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Embryonic Stem Cell Research Research Paper

… 71). And while the concerns citizens have about science and its "implications" are not new, the hE's cell research -- and all its implications -- has provided the chance for these above-mentioned concerns to "coalesce around a new, scientific field (Hyun, 71).

Number two on Hyun's synthesis of the main objections to embryonic stem cell research: those in opposition to the research believe "…for religious or other personal reasons that all preimplantation embryos have a moral standing equal to all living persons" regardless of whether those embryos are in a woman's body or in a dish in a fertility clinic (71). Given this point-of-view, people who object to the research also believe that destroying preimplantational embryos is "akin to murder and therefore never acceptable, no…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research: The Religious Perspective Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research: The Religious Perspective

One of the most controversial and problematic areas of contemporary medical development is the issue of cloning and stem cell research. This however is a debate that has gone far beyond the confines of the medical world. The issue of stem cell research has influenced and affected a wide of disciplines and impacted on social concerns; including ethical, moral as well as religious objections to the acceptance of this new technology. In this paper an attempt will be made to show that one of the legitimate concerns and objections to stem cell research lies in the area of religion. Many modern religious authorities and churches see this form of research as a serious threat to the foundations of society…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research Utilizing Essay

… Stem Cell Research

Utilizing Stem Cell Research

There has historically been a significant amount of debate concerning the issue of stem cell research, which exists in both "the political arena and in…philosophical circles" (Napier 496). In fact, the very notion of this concept has the ability to polarize a vast majority of people who give a degree of preponderance to the moral and pragmatic issues concerning this topic. Those who tend to oppose stem cell research typically due to moral grounds, while those who are in favor of it usually do so because of the many scientific advantages that this sort of research might yield. However, a careful analysis of arguments from proponents of both sides reveals that stem cell research should be allowed, for…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research Richard Hamilton ) Essay

… Stem Cell Research

Richard Hamilton (2007) defines Stem cells as cells that can develop into many different types of cells such as brain cells and muscle cells. He goes on to say that stem cells act as repair system for the body. Dianne N. Irving (1999), terms stem cells as primordial cells of a human organism capable of becoming all or many of the 210 different kinds of tissues in the human body. Stem cell research is conducted in laboratories aimed at investigating the fundamental properties of cells.

Stem cells research has sparked different views and intense debate the main contentious issues being whether it is ethical or not. However it is worth it basing on the following issues:

Curing debilitating diseases, according to The…. [read more]


Stem Cells the Ethical Controversy Research Paper

… Stem Cells

THE ETHICAL CONTROVERSY OVER STEM CELL RESEARCH

Since human stem cells were cultivated in a laboratory for the first time in 1998 (Saunders 2001), they have represented one of the most important avenues of medical research. Some types of human stem cells have a virtually unlimited range of possible applications with tremendous potential human health and quality-of-life benefits.

Nevertheless, stem cell research provokes significant opposition on philosophical grounds that, since 2001, have severely hampered the natural pace of scientific development in the United States in a way that violates objective ethical standards as well as the separation of church and state, a fundamental constitutional principle on the minds of the Framers of the Constitution.

The primary source of philosophical opposition to stem cell…. [read more]


Ethical Debates Surrounding Stem Cell Research Thesis

… What follows is a brief description of the primary types of human stem cells that have captured the interest of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, policymakers, and religious organizations.

Fetal stem cells. The most controversial stem cells are those derived from human embryos, but in contrast to adult stem cells, these are truly pluripotent and therefore have captured the attention of biologists and medical scientists interested in understanding human development and how these cells could be used to treat and possibly cure disease (Blow, 2008). ES cells have been derived from discarded embryos generated during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments (National Institutes of Health, 2002). Typically, multiple oocytes are fertilized during IVF procedures and only a select few are transferred to the womb. The remaining fertilized embryos…. [read more]


Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Thesis

… ¶ … Human embryonic stem cell research has been a hugely controversial subject in the United States ever since its methods were first developed. Many people argue that there is a great potential for therapeutic and other medical benefits as a result of embryonic stem cell research, while others see definite downsides to the research. The main source of the controversy is that many people do not know much about stem cell research, but just follow that they hear and see in the media. To reveal the inside of the embryonic stem cell research, data and tests must be shown to the public. This will help lead them to an educated choice that makes a full understanding of the issue of embryonic stem cell research.…. [read more]


Limitations of Stem Cell Research Term Paper

… If decisions about imposing limitations on stem cell research are going to be based on the treatment and outcomes of pre-embryos, then similar limitations should apply to in-vitro fertilization and the decisions used in ART clinics should mirror those used in stem cell research ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009).

The provision of embryonic stem cells for use in stem cell research does depend on a viable supply -- a need that can be addressed by harvesting stem cells from embryos that are and will continue to be produced in laboratories by those who provide fertility services to women and couples, and by the provision of cells through parthenogenesis ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009. As a result, it can be argued that stem cell research, in and of…. [read more]


Ethics of Stem Cell Research Scientific Essay

… Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Scientific research throughout history has resulted in medical advances which prolong human life. Stem cell research is one more aspect of these advances and when conducted for therapeutic purposes, should be allowed. Ethical and moral issues abound and must be considered and addressed.

Religion is often utilized as the focus for standards to apply moral rules regarding stem cell research. (Guenin, Louis). First, it seems that for the United States government to use religious standards regarding ethics is a distinct violation of separation of church and state. As Guenin states in his article, "ethics is a conversation about questions." (Guenin, Louis) Clearly, discussion is key and the primary issue is at what point does human life truly demand protection.

Focusing…. [read more]


Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Research Paper

… Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Since their discovery in the early 1990's, Stem Cells have brought with them the promise of evolutionary and significant scientific and medical research and opportunities that possessed the possibility of radically improving treatments for a host of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, various cancers and other diseases that currently render patients and scientists helpless to combat. Stem Cells have been at the center of the scientific research paradigm in terms of developing innovative treatments that could revolutionize the current course of medical care (Bellomo, 2006)

With the advent of medical and scientific research comes the inevitable emergence of the controversy that has accompanied every major scientific and medical advancement. The use of Stem Cells is no different. Those…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research Embryonic Stem Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research

Embryonic stem-cell research is not practically 'embryonic' and most of the ethical refutations in respect of embryonic stem cell research could be settled by more research. Restricting federal funding would not halt the embryonic stem cell research, but will only lead to a redistribution of research funds and above all majority of the Americans support embryonic stem cell research which is essential for the treatment of those who are challenged by serious diseases.

The research on stem cells has been vehemently criticized both politically and morally attracting the biologists to involve in ethical debates over the issue and generating in the common people to exhibit great enthusiasm in this arena of biology. (Lovell-Badge, 88) Why does stem cell research attract the ambit…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research and Nursing Professionals Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research and Nursing

Nursing professionals and medical experts predict that modern nursing has a complex future that it has to come to terms with. This is mainly due to the modern technological advancements in the field of medicine, advanced technology and the developments in medicine and science; which have meant that there are new methods, techniques and problems that the modern nurse has to face and understand. It should be remembered that nursing as a profession is intimately linked and connected to what happens in the larger medical and scientific environment and the modern nurse has not only be aware of these issue but has to incorporate them into his or her everyday working life.

These challenges are part of the inescapable landscape…. [read more]


Therapeutic Use of Embryonic Stem Term Paper

… The international debate focuses on the definition of the conditions governing the instrumental use of pre-implantation embryo.

The main ethical issues with of concern are the derivation of life in the exploration of the stem cells research. A substantial group of Americans objecting to research on embryonic stem cells in human technology argues of the destruction that occurs with the harvested cells. The embryonic stem cell research is controversial for all who believe that the five-day-old pre-implantation human embryos should be left to live; no matter how valuable the research is to the society (Masters, Palsson & Thomson, 2007). Life is a fundamental gift, and as such, it deserves proper treatment of care and provision. To date, the stem cell scientist succeeded in producing several…. [read more]


Stem Cells Without a Doubt Term Paper

… "(Rosenberg) By this, Brandeis means that individual states should come up with their own laws regulating stem cell research and the therapies and treatments it can provide. In other words, the states would act as individual "laboratories," that can, through their experiences, develop precedents and protocols that can later be implemented nationally.

Of course, ethical considerations are a part of any decision to be reached on the stem cell issue -- especially as it relates to the use and creation of embryos. For example, Ben Mitchell, a senior fellow at the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity writes, "It's a question of ethics and morality." (Hall) This means that many hold that the standard of ethics (especially as espoused by ethical philosophers such as Kant),…. [read more]


Ethical Theories: In Philosophy, Ethics Essay

… Ethical Theories:

In philosophy, ethics is described as the systematic analysis of how people should behave toward themselves and others. It's also explained as the study of what character traits, things, or types of people are good, admirable, and estimable as well as those that are bad, worthy of condemnation, and at fault. While this field deals with general principles or rules, it also deals with specific cases. Some of the most common ethical perspectives that are used when analyzing the morality of various controversial topics include the Act and Rule Utilitarianism, virtue theory, and Kant's Categorical Imperative.

Approaches to Ethics:

The three major concerns in ethics is the certainty of correct moral beliefs, the process of deciding moral hard questions, and how to have…. [read more]


Controversy on Stem Cells Essay

… Ethics - Stem Cells

THE ETHICAL ISSUE of STEM CELLS

Life Begins at Conception":

The belief that human life begins at conception is not a statement of fact but of religious belief. That statement is the source of tremendous controversy because it lies at the root of the Right-to-Life movement and political lobby that promotes anti-stem cell dogma in the United States. However, both the motivation of our Forefathers in establishing an independent nation and the U.S. Constitution specifically prohibit any national religion (Dershowitz, 2002). While the religious-based idea that a fertilized human zygote consisting (literally) of only a few cells of human tissue is fully human is a validly-held (if inaccurate) personal belief, it cannot be the basis of secular law in the U.S.…. [read more]


George W. Bush Research Proposal

… Bush Religion

The Religious Policies of George W. Bush

The Bush Administration, which held the White House from 2000 to 2008, was an outright failure in most regards. During the period of George W. Bush's rule, the United States was driven into a series of bloody international conflicts, was plunged into a desperate economic recession produced by an epidemic of corrupt abuses and generally fell under the pale of social programs and legal ideologies both founded on explicitly pronounced tenets of Christianity. Though in sum it would be the whole of the presidency that earns this evaluation as having been both destructive and willfully malevolent where America's future prospects are concerned, it would be the aggressive extension of his own faith that would help to…. [read more]


Current Health Care Issue as it Relates to Public Administration Thesis

… Political Influence Over Stem Cell Research

Stem cell science holds tremendous potential to benefit the human condition by providing potential cures for myriad diseases and traumatic injuries. Together with the data contributed by the successful decoding of the entire human genome, medical applications of stem cell scientific research could conceivably end all human illness. However, political opposition to stem cell research and development has substantially stymied its potential in the United States to the extent that this nation no longer leads the research field. In major respects, the political roadblocks put in place by George W. Bush to appease the conservative Right Wing conflict with fundamental constitutional principles. Future resolution of the issues is likely to involve the rejection of religious-based criteria in restrictive legislation…. [read more]


Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of the Twentieth Term Paper

… ¶ … foundationally promising research discoveries of the twentieth century is Stem Cell Biology. Only announced as a possible scientific breakthrough in late 1998, significant research has begun on stem cells, yet even the announcement of the potential benefits by the National Academy of Science that comes with the then recent isolation of human stem cells did little to curb potential controversy and conflict.

Shannon 9)

Within the recent elections the issue of stem cell research has come to the forefront of consideration by voters, experts, opponent groups and proponent groups. The most substantial challenge to the recent federal rulings against stem cell research, by the Bush administration, is the passing of proposition 71 in California, which will create, and fund a 3 billion dollar…. [read more]


Patent Law and Genetic Medicine Term Paper

… Human Stem Cell Medical - Legal Implications

How Do Legal Issues in Patent Law Shape Ethical Decision in Human Stem Cell Research?

Patent Law & Genetic Medicine

This work examines the issue of human stem cell research from the view of the medical profession with an eye on funding, the public perspective and legislation historically affecting and futuristically possible in relation to research of the human genome. Specifically this work takes a look a the patenting process and how it is disputable as to whether patenting the human genome is plausible and what consequences might exist in this patents. This work notes the veritable quietness of the legal community at large in relation to this medical research issue and while this document is of the…. [read more]


Development of the Nervous System Neuroplasticity Research Proposal

… Ethical Issues in Contemporary Neuroscience

Advances in neuroscience and therapeutic applications of stem cell research have provided a wide range of treatments for human ailments and the consequences of traumatic disability that have never before been able to be treated effectively (Tong. 2007). The latest indications suggest very strongly that we are just around the corner from a new era of modern medicine in which artificial limbs will be hard wired in the brain, traumatic spinal paralysis will be treatable through the use of human stem cells, and wireless transmitters will be neurologically implanted to allow patients to communicate and control a computer just by thinking (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; Levine, 2008). Furthermore, the applications of cloning technologies have already demonstrated the capacity to grow…. [read more]


Humanities Preamble: The Changes That Are Perceived Research Paper

… Humanities

Preamble:

The changes that are perceived from one generation to another often are the result of technology and information changes and the access to various types of information. The changes in the way information could be transmitted and displayed have changed very rapidly with the technology explosion. While scientific treatises and political debates can be argued out on the internet in seconds and the opinions of individuals altered, there has been a general decline in the traditional information channels with the new generation. This has resulted in the adverse participation or no participation in the national affairs. Thus the readership of the newspaper which is the hall mark of American journalism and culture is almost at bottom. The issues like Craig's List and other…. [read more]


Human Progress Is the Ultimate Target Term Paper

… Human progress is the ultimate target of the development of technology and science. It represents the most important reason for continuous research aimed at improving human existence. That is why, there are numerous attempts to try to combat and exterminate the dangers facing humanity. Terminal diseases or acute poverty have been the cause for millions of deaths throughout the world. This is one of the reasons why nowadays more and more emphasis is placed on research in areas such as genetic research on the one hand, or on possible means of intervention in order to stop and reduce the effects poverty has on the populations of the least developed countries. Still, each initiative has both sides, which transfers the interest in the area of public…. [read more]


Cloning Today Man Has Progressed Term Paper

… Cloning

Today man has progressed so much in the field of science that it has claimed to possess the power and knowledge to duplicate any living organism. In the year 1997, scientists at the Roslin Institute, Scotland, announced that they have successfully cloned a sheep. Proudly naming it "Dolly," this event led to a series of concerns all across the globe. Many rejoiced at this effort and were supportive while others felt that man was trying to play God. Debates on ethical and moral aspects of this achievement were conducted and people including religious sectors denounced this process. It should also be noted that Dolly was not the first animal to be cloned. The first animal to be cloned was a tadpole done more than…. [read more]


Altering the Universe: From Gutenberg Term Paper

… Some might argue that there is still a risk to the embryo, albeit it is notably less than is the risk from thawing or freezing. In this case, while there is some risk is to the embryo, the potential gain to society in general and to the people battling horrible diseases is clear. (Bartlett, 2001).

Life forces the weighing of risk against possible gain in many things. In general, stem cell research can be viewed as a valuable weapon in the ongoing fight against disease.

Pre-Embryos: Necessary Casualties of "War"

Disagreements over stem cell research are often based on how one defines a human being. Many believe that excess frozen "embryos" are human beings that should not be utilized in lifesaving research, though they will…. [read more]


Web Evaluation Essay

… Stem Cell Website

Stem Cell Research: Comparative Web Portal Analysis

Stem Cell research is a highly controversial issue in public life today. A process which carries the promising implications of treatment for health maladies that presently have no cure such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, stem cell research also invoked emotionally charged debate with roots in the 'right to life' issue often raised by conservatives and religious advocacy groups. Any legitimate philosophical consideration of stem-cell research must proceed from an elaboration over the scientific implications of such a process, as these advances in our understanding of genetics and human physiology have precipitated the ambitions for such capacities as cellular reproduction and the elimination of genetic and neurologically degenerative diseases. The scientific debate over stem-cell research…. [read more]


Inventions at Universities From Three Essay

… Indeed, hell is defined as the loss of connection to God for eternity, and this is the eventuality predicted by Joy.

Lanier's "Prevail." According to Garreau (2006), "The key measure of Prevail's success is an increasing of links between humans, not transistors. If some sort of transcendence is achieved beyond today's understanding of human nature, it will not be achieved through some individual becoming a superman" (p. 224). In other words, as more and more people integrate mechanical and technological replacements for their body parts such as the exoskeletons described above, the practice will become more socially acceptable to the point where it is even accepted and encouraged. For instance, Garreau (2006) points out that, "In Lanier's Prevail Scenario, transcendence is social, not solitary. The…. [read more]


Animal Testing Negatives Research Paper

… Abusing animals in testing laboratories is unavoidable even if the researchers take utmost care to prevent them. Numerous studies by scientists and ethicists have shown that animal testing leads to pain, emotional distress, and post-traumatic stress syndrome due to invasive procedures, deprivation of basic physiological and environmental needs, disease, and social isolation. The loss of ability to fulfill natural needs also puts animals in stressful and painful conditions. But while medical research operates on a principle that human needs to be protected even for the detriment of scientific progress, when it comes to animal research questions, they are guided by the principle that puts scientific question ahead of animal interests (Fewdowsian and Beck 2). In a recent controversial study published by the journal Nature Methods,…. [read more]


Therapeutic Cloning Recent Years Term Paper

… Another counter to therapeutic cloning is the possibility of alternative methods to reaching the same goal, methods such as the use of adult stem cells or even the use of stem cells from umbilical cord blood have no moral stigma attached to them. Secondly, there is promising research work being done in these areas. So why experiment with human embryos and run the risk of these being specifically created for destructive experimentation? (The Age, March 2002)

Besides such obvious negatives, another ethical dilemma raised by the subject of therapeutic cloning is the fact that it violates a basic tenet of nature. Currently, establishing a human embryo naturally, or by any of the standard artificial reproductive technologies, involves the fusion of a sperm with an egg.…. [read more]


Organ Donation Term Paper

… There are also some other criteria which determine who should receive organs and in what order. In an era where necessary organs are in such short supply, it is not just the amount of time someone has waited on the list that indicates if they should receive the transplant. One important question is why the initial organ has failed. If the person requires a transplant because of disease, then the public believes that they are more worthy of receiving that organ transplant (Ethics 16). If, however, the person needs a new organ because of poor life choices, such as needing a liver because of alcoholism, the public believes that they should not get the organ before someone who seems to be more deserving. This meritocracy…. [read more]

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