury. These signs include:

"Excessively dry skin,

Thickened or discolored nails,


Redness, and Unusual sensations (Meadows, 2006)."

Foot injury is significant and cannot be overlooked. Even the initial signs should not be treated lightly. However, research has shown that most doctors overlook feet…. [read more]

Establishment of Blood Screening Protocols Literature Review

… " (Fallon, ) However, more recent evidence is stated by Fallon to call this conclusion into question as Hinton et al. In reports a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, that investigated the effect of iron supplementation in 42 iron-depleted nonanemic women. Findings of the study state that five male athletes were identified in which "screening abnormalities were associated with illness or other factors that explained the abnormalities." ( ) In three cases it is reported that hematological screening did not contribute clinically useful data as the abnormalities would have been expected based on the history and examination." In the other two it is reported that "the case of the asymptomatic slowly developing iron deficiency and of the football player who refused follow-up, hematological and iron-related screening uncovered…. [read more]

Blood Doping, as a Performance Essay

… Different diagnostic tests have evolved to tackle the different doping practices. Broadly these detection tests can be classified as indirect and direct tests. The direct test involves a urine analysis and as the name suggests it helps to directly identify the presence of foreign (rHuEPO). The indirect blood tests involve the calculation of the Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) tests. This test developed in 1993 was not totally sensitive as it identified only 50% of the rHuEPO samples. The other test developed in 1996 is based on calculating the soluble transferring receptor (sTFR)/ferritin ratio. More recently blood tests that take into account multiple blood markers such as the haematocrit level, the reticulocyte haematocrit, macrocytic cells and the serum EPO and…. [read more]

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