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Statistics Allowable With Nominal, Ordinal and Interval Thesis

… ¶ … statistics allowable with nominal, ordinal and interval scales.

Nominal is a counting operation and its descriptive statistics is "frequency in each category, percentage in each category mode." Ordinal is a rank ordering and its descriptive statistics is "median range, percentile ranking." Interval is an arithmetic operation on intervals between numbers and its descriptive statistics is "mean, standard deviation and variance." Understanding descriptive statistics necessitates specifically looking at the type of data that are being described. The nominal scales only place numeric labels on non-quantitative concepts, for example, dogs have the value of "1" and cats have the value "2." Many categories or groups are actually nominal, such as racial group and gender. In some research, for instance, the study counts the number of…. [read more]

Statistics Durbin Watson Term Paper

… Statistics -- Watson-Durbin

Analysis of Why Social Networking Played

An Influence in the 2008 Presidential Election

The 2008 Presidential election forever changed the nature of campaigning, constituent management, fund raising, while also creating an entirely different platform for managing campaigns and getting new demographic segments to participate at a level never seen before. The 2008 U.S. Presidential election was the first to rely heavily on highly interactive, agile and quickly defined social networking strategies in an attempt to get those demographic segments who had voted the least in previous elections to participate. Barak Obama concentrated on the younger demographic segments through a concerted strategy of social networking that included sites on Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube and a multitude of microsites. John McCain stayed with more…. [read more]

Healing With Statistics Essay

… Inferential statistics are similar to descriptive statistics in their operation, but markedly different in their application: based on certain controls in collection and analysis, inferential statistics can be used to form hypotheses and some conclusions regarding a population as a whole, not simply the specific and finite observation included in the data set (Lund, 2010). Inferential statistics are used by healthcare organizations for things like predicting how many severe cases of flu might be expected in a given season, based on data samples taken from previous years, current populations, etc. In this way, though the organization would be working on less certain information and a projected range of expectations rather than concrete and certain measurements, preparedness can still be increased (Hill, 2012).

The four levels…. [read more]

Statistics: Multivariate Analysis Research Data Collection Thesis

… Statistics-Multivariate Analysis

Research data collected using the quantitative approach can be analyzed and interpreted in different ways, using either the univariate, bivariate, or multivariate analysis.

Bivariate analysis looks at the relationship between two variables. It is commonly analyzed and interpreted with the aid of the cross-tabulation or cross-tab, allowing the researcher to check the interaction between the two variables under study. The variables under study are called the independent (or predictor) variable and the dependent (or outcome) variable. The interaction between the two is reflected in the cross-tab, and each interaction can be expressed in either frequencies (raw count) or percentages, or both. It is critical in bivariate analysis to establish whether the relationship observed is significant or not. Determining the significance of the relationship…. [read more]

Statistics for Social Sciences Correlation Term Paper

… Statistics for Social Sciences


This assignment was designed to help students 1) develop a deeper understanding of the purposes of correlational techniques and 2) become more familiar with hand-computed and computer-based correlational analyses.

Use the smoking data provided to complete the following steps. NOTE: you can copy and paste the data into SPSS if you use the electronic word file of this assignment I have sent. Show all your computational work.

Hand compute the correlation between the number of years smoking (YR.SMOKE) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CIG.DAY).

Hand calculate the correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the level of carbon monoxide expired (CO.LEVEL).

Report both correlation coefficients and describe the strength and direction of each in…. [read more]

Applied Statistics Essay

… Statistics in Business

To What Extent Does Statistics Influence Organizational Decisions?

From the book Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions (Spatz, 2008) the applicability of statistics to organizational decisions can be seen throughout marketing, sales, product management, product quality and services. In short, every aspect of a company's value chain is influenced and made more accurate through the use of statistics. As the book illustrates through its use of descriptive and predictive statistics (Spatz, 2008) the ability to measure processes to a given level of statistical significance can also be achieved. The intent of this paper is to discuss how statistics can be used in the context of Total Quality Management (TQM).

Statistics in Quality Control and Management

For any company their reputation for quality is…. [read more]

Morality of Statistics Ethics/Business Term Paper

… However, when the context suggests a higher degree of veracity and the results can be potentially misinterpreted, greater moral questions once again arise: a Gallup poll is assumed to be objective, as is an advertisement that 'looks' scientific, even though it might be produced by a biased party.

On a personal level, the analysis of both Ostapski & Superville and Geertsema are a reminder of the limits of objectivity, even in a numerically-driven science and the fact that an understanding of both the principles behind the analysis applied to the final result and also the consequences of the interpretation must be taken into consideration. The Christian belief in human rationality must also be tempered with an understanding that humans are fallible creatures and are prone…. [read more]

Statistics Term Paper

… ¶ … Statistics

The intent of this study is to define both the qualitative and quantitative statistical methodologies including the development of descriptive and inferential statistics applied to the field of education overall and school counseling specifically. Each of the qualitative and quantitative approaches to statistics are also analyzed from the perspective of how best they can be applied to educational and counseling situations to best support and serve the student. The specifics of how to apply these techniques within the context of a methodological approach to completing research projects is also evaluated. Specifically focusing on the steps of research design, data collection, data analysis, and the ethics of the interpretation of research are also discussed.

Exploring Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Counseling

There…. [read more]

Numerical Research That Can Be Analyzed Essay

… ¶ … numerical research that can be analyzed in a statistical fashion. Quantitative research frequently -- although not exclusively -- deploys the scientific method whereby a hypothesis is tested in a controlled fashion. One group, the experimental group, is subjected to an intervention known as the independent variable while another, otherwise similar group, is designated the control group and not subjected to that variable. The dependent variable is the change or lack of change that results from the intervention, and the results prove or disprove the initial hypothesis. Quantitative research can also take the form of a survey or other instrument designed to collect raw data about a particular population.

In contrast, qualitative research is designed to explore the evolution of a particular phenomenon in…. [read more]

Inferential Statistics? What Are the Differences? Essay

… ¶ … inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains the similarities and differences between descriptive and inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. Descriptive statistics can also describe the actual sample under study, but allow a researcher to extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a researcher can describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research cannot describe how those issues affect the members of the study groups and how these variables are related in those groups.…. [read more]

Bio-Statistics Research Activities, Whether Clinical Term Paper

… In other words, the authors did not build a medical or healthcare-based paradigm for the study. Following a well-defined research question the research investigators' task is to follow-up with a statement of a testable null hypothesis or hypotheses. The null form of the hypothesis is required in order for the proper application of a statistical data analysis tool to be implemented (Ohlson, 1998). Simply stating that an attempt to "confer" that an insulin deficiency might or might not affirm a "predisposition to complications" is not adhering to proper scientific research protocol with respect to a needed testable null hypothesis (Van Dalen, 1964).

Another important criteria of effective research are the use of an appropriate sampling procedure. Sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error…. [read more]

Statistics This Survey Term Paper

… ¶ … Statistics

This survey was conducted as part of a class project to gather sample data on a variety of issues. The data will be used to perform statistical analysis regarding the correlation between differences in men and women. The 37 questions start with basic demographic data such as age and education and move on to cover attitudes and agreement with various topics. For each hypothesis, I will show some statistical figures along with charts to show whether or not there was any correlation present.

This survey involved 291 participants. 130 of these were male and 161 were female. Their average age is 32.7 years old. The males had an average age of 33.7 and the females had an average age of 32.2. Six…. [read more]

Assurance Program Why/How to Create Case Study

… Information Security

Several international organizations have written lots of white papers on how and why information should be made secured. Several laws have been promulgated by governments and agencies of governments and the countries and agencies involved in this explain how important it is to have information security. Bodies like the COMMISSION OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES (ECMA); the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); Canadian System Security Centre. Information security deals a lot with:

Disallowing unauthorized persons access to information not meant for them

Minimizing or eradicating the tendency for information to truncated while on transit

Making undecipherable information not meant for other people

Installing firewalls that disallows leakage of information

Training of IT staff to respect the code of ethics of the IT department…. [read more]

Analyzing the Text Everyday Economic Statistics Essay

… ¶ … Economic Statistics

Guide to Everyday Economic Statistics

By Gary E. Clayton and Martin Gerhard Giesbrecht

Gary Clayton and Martin Giesbrecht's a Guide to Everyday Economic Statistics is a useful addition to one's library due to a multitude of reasons, among which two are the most prominent. First of all, the book offers the reader an insight into the economic mechanisms of important matters such as employment and unemployment, international trade, interest rates, national output, imports and exports, profits, expenditures, expected gains or financial markets. And it does this by revealing real life examples from the American economy which make the issues discussed even more so relevant. A Guide to Everyday Economic Statistics uses information that is otherwise available to the reader on other…. [read more]

Statistics: Critical Thinking Essay

… This is expected given that a statistic derived from the study of a sample would be factual to the elements of the sample, but inferential for the population (Schield 3).

These factors interplay to determine whether or not a study can be regarded as being of good quality, and whether or not the resultant statistic provides a good basis for decision-making (Best 15).

The Issue of Spurious Associations and the Simpson's Paradox

The effect of spurious relationships in critical thinking cannot be overlooked. The Simpson's Paradox can be defined as "a reversal of an association between two variables after a third variable (a confounding factor) is taken into account" (Schield 5). A critical thinker ought to take into consideration the effect of confounding factors when…. [read more]

Education for Immigrant Children Research Paper

… S. citizenship, or not?

Should 49%

Don't know 5%

Should not 46%[footnoteRef:9] [9: N.A. (2007). Poll: U.S. open to schools for illegal immigrants. Oregon Catalyst, Retrieved February 4, 2012, from <>. ]

This poll was taken in Oregon, a fairly liberal state, and even here the split is relatively even on both questions, with most people saying that these children should be educated, but a high number of people still saying that these children should not be educated, clearly oblivious of their moral duty to supporting innocent children in their quest for a better life, for a better America.


This paper has undertaken the presentation of whether or not illegal immigrant children should be educated in the U.S. As their citizen and legal…. [read more]

Statistic -- Research Methodology Essay

… Statistic -- Research methodology

The use of the 'case study:' Strengths and weaknesses

The use of the 'case study:' Strengths and weaknesses

When a researcher presents quantitative data about a population group, one of the most common objections is that such statistics do not allow for 'exceptions to the rule,' and do not paint an accurate portrait of the lived experiences of different individual's perceptions of reality. Case studies allow for a subjective portrait of human life, and allow for the subjects of research to speak for themselves. For example, when analyzing a religious community, doing a case study of a singular community might reveal more complexity of points-of-view than might be initially obvious from the data. The question 'do you believe the Bible to…. [read more]

Change This Study Analyzes Outsourcing Dissertation

… There are a number of forms of outsourcing. The important forms of outsourcing are information technology outsourcing (ITO), business process outsourcing (BPO) and human resources outsourcing (HRO). The concept of outsourcing reveals a number of research steams. The idea of outsourcing is still unchanged due to scientific diversity. Basically outsourcing and mainly offshore outsourcing are known as noticeable strategies (Harland et al., 2005; Jahns et al., 2006; see also Paju, 2007). Idea of outsourcing makes cause of discrepancy between the researcher and practitioner. Primarily, the scholars (Domberger, 1998; Kern et al., 2002; Ring and Van De Ven, 1992) observe that outsourcing is a development and natural continuation to Williamson's (1975, 1979, and 1981) researches and others who work on contract and the transaction cost economics.…. [read more]

Prediction Essay

… 38; median = 3.3; mode = N/A (all values at the same frequency); variance = .692889; standard deviation = .263228; kurtosis = -1.2189; skew = .182109; range = 2.5; sum = 38.3.

Higher reaction time memory score group: being = 9.24; median = 8.85; mode = 9.5; variance = 5.004889; standard deviation = 2.237161; kurtosis = 6.86883; skew = 2.443916; range = 7.9; sum = 94.2.

Aside from the obvious difference is one would expect when separating groups into low and high scores (e.g., higher/lower mean, median compared to the overall group results, different sum, etc.) there are a couple of interesting differences here. First, the lower reaction time group does not have a specific mode (although scores in the distribution at the same frequency…. [read more]

Psychology What Are the Similarities Research Paper

… What are true experiments?

True experiments consist of more than a single purposively designed group, random assignment, and outcomes that are commonly measured. Ethnicity and sex cannot satisfy such requirements because it is impossible to manipulate them without purpose. These designs only occur when a sample is chosen in random and assigned to comparison groups and program. If the researchers can perform the experiments using random assignments, it means that the experiment programs are true designs.

How are threats to internal validity controlled by true experiments?

Bias is a menace to interior validity. It is the primary source of errors into results and measurements. Bias occurs when experimental items that are in favor of an age, ethnic group, or gender are used. Bias is a…. [read more]

Multivariate Statistics Term Paper

… ¶ … training -- the traditional model, the computer model, and the video model -- feeling that people who receive different kinds (levels) of training should show differences in the dependent variable, which is the level of math anxiety. The researcher's null hypothesis is that there will be no differences in mean level of math anxiety for the three groups (assume there is a valid, interval-level measure of math anxiety). However, after thinking about it, the researcher wonders if the methods may also be effective with anxiety related to public speaking. The null hypothesis here is that there will be no differences in the mean level of anxiety related to public speaking for the three groups (assume there is a valid, interval-level measure of fear…. [read more]

Misleading Use of Statistics Term Paper

… Similarly, if we consider the crime rate for the years 2000 and 2001 as presented by the Justice Department, then the rate has decreased "all over the country" instead of going up.

The reason behind the author's making such a statement and citing officials like the FBI is made clear as one reads the article for it seems that the author planned to point out to the readers the inadequacy of policing efforts made by the government in securing New York City.

To make an effective point that would give the article more accuracy and legitimacy the writer manipulated the statistical facts and presented them in a manner that would mislead the audience. Though the writer may have falsified the statistics and a close analysis…. [read more]

Statistics in Every Aspect and Concept Term Paper

… ¶ … Statistics

In every aspect and concept of non-fictional writing and literature there exists a potential for inaccurate or misleading information that may hinder the objective or desired attainment outlined within their contexts. With this existent potential, it is imperative to regard non-fictional literature for its credibility in the use of common and available research methods, which validate the extent of its reasoning and overall accuracy.

Common and available research methods are as abundant as literature itself, though a similarity of function lies within each directive. In the classification of school counseling literature, such as periodicals, outlines, articles, and other informative writing, much the same is applied. Within this report, the context of all such will be detailed according to their prevalence and gestured…. [read more]

Activities of the U.S. Criminal Research Paper

… According to a New York Times article, the number of violent and property crimes in the United States had begun to plummet significantly in 2010, with a prevalence in small towns, to what appeared to be "the lowest rate in nearly 40 years" (Oppel, 2011), and this amazed experts who, based on historical lessons, had foreseen that criminality would naturally increase along with the accelerating economic crisis.

Despite this generally positive state of affairs, New York City stood out through its astoundingly proliferating patterns of rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary and larceny cases, while admittedly downgrading to -18,64% in murder cases and -13,19% in motor vehicle theft cases. In fact, whereas a uniformly spread, steady growth rate shared by some types of crime is not…. [read more]

Psychological Research Descriptive and Inferential Research Paper

… A variable is then tested on the test group, while the control group remains unaffected. The results from the test group are then compared to the control group, which has not been involved in the actual testing, and the results are observed.

By using a "true experiment" design, the results are difficult to refute, but there are things that can invalidate a study. These are known as threats to internal validity, or "confounds that serve as plausible alternative explanations for a research finding." ("Threats to Internal Validity") There are a number of different threats which can serve as alternative explanations including what is referred to as a patient's history, maturation, the effects of testing on a subject, the instrumentation used, chance, attrition, and even the…. [read more]

Stock Stats Statistics Essay

… The outcome of the probability assessment is relatively straightforward. Each company's data for the past ten years was compiled and placed into charts. This step was taken to make a visual comparison of data clearly visible. From this data, it was fairly easy to establish probabilities for repetitions of the observed performance records -- for instance, one company had the largest sales revenue by a wide margin for seven our of the past ten years, therefore it seems probable that this same company would be the sales leader in the industry in each of the next several years, as well. Similar results were obtained for the other identified criteria. The statistical analysis, on the other hand, did not really yield any useful results, as no…. [read more]

Business Statistics Is an Area Term Paper

… Business statistics is an area of statistics which works with economic data. Business statistics allows making certain observations on the base of economic data analysis, which plays an important role in further decision making business practices. Statistical data processing methods allow to summarize and visualize series of business data, evaluate it's main qualities which describe properties of the whole data set (average value, deviation, data distribution, etc.)

Today business statistics is used in such economics disciplines as market and financial analysis, accounting and auditing practices, management and marketing researches, etc. Business statistics allows to make different sorts of economic predictions on the base of data series and data series statistical properties. In case, any time a serious businessman starts a new business her first of…. [read more]

Nursing Research How Data Collection Essay

… 2524). Nurse practitioners in Oncology can benefit from this study because the carefully collected, examined and interpreted data will give them greater understanding and deal with their breast cancer patients' distress issues and effects.

Module 8: One Clinical Use of Research Results in Advanced Nursing Roles of Practitioner, Educator, or Administrator

Are older patients comfortable discussing sexual health with nurses? (Farrell & Belza, Jan-Feb 2012) provides research results that can be used by a nurse practitioner, educator and administrator. The study was designed to determine barriers to discussing sexual health with older patients and whether older patients: have questions about their sexual health that have not been answered; are asked about their sexual health; want a health care provider to ask about their sexual health;…. [read more]

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