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Statistics in Research and Analysis the Experiments Research Paper

… ¶ … Statistics in Research and Analysis

The experiments, analysis and statistics-5

Uses of statistics in experiments and research-5

Tools of Analysis-7

Experimental Design-9

Common uses in every day life-12


This paper concerns itself with the use of statistics as a means and the important tool in research and analysis -- both in the scientific and social sphere. Statistics can be defined as a study of variability and enumeration. It tries to quantify and enumerate uncertain things in a scientific manner. That is because there is an element of uncertainty in all affairs of research and information processing. For example measurements made by scientists and other people are mostly uncertain in some way. One example cited by Kault…. [read more]

Nursing Research Analyzing Qualitative Data Essay

… Statistics and Quantitative Analysis Design

Inferential statistics are based on the laws of probability and allow inferences to be drawn about a population based on a sampling of that population. Three applications for inferential statistics are: the sampling distribution of the mean; estimating parameters; testing hypotheses. The Sampling Distribution of the Mean employs an infinite number of samples from a selected population and theoretically distributes the means of those samples. Estimating Parameters consists of defining and establishing a framework for the target population from statistical samples (Polit & Beck, 2008, pp. 583-584). Finally, hypotheses are tested with objective criteria provided by data to infer whether the hypotheses are sufficiently supported by the evidence (Polit & Beck, 2008, p. 587).

Multivariate Statistics is an area of…. [read more]

Childhood Obesity Research Research Proposal

… In the quest to get the credible information, there will be several online databases and search engines that will be utilized to come up with scientific data and social factors and evidence in handling the issue of obesity. Some of those internet resources will include Google scholar, Medline, Scopus, World Health Organization and UNICEF among others.


The menace of obesity is a serious concern in Saudi Arabia since the tremendous increase in the proportions of the people suffering from obesity brings it to the forefront as a health concern as well as a social concern that needs to be handled once and for all in order to help salvage the country from impending repercussions that the country faces. This can only be achieved when…. [read more]

Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice Essay

… The data collected in routine care is aimed at ensuring the patient receives the highest standard of care. Therefore, principles such as anonymity are not ensured because the data is only meant to be for provision of care. Forms used in routine care often have the patient's name or number and can be easily traced to a particular patient. Secondly, in routine care, interviewer bias is not a concern because the interviewer rarely has an angle since they are only collecting data aimed at ensuring the patient gets the appropriate care. The principle of supplementary data is common in both the routine data collection and in research because the nurse has to be observant about the patient's surrounding. Principles that are new include those of…. [read more]

Statistical Analysis Reported in Two Term Paper

… First, no such mention was ever made in the beginning of the study with respect to gender differences. Second, logistic regression analysis and/or techniques have no earthly association with differences. Had the authors wanted to determine whether or not differences occurred they should have employed the proper descriptive tool "t" test or ANOVA." Again, this was not the case. Additionally the authors made the statement in their concluding remarks that adolescent smoking is related to social insecurity and social isolation. I found that this particular condition and/or variable were never even mentioned in the introductory stage to the research article nor was it included in the research question section. Therefore, any information and/or conclusion with reference to this condition is totally out of place and…. [read more]

Statistics: Multivariate Analysis Research Data Collection Thesis

… Statistics-Multivariate Analysis

Research data collected using the quantitative approach can be analyzed and interpreted in different ways, using either the univariate, bivariate, or multivariate analysis.

Bivariate analysis looks at the relationship between two variables. It is commonly analyzed and interpreted with the aid of the cross-tabulation or cross-tab, allowing the researcher to check the interaction between the two variables under study. The variables under study are called the independent (or predictor) variable and the dependent (or outcome) variable. The interaction between the two is reflected in the cross-tab, and each interaction can be expressed in either frequencies (raw count) or percentages, or both. It is critical in bivariate analysis to establish whether the relationship observed is significant or not. Determining the significance of the relationship…. [read more]

City of Alexandria -- Time Research Paper

… 13

Visual Representation of Indicator #4

FY 2011 Income Limits Summary

Income Limits

FY 2011 Income Limit Area

Median Income

FY 2011 Income Limit Category

1 Person

2 Person

3 Person

4 Person

5 Person

6 Person

Alexandria city


Very Low (50%) Income Limits







Extremely Low (30%)









Low (80%)









FY 2012 Fair Market Rents Summary - Alexandria city, Virginia


1 Bedroom

2 Bedrooms

3 Bedrooms

4 Bedrooms

Proposed FY2012 FMRs






Alexandria City, Virginia


% Change






1 Bedroom

2 Bedrooms

3 Bedrooms

4 Bedrooms

Indicator Reponse #5 - Representing…. [read more]

Everyday Statistics in Sports Thesis

… ¶ … Statistics in Sports

"Statistics never lie"

Sports enthusiasts (as cited in Camillo, 2008, ¶1).

Statistical Studies of Sports

Each day, a number of Americans, seemingly mesmerized with sports data collections, read newspaper accounts relating raw and summary data about a variety of sports., Donald Guthrie explains in "Introduction to the miscellaneous sports articles" that: "Statistical studies of sports seem to fall into three categories" (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267). These categories include:

Analysis of rules and strategies;

Analysis of extent participation. (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267)

In the book Anthology of statistics in sports, Jim Albert, professor of mathematics and statistics at Bowling Green State University, Jay Bennett, Principal Scientist with…. [read more]

Public Policy Research Quantitative Inquiry A-Level Coursework

… Public Policy Research Quantitative Inquiry

Summary Problem Set #3

the Urban Institute's National Neighbourhoods Indicators Partnership

The two partners of the National Neighbourhoods Indicators Partnership chosen for the assessment here are: Atlanta Regional Commission and Neighbourhood Nexus. Both of these are situated in Atlanta and work towards building better and more cooperative communities.

After visiting the web domains of both these partners, there are some clear similarities and dissimilarities that one can see. Before we detail these aspects, it is important to note here that both these organizations seem to have taken a different approach to represent them in the online world. We will use the overall viewpoints presented by Tufte (2001) and Miller (2008) to analyze the representation of data and the organization that…. [read more]

Social Science Research Are Qualitative Essay

… Human behavior must be experienced to be understood. If researchers perform an analysis which requires an effort to decompose a phenomenon they miss out on many of the true meanings of the action. The subjectivist adheres to the notion that human behavior can only be understood in terms of meaning and in the purview of natural sciences. Thus, phenomenologists believe that the measurement-oriented, mechanistic models of explanation that are supported by the positivist approach are not appropriate to understand human behavior (Blalock, 1984). This approach strongly supports the notion that researchers should acquire understanding of the ways and the meanings in which the members of a group or society in general create and shape their social roles by way of their subjective interpretations of events.…. [read more]

Children With Conduct Disorder Research Paper

… All of this would have to be rated with the Conduct Disorder Scale (CDS), an efficient and effective instrument for evaluating children exhibiting severe behavior problems who may have Conduct Disorder ( They would then be rated a week following the culmination of the program in order to assess whether their initial rating has improved, stayed constant, or declined. In order to assess whether or not the program has long-term impact, the students will also be examined after the lapse of a year using the same instrument. As possible supplementation, parents and teachers may be approached for their feedback of improvement of child during the past year. As per requirement of empirical experiments, guardians of child will be approached before program for permission of child…. [read more]

Schizophrenia Is a Heterogeneous Disorder Research Proposal

… The symptoms are rated on 24 items and include depression, anxiety, hallucinations and unusual behaviors. Each symptom is rated 1-7 scale Likert type scale. It is the most used symptom scale in psychiatry and has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity.

The Social Functioning Scale (SFS; Birchwood et al., 1990) can be used as a self-report measure or be completed by an informant. It has 79 items and measures social functioning across multiple domains. The questions are answered in an interview format.

The Social Behavior Schedule (SBS; Wykes & Sturt, 1986) takes 15 minutes to be rated by a researcher or clinician, assessing the previous month's functioning. It assesses 21 areas of functioning that can be grouped in four areas of behavior and has demonstrated excellent…. [read more]

Recidivism External and Internal Factors Research Proposal

… Recidivism

External and Internal Factors

What are the external & internal factors that contribute to recidivism and what interventions are effective in minimizing the impact of factors.

Recidivism is the tendency of the offenders to reoffend, once they are through with their term, and are back in the society. This effect has elicited a lot of controversy and divided opinion, between those advocating for longer sentences in the interest of public safety, and those advocating for shorter sentences with the belief that, the longer sentence will not reduce recidivism rate. This research paper aims to summarize the topic of recidivism, as seen through the three research methods of Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed methods and also their strengths and weaknesses. Studies done indicate that, the effect…. [read more]

Perception and Performance: What Derivatives Hedging Methodology Chapter

… Investors Perceptions of Derivatives Strategy

The proposed research will explore the perceptions of investors toward the use of derivatives and their assessment of managers who employ the use of derivatives. The review of the literature on how investors perceive derivatives provided a broad swath of research and an international perspective. The area of behavioral finance is of particular relevance to the proposed research, as several investigators have suggested. The matter of asymmetrical information -- a classic consideration in investment -- emerged in a somewhat distinct form in the literature review. The knowledge level that investors have regarding derivatives appeared to play an important part in how managers who use derivatives are perceived, in investors' perceptions of the investment strategy, and in the ability of market…. [read more]

Believability in Business Research as John Kmetz Term Paper

… Believability in Business Research

As John Kmetz implies, the information explosion and concomitant technological developments have had widespread implications for believability in research. Research has become both easier and more difficult as a result of the Internet. While many sources are more easily accessible, the fact that Internet publication has become widely accessible to the public often makes it difficult to find serious, valid research resources. The question of truth has therefore become central to research in any field. The result of this in turn is that an increasing amount of literature addresses the issue of validity and 'truth' in research. In addressing this issue, it is also important to consider how important the truth issue is in research. After all, research itself is focused…. [read more]

Patient Perceptions of Maternal HIV Case Study

… For each patient in this study X and Y were known, but the researchers wanted to establish a straight line through the data that minimizes the Sum of the Squares of the vertical distances on a graph of the various points from the line that dissects the points.

Study bias. Participating patients self-selected to complete surveys, and not all survey respondents may have understood the terminology used in the survey in the same way.

Summary of Table 4. The recollection of patients regarding their physicians' practices are shown in Table 4, along with the responses of the physicians. Physician responses reflect their practice standards for recommending testing to women with exhibiting certain attributes or life situations, and also two specific questions that the physicians ask…. [read more]

Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American students enrolled in online training programs at an international university. Using Kolb's learning style inventory, the learning style preferences of respondents in both cultural groups will be classified as divergers, convergers, accommodators, and assimilators, reflecting their general tendencies toward learning environments as conceptualized by Kolb (1985). The assumption is that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more comfortable learning from activities that are not job related, such as role plays and games, than do their French…. [read more]

Conselling Master Questionnaire Questionnaire

… 26)

The primary objective of statistics is to make inferences concerning a population. In so doing, there is a need to explain or offer information concerning the sample, which will major in a given study. Descriptive statistics come in, and assist in describing the sample on which the study will take place. In addition, descriptive statistics first offer substantial information concerning the sample to major in the study. Statistics associated with descriptive statistics shown on the normal curve are identified as the measures of central tendency. Additionally, researchers have described descriptive statistics as an effort to summarize the gathered data comprehensively.

13) Explain the purpose and meaning of "Pearson" (Hauser, 2009 p. 30)

In statistics, "Pearson" in full Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is the measure…. [read more]

Meyer Et Al. Meyer, Wang Essay

… In the data. Different methodologies designate the types of conclusions that can be made from the analyses. For example in the current study Meyer et al. (2009) employ a correlational design, therefore they are unable to make causal inferences but can describe the relationships, their relative strengths, and in some cases direction given the analyses.

The type of data also influences the type of analyses one can do. There are a number of different levels of measurement in the current study due to a large number of variables ranging from nominal (e.g., diagnoses or patient employment status), ordinal (e.g., employment status coded as full-time, part-time, or casual), to ratio level variables (e.g., years of nursing work experience). Some of the variables are categorical such as…. [read more]

Quality of Life Indicators Research Paper

… A ranking ratio estimation procedure resulted in two weights being assigned: A weight to each sample person record and a weight to each sample housing unit record.

Level of Aggregation -- Reports are released for specified geographic areas, and all the same set of statistical, legal, and administrative entities as those addressed in previously published Census long form, including the nation, the states, counties, minor civil divisions, incorporated places, census tracts, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) areas, among others.

Data Collection Period -- Data collection is continuous. Reports are released annually rather than every decade as with most reports produced by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Date Reports -- 2000 to 2011 -- The ACS publishes data on the U.S. Census Bureau's American FactFinder…. [read more]

Multivariate Analysis of Parametric Data Essay

… Rapp, Adam; Trainor, Kevin J; & Agrihotr, Raj (2009). Performance implications of customer-linking capabilities: Examining the complementary role of customer orientation and CRM technology. Journal of Business Research, in Press, Corrected Proof,

Since the advent of customer relation management (CRM) technology, a lot of gains have been reported by the various companies that have implemented this piece of technology. However, most companies fail to realize the full potential of CRM due to their failure to engage the complementary business as well as human resources that are needed in order to successfully deploy as well as fully leverage this investment as noted by Reinartz et al. (2004).In this paper, we preset a critique of the work of Rapp et al. (2009) titled "Performance implications of customer-linking…. [read more]

Impact of International Financial Institutions on Public Health in Developing Countries Research Paper

… ¶ … International Financial Institutions on Public Health in Developing Countries

The objective of this work is to investigate the impact of international financial institutions on public health in developing countries. The work of Kanbur entitled: "International Financial Institutions and International Public Goods: Operational Implications for the World Bank" states that when the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) are spoken of by individuals what they mean is "the two Bretton Woods Institutions, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank." (2002) Kunbar states that IFIs are "any multilateral organization with financial operations..." (2002) Examples of these are "the regional multilateral banks, regional monetary authorities, some agencies of the United Nations Organization that disburse funding, etc..." (Kunbar, 2002) Also included are others.


Employee Motivation in a Pcba Contract Manufacturing Dissertation

… Employee motivation in a PCBA contract manufacturing industry -- an example of Plexus

Today many organizations are going through change due to globalization and ever changing technology. Organizations have to cope with these changes by broadening their networks, introducing new systems at work place, hiring new staff or other many such type of changes. These changes influence workplace atmospheres as well as existing employees and they feel it difficult to cope with the changes. Current paper is a case study of Plexus Company a part of the PCB contract company. Plexus organization went through change as its widened its network and as a result workplace atmosphere was affected. The researcher explored the change affect in the company at operational level by exploring the factors of…. [read more]

Ontology, 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology Definition Assessment

… ¶ … Ontology, 1-3

Epistemology and Methodology

Definition of Positivist Paradigm, 4-6

Interpretive Paradigm and Feminist Paradigm

For the study of tourism to work best and to succeed, it proceeds as all other fields must, namely by research. Research, however, is never homogeneous. It is comprised of various methodologies, ranging from the hard, empirical quantitative type of study, t o the soft, more subjective, qualitative interpretations.

Not only are there different methodologies, but research often, or, rather, invariably, operates against a specific theory and this theory depends on the author's inclinations. Some for instance may be inclined to use a positive theory, whilst other a feminist or grounded theory, or phenomenological approach amongst many others. These are all different perspective -- or ways of looking…. [read more]

Pedophilia - Efficacy of Combination Therapy Term Paper

… Pedophilia - Efficacy of Combination Therapy Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Combination with SSRIs for Treating Therapy-Resistant Pedophilic Behaviors

Pedophilia demonstrates a higher recidivism rate when compared to other sexual offenses. Pedophilia does not respond well to traditional treatment programs. The primary reason for this lack of response lies in the willingness of the pedophile to change their behavior. Unlike other sexual offenses, pedophilia involves cultural issues that could affect the willingness of pedophiles to change their behaviors. This study investigates the long-term recidivism rates among pedophiles that have undergone four of the most prevalent treatments available. The study compared groups that received group therapy, cognitive therapy, SSRIs and Chemical castration. It compared single therapies, as well as a number of combinations. The study indicated…. [read more]

Brain Drain of Health Professionals Thesis

… The 'brain drain', also referred to as 'talent flow' (Hooks et al., 2005) and the 'Diaspora' (Bryant and Law, 2004), is the flow of skilled human capital out of a country at a considerable rate. Africa is faced with this growing problem (Mutizwa-Mangiza, 1996; Bloom & Standing, 2001) and has witnessed decades of wasted development potential, however it has also been experienced in other nations throughout history e.g. USA and Europe and is currently happening in Ireland. This migration has been blamed for worsening the human capital crisis in Africa (Wadda, 2000). The continent has suffered and continues to suffer problems of extreme poverty and lack of both human and institutional capacity. There has been massive influx of emigration from Zimbabwe since the late 90's…. [read more]

Environmental Systems Capstone Project

… ¶ … environmental systems in the past five years. Summarize the techniques used, the assumptions and limitations faced, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned.

Scope/Direction of the Research

The scope of the study extended to a review of relevant studies published within the last 5 years to provide an overview and recapitulation of the techniques that have been used in recent years to study the development of environmental systems, the assumptions and limitations that have been encountered along the way, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned from these efforts. The development of environmental systems includes various geospatial technologies, alternative energy systems, and other technological solutions that are designed to interact with…. [read more]

Values of the Dependent Variable A2 Coursework

… ¶ … Values of the Dependent Variable

According to King et al. (1994, p. 141), this type of selection involves a range of values that vary significantly across areas or population groups. If one were then to compare the root causes of violence in Egypt, for example, one might focus on a variety of possible causes, including the religious views of citizens and the effect of this on their political views. These can then be compared with other possible causes when compared to countries where there has been a prolonged period of peace.

If one religion were particularly represented in Egypt, for example, it could be investigated as one of the hypothetical causes for the political violence in the state. If this same religion is…. [read more]

Adults With Learning Disabilities Term Paper

… 58). Many people with LD have succeeded in the workplace, often as entrepreneurs, and recent legislation is intended to ease the process of disclosing a disability and obtaining on-the-job accommodations (Brown and Gerber 1994). Adults with LD are employed at the same rate as those with out disabilities, but many are underemployed in part-time, entry-level, minimum-wage jobs (Blackorby and Wagner

1997). Like other workers, people with LD must cope with workplace changes such as teamwork, productivity and skill demands, and technological advances (Brown and Gerber 1994).

In some of the literature (Kerka, 2002)3, on-the-job problems are framed in terms of individual deficits: persons with LD are said to encounter difficulties in establishing routines and processing information correctly (Ohler, Levinson, and Barker 1996); often exhibit low…. [read more]

CPI and Global Economy Essay

… History Of Quantification

Corruption Quantified

Country comparisons serve many purposes: Economic, political, social, educational, and so on. Many countries -- and likely all of the developed countries -- conduct country comparisons that are focused on international trade and overall national economic status. The collection of international economic data has been increasingly influenced by sophisticated strategy and technique, largely because national fiscal markets are globally linked and multinational corporations engage at high rates with foreign supply chain vendors (Podobnik, et al., 2008). Measures such as the gross domestic product (GDP), the consumer price index (PCPI), general government gross and net debt, and purchasing power parity (PPP) are all used to understand the economic status, monetary exchange, and other fiscal dynamics in different countries ("WEO," 2014). Discourse…. [read more]

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