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Statistics Being Studied Essay

… For example, it cannot be interpreted the age of the different immigrant groups, as this is not published. In addition, no conclusions can be definitively drawn about the timing of immigration flows -- those are only guessed at. In addition, there are no statistics provided in this report about the economic condition of immigrants or their settlement patterns. No conclusion can be drawn about the age of native speakers, with respect to determining the risk those languages face of extinction. The age of native speakers can be reasonably guessed, but not on the basis of the data provided in this report.

4. These statistics could impact our perception of certain topics by delivering facts about the subject. By providing accurate information, the basis is formed…. [read more]

Statistics Also Identify Various Essay

… Through its various techniques, statistics makes decision making in such a case less uncertain. Business executives can hence utilize probability figures and other numeric data provided by statistics to improve the quality of their decisions. It is also important to note that statistics remains an important decision making tool for the various functions of management. In marketing for instance, the decision on whether or not to launch a given product in a certain market could depend on a pilot survey conducted prior to the product launch. Such a survey utilizes various statistical techniques to carry out an analysis of the competition, consumer habits, consumer purchasing power, etc.

Statistics can be utilized in a wide range of other areas. To begin with, the human resources department…. [read more]

Statistics Term Paper

… ¶ … Statistics

The intent of this study is to define both the qualitative and quantitative statistical methodologies including the development of descriptive and inferential statistics applied to the field of education overall and school counseling specifically. Each of the qualitative and quantitative approaches to statistics are also analyzed from the perspective of how best they can be applied to educational and counseling situations to best support and serve the student. The specifics of how to apply these techniques within the context of a methodological approach to completing research projects is also evaluated. Specifically focusing on the steps of research design, data collection, data analysis, and the ethics of the interpretation of research are also discussed.

Exploring Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Counseling

There…. [read more]

Course Analysis: Math and Statistics Term Paper

… Statistics can be described as the study of the collection, interpretation, presentation, description and analysis of data. In particular, statistics in business taught us to apply a variety of statistical methods in a business context to facilitate evidence-based decision making and to provide answers to business related questions. The overarching objective of the course was to analyze each of the course elements in detail and at the same time learn how to use this knowledge to describe data and make informed decisions based on well reasoned statistical arguments. The course elements learnt include: descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, hypothesis development and testing, selections of appropriate statistical tests, and evaluating statistical results. All the elements enabled us to make inferences about a given population from sample data,…. [read more]

Statistics: Multivariate Analysis Research Data Collection Thesis

… Statistics-Multivariate Analysis

Research data collected using the quantitative approach can be analyzed and interpreted in different ways, using either the univariate, bivariate, or multivariate analysis.

Bivariate analysis looks at the relationship between two variables. It is commonly analyzed and interpreted with the aid of the cross-tabulation or cross-tab, allowing the researcher to check the interaction between the two variables under study. The variables under study are called the independent (or predictor) variable and the dependent (or outcome) variable. The interaction between the two is reflected in the cross-tab, and each interaction can be expressed in either frequencies (raw count) or percentages, or both. It is critical in bivariate analysis to establish whether the relationship observed is significant or not. Determining the significance of the relationship…. [read more]

Psychological Research Descriptive and Inferential Research Paper

… A variable is then tested on the test group, while the control group remains unaffected. The results from the test group are then compared to the control group, which has not been involved in the actual testing, and the results are observed.

By using a "true experiment" design, the results are difficult to refute, but there are things that can invalidate a study. These are known as threats to internal validity, or "confounds that serve as plausible alternative explanations for a research finding." ("Threats to Internal Validity") There are a number of different threats which can serve as alternative explanations including what is referred to as a patient's history, maturation, the effects of testing on a subject, the instrumentation used, chance, attrition, and even the…. [read more]

Statistics in Every Aspect and Concept Term Paper

… ¶ … Statistics

In every aspect and concept of non-fictional writing and literature there exists a potential for inaccurate or misleading information that may hinder the objective or desired attainment outlined within their contexts. With this existent potential, it is imperative to regard non-fictional literature for its credibility in the use of common and available research methods, which validate the extent of its reasoning and overall accuracy.

Common and available research methods are as abundant as literature itself, though a similarity of function lies within each directive. In the classification of school counseling literature, such as periodicals, outlines, articles, and other informative writing, much the same is applied. Within this report, the context of all such will be detailed according to their prevalence and gestured…. [read more]

Role of Research and Statistics Essay

… Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology

Research is the study of a particular field or phenomenon with the intent of learning something new, either from the perspective of the individual doing the research (like a student doing a term paper) or a researcher using the scientific method to answer an open-ended question still perplexing the scientific community, such as the best way to treat various types of cancer. The scientific method is one way of doing research, and usually involves several definite steps (Research: The scientific method, 2008, SIEM HI Research). The first of step of the scientific method is to define a problem that can be asked in the form of a specific question that can be observed or measured…. [read more]

Crime Statistics Term Paper

… Crime Statistics

The five cities selected for crime-rate comparison were Tucson, Arizona; Denver, Colorado, Palm Beach County, Florida; Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina; and Austin, Texas. Of those cities, Charlotte-Mecklenburg had a much greater incidence of violent crime than the other cities, while Tucson had a greater incidence of property crime than the other cities. Denver's property crime rate was the lowest, while the property crime rate in Denver and Palm Beach County was lower than the other cities, depending on the year. The violent crime rate appeared relatively steady in the cities, though Denver saw a tremendous increase in violent crime in the year 2004. The property crime rate saw a general increase in the cities, except for Palm Beach County, which demonstrated a significant drop…. [read more]

Prediction Essay

… 38; median = 3.3; mode = N/A (all values at the same frequency); variance = .692889; standard deviation = .263228; kurtosis = -1.2189; skew = .182109; range = 2.5; sum = 38.3.

Higher reaction time memory score group: being = 9.24; median = 8.85; mode = 9.5; variance = 5.004889; standard deviation = 2.237161; kurtosis = 6.86883; skew = 2.443916; range = 7.9; sum = 94.2.

Aside from the obvious difference is one would expect when separating groups into low and high scores (e.g., higher/lower mean, median compared to the overall group results, different sum, etc.) there are a couple of interesting differences here. First, the lower reaction time group does not have a specific mode (although scores in the distribution at the same frequency…. [read more]

Inferential Statistics Cellular Phone Use Hypothesis

… Inferential Statistics

Cellular phone use while driving has been linked to increased driver distraction and motor vehicle accidents (Strayer, Drews & Johnston, 2003). As a result, many states and provinces have created legislation to outlaw the use of cellular phones while driving. Despite the introduction of these laws, they are not widespread across the country, nor do all individuals choose to abide by the laws where they do exist (McCartt, Hellinga, Strouse & Farmer, 2010). It seems that many individuals do not believe that the dangers of using a cellular device while driving apply to them. Although some research has linked any type of cellular phone use to increased distraction and accidents, including hands-free phone operation, it seems that actually holding the phone seems to…. [read more]

Morality of Statistics Ethics/Business Term Paper

… However, when the context suggests a higher degree of veracity and the results can be potentially misinterpreted, greater moral questions once again arise: a Gallup poll is assumed to be objective, as is an advertisement that 'looks' scientific, even though it might be produced by a biased party.

On a personal level, the analysis of both Ostapski & Superville and Geertsema are a reminder of the limits of objectivity, even in a numerically-driven science and the fact that an understanding of both the principles behind the analysis applied to the final result and also the consequences of the interpretation must be taken into consideration. The Christian belief in human rationality must also be tempered with an understanding that humans are fallible creatures and are prone…. [read more]

Everyday Statistics in Sports Thesis

… ¶ … Statistics in Sports

"Statistics never lie"

Sports enthusiasts (as cited in Camillo, 2008, ¶1).

Statistical Studies of Sports

Each day, a number of Americans, seemingly mesmerized with sports data collections, read newspaper accounts relating raw and summary data about a variety of sports., Donald Guthrie explains in "Introduction to the miscellaneous sports articles" that: "Statistical studies of sports seem to fall into three categories" (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267). These categories include:

Analysis of rules and strategies;

Analysis of extent participation. (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267)

In the book Anthology of statistics in sports, Jim Albert, professor of mathematics and statistics at Bowling Green State University, Jay Bennett, Principal Scientist with…. [read more]

Evaluating Research Findings Using Statistics Essay

… Probability and Statistics

Does familiarity with neighbors lead to lower crime rates? A researcher has theorized that if neighbors know each other, then the crime rates will be lower than in communities in which neighbors do not have a relationship. When communities grow quickly the closeness of the community degrades. A study was done to see if there is a relationship between the crime rate and the percentage change in neighborhood population. 10 neighborhoods in a large metropolis were studied. The results are as follows.

Percentage Change in Neighborhood Population

Crime Rate (Crime per 1000 population)

Identify the Explanatory (X) and Response (Y) variable.

The explanatory variable (X) is the percent change in neighborhood population, because the hypothesis states that increased turnover of residents will…. [read more]

Broms Et Al. ) Found Essay

… According to Tables 3 and 4, researchers found that evening types of both genders were much more likely to be current (OR= 2.91, 95% CI 2.50, 3.38) and lifetime smokers (OR=2.67, 95% CI 2.96, 4.07) than that of any other diurnal category. Nicotine dependence (as measured by the FTND test; linear regression Table 5) also showed that this was higher among evening types than any other diurnal categories. Evening types scored 0.59 (95% CI 0.01, 1.17) points higher than morning types on the FTND. The Odds are low in each case (2.91 / 2.67). CI (confidence interval) in each case is high (the statistical pack will show ." 05" as indicating a 5% chance of something not being true. This is higher which shows that…. [read more]

Behavior Science Research a Researcher Research Paper

… An ordinal measure would ask the 130 individuals if they bought:

One to three vegetables each week

Three to five vegetables each week

More than five vegetables each week

A scale measure would ask the 130 individuals whether on a scale of one to five if they purchased (with 1 representing no vegetables and 5 representing many vegetables) how many vegetables they purchased each week.

7. In the fall of 2008, the U.S. stock market plummeted several times, which meant grave consequences for the world economy. A researcher might assess the economic effects this situation had by seeing how much money people saved in 2008. Those amounts could be compared to how much money people saved in more economically stable years. How might you calculate…. [read more]

Kde and Kme Kernel Density Estimation (Kde) Term Paper

… KDE and KME

Kernel Density Estimation (KDE)

Abstract-- Kernel Density Estimation KDE is also known as the Parzen Window Method, after Emanuel Parzen. Parzen is the pioneer of kernel density estimation. Density estimation entails constructing an estimate based upon observed data, where the underlying probability density function cannot be observed. A kernel in turn is used as a weighting function in nonparametric tests. In KDE, kernels play a central role in estimating the density functions of random variables. The phenomenon can be usefully applied to the communication sector of Electrical Engineering.

Index Terms-- KDE, Parzen, Electrical Engineering, Parzen Window Method

Non-parametric statistics is often referred to as distribution free, as they do not require a normal data distribution [8]. These tests also entail that less…. [read more]

Nursing Education Level Term Paper

… ¶ … Baccalaureate Nursing Students Better?

Being a nurse in the twenty first century has become more complex and demanding than in preceding decades. With the advent of greater technology the nursing community requires an immediate infusion of interest with respect to the training and education nurses receive in order to meet the challenges of the new healthcare millennium. The focus of this report is on an article authored by Aiken, et al. (2003) wherein the authors address the issue of nursing education and patient outcome effectiveness. No only did the authors very clearly present to the reader a well-defined study purpose (i.e., surgical patient risk adjustment mortality and failure to rescue and level of nurse education) their investigative conclusions clearly emphasize the positive influence…. [read more]

Public Opinion Crime, Criminal Justice Essay

… What is the unit of analysis?

The unit of analysis is the two speeches and the analysis of the speeches.

What is the population being studied?

The population is the criminology research institutions, the public and the legislative members in the second amendment as well as the NRA.

The report findings

The finding of the report from the article is that liberal sociologists who are ethically aligned say that gun control is worth if, it saves just one life. The Second Amendment is the act that addresses the issue of gun control. The anti-gun advocates say that the Amendment is only applicable to armed militia (Kates, 1994). This is not true as the amendment clearly protects the rights of individuals to own a gun. The…. [read more]

Effect of Gender Race and Religion on Same Sex Marriage Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender, Race, and Religion on Same Sex Marriage

Staver, M.D. (2004). Same-sex marriage: Putting every household at risk journal, Vol. 9,

Issue 2, Nashville, Tenn: Broadman & Holman.

According to this article, same sex marriage is one of the controversial topics and engagement in the 21st century. Several studies have focused at the notion behind same sex marriage in the society. Human understanding on marriage is a multifaceted body of knowledge that has attracted numerous studies and research. Many scholars in the world have studied the influence of marriage and components that constitute a good marriage in the society. Most studies reiterate on the influence of several factors on the avenues of marriage. This study endeavors to explore how various human practices and…. [read more]

Statistical Analysis Reported in Two Term Paper

… First, no such mention was ever made in the beginning of the study with respect to gender differences. Second, logistic regression analysis and/or techniques have no earthly association with differences. Had the authors wanted to determine whether or not differences occurred they should have employed the proper descriptive tool "t" test or ANOVA." Again, this was not the case. Additionally the authors made the statement in their concluding remarks that adolescent smoking is related to social insecurity and social isolation. I found that this particular condition and/or variable were never even mentioned in the introductory stage to the research article nor was it included in the research question section. Therefore, any information and/or conclusion with reference to this condition is totally out of place and…. [read more]

Mathematics Concepts in Profession Essay

… The ultimate solutions are also represented through graphical displays such as frequency distribution tables, dot plots, bar charts, histograms, frequency polygons, stem -- and leaf plots, pie and Pareto charts (Ben-Zvi and Garfield, 2008, pg 355).

Concept Application

Through the acquisition of necessary mathematical tools, I will be able to pass on necessary tools and ideologies that will enable students to respond accordingly to qualitative and qualitative information. Through this, I will be promoting scholarly parts of school mainstream curricula (Ben-Zvi and Garfield, 2008, pg 355). Similarly, I will be at absolute control of assisting students in erasing the mentality that conceptual statistics is difficult. Such a vital role can only be possible though proper equipment of the knowledge. As a mathematical teacher, I will…. [read more]

Randomization Statistic -- Research Methodology the Importance Essay

… Randomization

Statistic -- Research methodology

The importance of randomization in experimental designs

The importance of randomization in experimental designs

When conducting an experiment, it is essential to minimize the influence of extraneous and irrelevant variables upon the experiment's outcome. For example, when studying the effects of a new drug, if all of the subjects were male, of a similar age, and similar socioeconomic status, variables that pertained to their demographic group might appear as side effects or positive results of the drug, even though these effects were not directly caused by the treatment. It is impossible to anticipate every single external influence upon the participants of a study. However, through the use of randomized samplings, the tendency for one group's characteristics to influence the results…. [read more]

Art and Mathematics Are Related Research Paper

… ¶ … art and mathematics are related and that this relation could be used to the advantage of educators to overcome student anxiety regarding mathematics and, in particular, difficult geometry concepts

Outline the basic topics to be covered in the study

What is hyperbolic geometry?

Who is MC Escher?

How does Escher's work relate to hyperbolic geometry?

How to design an appropriate, useful, and successful class project that integrates art and mathematics

What Is Hyperbolic Geometry?

Explain the historical development of hyperbolic geometry.

Explain what a Poincare disk is.

Explain how distance is illustrated in Euclidean geometry.

Explain how distance is handled in non-Euclidean geometry

Context: Who Is M.C. Escher?

Provide simple biographical information about M.C. Escher.

Draw a relationship between a Poincare disk and…. [read more]

Drug Legalization Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

As the country was turning into the 20th century, drugs that were in the market were largely unregulated. There were medical remedies that often contained derivatives of cocaine and heroin. These were freely distributed over-the-counter without a prescription and without the consumer being much aware of which drugs were more potent and which were not. There was a caveat emptor attitude towards the use of medical tonics which could have led to the difference between life and death. This is what led to the war on drugs that led to the implementation of drug regulations. However, these drug regulations have since come of age and they need to be removed.

History of the war on drugs

The war on drugs began in the…. [read more]

Program Evaluation Home and Community-Based Waiver Services Essay

… Program Evaluation

Home And Community-Based Waiver Services (HCBS) program is an assistance that allows reimbursement for certain chronically ill, disable and elderly people who are not otherwise covered by the Medical aid program. The debate over the rising costs of the institutional healthcare has led to the passage of Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981. (Miller, 1992). Under the HCBS program, people remain in their homes and communities, and the waivers allow people to receive services that are not covered under the traditional Medicaid program. Since 1981, states have used the autonomy of Section 1915(c) under Social Security Act to establish home and community-based waiver programs. Under this program, the states provide wide range of services to the participants, and the legislation allow states…. [read more]

Statistical Analysis of Restaurant Patrons Term Paper

… Statistical Analysis of Restaurant Patrons

What type of research question (ie: descriptive, comparative, relationship) is being asked by the researchers?

The research question being asked by the researchers is that of comparing the expression on a patrons' face in a restaurant being a predictor of the percentage of tip given to their waiter or waitress. The researchers are using a comparative model to see if there are statistically significant differences between those groups that do not exhibit a happy face, as designated by the variable name NHF (No Happy Face) versus those patrons who exhibit a happy face (HF). The intent of this analysis is to see if there is a significant difference between the control group in this analysis (which is the NHF group)…. [read more]

Meat and Cholesterol Amount Research Proposal

… Each group has 2 participants then.

Proposed Design and Results

According to the hypothesis mentioned above, all the participants are observed in terms of age, alcohol consumption (late night or after the meal), meat intake (times per week), cholesterol level, exercise routine, the kind of meat consumed (red meat, processed meat, unprocessed meat, grass-fed meat), smoking habits and medical check-ups.

Also to clarify that in each of the five groups we have one man and one woman. This statistical analysis gives an idea of the proposed design. Consumers of meat (mostly everyday) are more likely to indulge in drinking habits and smoking; hence having higher cholesterol.

Participants were questioned about their diet and exercise routine. Fifty percent of the participants (mostly from the first three…. [read more]

Happiness Research Paper

… Happiness

Scores of researchers have studied the link between happiness, income and educational level. The results from these studies indicate that rising income does not necessarily result in substantial rise in happiness. The relationship between happiness and income breaks down at higher income levels. Happiness refers to the mental and emotional condition or a good feeling that happens only at given times. This paper explores the link between education level, income level, culture and happiness. A sample of 50 people will be involved in the research and data will be corrected via highly structured questionnaires. The study will employ a quantitative approach with statistical analysis.


Happiness is a choice that calls for effort at all times. Life is an expedition into the very implication…. [read more]

Crime Rates and Abandoned Buildings Essay

… After quoting researchers such as Wilson and kelling, Kelling and Coles, as well as Skogan for stating that social and physical disorder leads to crime, the author explains that since not many residents and inhabitants of communities take responsibility to maintain properties and places beyond their own households, the criminal find it easy to flock abandoned properties for carrying out their illegal activities. The authors have also included differing perspectives on social and physical disorder by quoting Sampson & Raudenbush. Sampson mentioned in 1990 that social and physical disorders are symptoms of crime rather than being only causes of crime in neighborhoods.

In order to test their hypothesis, the authors developed an equation relating foreclosures and rate of crime. The abandoned buildings variable is also…. [read more]

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