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Strain Theory Anomie Research Paper

… Anomie/Strain Theory and Race

Introduction to Anomie and Strain Theory of Social Deviance

Nineteenth century social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the theory of Anomie to describe the manner in which comparative alienation from society and relative lack of social and economic opportunity leads to feelings of despair and hopelessness and to the rejection of the predominant social norms, value, and expectations of society on the part of the individual (

Henslin, 2008; Macionis, 2007; Schmalleger, 2009). According to Durkheim, sense of purposelessness and despair is a function of the self-perception of being out of synch with society and contributes further to distancing the individual from society (Henslin, 2008; Macionis, 2007; Schmalleger, 2009).

Subsequently, 20th century social theorist Robert Merton proposed refinements to Durkheim's Anomie Theory.…. [read more]


Al Capone's Reason for Crime Term Paper

… Al Capone's Reason For Crime:

In 1931, Capone was indicted for income tax evasion that occurred during the years 1925 and 1929. In addition, Capone was also charged with the offense of failing to file tax returns for the years between 1928 and 1929. As a result, the government charged that he owed $200,000 in taxes from his gambling profits. A third indictment was added in which Capone was charged with conspiracy to infringe Prohibition laws from 1922 to 1931. There are various theories that can be used to help in explaining Capone's involvement in the crimes he was convicted of. Some of these major theories that can identify the reason for Capone's involvement in the offenses are the General Strain Theory and Merton's Theory…. [read more]


Strain and Anomie Theories Essay

… For instance, anger as an emotional state can trigger violence whereas depression can increase the likelihood of drug abuse. Thus to be more specific, the types of crimes explained by this theoretical approach could include battery and assault, substance abuse, molestation etc.

Strain in the opinion of Vito and Maahs (2011) largely explains crime "among the lower class." This according to the authors has got to do with the fact that the theory emanates from the lack of legitimate means. However, as the authors point out, the theory has been criticized in some quarters with some branding it narrow. It therefore follows that crime rates are more likely to be high in neighborhoods that are economically deprived i.e. In low-class neighborhoods. The theory can hence…. [read more]


Strain Theory Essay

… 57). General strain theory shifted the focus of strain from the "strictly societal macro level" to the "social-psychological level" (Piquero & Sealock, 2000, p. 451; Arrigo, 2006, p. 57). Agnew (1992) argues that an individual will react negatively is he or she is treated in a manner that he or she does not appreciate (Arrigo, 2006, p. 57). As such, Agnew (1992) defines three categories of strain, the first of which is "the failure to achieve goals that one values and desires" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 58); the second category "is the elimination of the positively valued stimuli, which "may lead to delinquency when an individual tries to prevent, recoup, substitute for, avenge or manage the loss" (Piquero & Sealock, 2000, p. 450-451; Arrigo, 2006, p.…. [read more]


Social Control Theory of Juvenile Term Paper

… Rather, the potential weaknesses in Hirschi's theory might be that they fail to account for other factors that might be significant in contributing to the development of the individual in terms of his or her relationship to society. Possible counterexamples to Hirschi's theory would include deviant behavior, juvenile delinquency, and criminality among individuals who exhibit high levels of all of the specific elements of connectedness described by Hirschi. In that regard, one would have to consider the proverbial straight -- A student or "model citizen" who is discovered to be leading a double life as a criminal or who suddenly perpetrates crimes that would have seemed completely out of character and that completely contradict the apparent connectedness of the individual to society and community.

Therefore,…. [read more]


Parson's Concept of Cultural Strain Research Paper

… Parsons' Concept of Cultural Strain

As a person credited for his critical perspective in sociology, Parsons' concept of cultural strain helps human beings to understand the society well from its demands. In this case, there exist two most significant aspects. First, the limits of the system and its surrounding and the included procedures integrated in the system. Either of the two applies in terms of their functions. In this perspective, with adaptation and aim achievement maintains the outside / external limits while the internal processes remain by combination and logical order concealment (Hartnell, n.d.). Parsons' concept of cultural strain urges humans to understand the society through the system pressures and demands.

Considering that above settings, human beings will start with a willing action where they…. [read more]


Crime Theories and Sociology Essay

… Conclusion

Crime is referred as offence or an overt action of defiance that results in breaking law. It is harmful to the individual committing the crime, the effected, and the society in general. While investigating about crime, the researchers have adopted different theories to explain crime and criminal behavior. Sociological perspectives of crime take into account the societal and socially constructed factors while investigating crime. The social factors, according to the sociological perspective, are decisive in encouraging or discouraging criminal behavior. Social learning theory and differential association theory are two of the important theories that represent the sociological perspective on crime. Contemporary theories of crime have utilized more than one perspective in explaining crime and behavior related to crime. Socio-biological theory of crime synthesizes sociological…. [read more]


Juvenile Delinquency Theory Social Identity Term Paper

… They make up 62% of the under-aged persons prosecuted in the adult criminal system "and are nine times more likely than white youth to receive an adult prison sentence... white youth are significantly more likely than African-American youth to use drugs and 30% more likely to sell drugs, but African-American youth are twice as likely to be arrested and detained for drug offenses" (Huston 2008).

Postmodernism is a tool to help us understand why certain persons have been classified as part of a criminal class. Conventional criminology theories may state that African-Americans are more likely to commit crimes because they are members of historically discriminated-against groups, or that poverty and social disenfranchisement creates a fertile breeding-ground for crime. But this does not explain why African-Americans…. [read more]


Theories of Criminal Behavior Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Behavior Theories

Theory of Criminal Man: Renowned Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso created theories that have not always been understood, according to professor Mary Gibson (University of New York). Basically Lombrosos' theory altered the role of the criminologist when he theorized that some humans are born criminals, and an individual that would be a potential career criminal would have "a small skull, low forehead, protruding jaw, and jutting ears" (Gibson, 2006, p 29). The fact that crime may well be "rooted… in biological factors" has not been entirely dismissed by modern criminologists, Gibson explains, and this is a theory Lombrosos authored that has changed society's approach to understanding human behavior.

Control Theory: This theory posits that people with weak social bonds are most likely to…. [read more]


Robert K. Merton's Anomie and Social Strain Theory Article Review

… Social Strain

Robert K. Merton's Social Strain Theory: Twentieth Century Developments and Adjustments to Theory

Though crime and prisons have existed in one form or another for many millennia of human history -- indeed, since at least the dawn of recorded history and probably since long before then -- these elements of society were not made the focus of specific study or examination until the nineteenth century. Since that time, there have been many differing explanations proffered for why crime exists and how prison and penal systems can best be designed so as to effectively dissuade criminal behaviors through punitive measures and/or the rehabilitative of criminals once they have been imprisoned. Some theorists place the blame for criminal acts solely on the individual criminal, while…. [read more]


Using Durkheim s Anomie Theory to Examine Modern Criminal Behaviors Research Paper

… Drawing on cross-national data, these researchers examine the extent to which non-economic social institutions serve to mediate the effects of changes in the economic environment on corresponding crime rates.
This journal article provides a detailed description of anomie theory and the research conducted since its introduction using a comparison of crime rates in 49 different countries.

Shoham, G. & Knepper, P. (2010). International handbook of criminology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
This is a comprehensive criminology text that provides a thorough background on the origins of criminology and how researchers use various theoretical frameworks to examine criminal behaviors and their causes.
The authors specifically address anomie theory and compare its current criminological applications to other theoretical models.

Liu, J. (2009, December 15). Social transition and…. [read more]


Merton's Theory Term Paper

… Merton

Social Structure and Anomie

According to the philosopher Thomas Hobbes, without social controls, because of humanity's biological impulses, life would be nasty, brutish and short. "In this view, the social order is solely a device of impulse management and the social processing of tensions" (Merton 1938:214).Although we as a society now reject Hobbes' mode of governance, many theorists of crime seem to adopt a similar line of analysis. They see crime as a product of the individual rather than society, and crime as having biological rather than sociological origins. However, Robert K. Merton's theories of social controls and anomie give a persuasive example of how there is considerable evidence that some social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to…. [read more]


Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Term Paper

… Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

The problem of drug trafficking in America today is indeed an enormous one, with severe repercussions and ramifications for the future of the entire country. When the retired General Barry McCaffrey, the Director of the White House's Office of drug Control Policy was on an official visit to Peru, Peru was in the midst of a long string of scandals that were having an adverse impact on the Peruvian administration. Facts and figures revealed that there had been discovered a shipment of about one hundred and seventy kilograms of the drug cocaine, on board the air force plane that Fujimori, the President of Peru normally used on his travels to and from his country. Soon afterwards, about forty-five kilograms of…. [read more]


Criminology Theories Biological Theory Capstone Project

… e. criminal) means after socially appropriate means fail (Broidy, 2001; Schmalleger, 2009).

Typical examples of crime that fit the sociological theory of crime include criminal gangs thriving in poor, high-crime neighborhoods and organized crime families whose members are socialized into that lifestyle from their earliest childhood and who seek to achieve many of the traditional rewards of professional success and hard legitimate work by means of criminal enterprises and organizations.

Psychological Theory of Crime

The psychological theory of crime regards human behavior in general and of deviance and criminality in particular as mainly the result of internal states of mind resulting from the latent consequences of earlier experiences, particularly, experiences that relate to traumatic circumstances (Schmalleger, 2009). In principle, the psychological perspective is very similar…. [read more]


Sociology - Crime Theories Making Sense Out Essay

… Sociology - Crime Theories

MAKING SENSE OUT of CRIME

Several hundred years of social theorizing have produced numerous different explanations for the evolution of criminal conduct in human societies. Initially, criminal behavior was considered to be mainly a function of rational choices made by individuals for whom crime presented greater opportunities than conventional, socially acceptable avenues of providing income and tangible conveniences. Alternative, biologically-based explanations conceived of crime as behavior determined by inherent biological inclination, going so far as to try to predict criminal conduct by dubious disciplines like phrenology.

Sociologists suggested various theories of social deviance, including those that pertained to the relationship between the individual and society, as well as those that described the perceived struggles between and among different social classes and…. [read more]


Labeling Theory Originating in Sociology Essay

… " Precisely because a child is labeled a delinquent, the label "transforms the offender's identity from a doer of evil to an evil person" (Tannenbaum, 1938, pg. 37). In essence, then, social labeling theory suggests that juveniles, having been labeled a "delinquent" begin to believe not only that they are people who do bad things, but that by labeling, such children are transformed into believing they are bad people. Bench and Allen (2003) suggest that younger inmates have higher rates of disciplinary infractions than older offenders. Consequently, labeling theory would explain the incidental increase in gang activity given the relatively few opportunities for inner-city youth to achieve a measure of success. Likewise, gang leaders getting out of prison yearly for good behavior might also be…. [read more]


Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Criminal Behavior

Prevailing psychological theories of criminal behavior include those that focus on biology, social learning, differential association, and psychoanalysis. Sociological theories of criminology include those related to strain and anomie, conflict theory and Marxism, social control, and labeling. No single theory can explain all criminal behavior and most theories overlap and interact with each other to provide more robust models and predictors of crime. Therefore, an investigation of all the prevailing theories of criminal behavior helps policy makers develop the soundest programs for prison rehabilitation and for crime prevention.

The most controversial psychological theories of criminal behavior are based on biology and psychoanalysis. Biological theories posit a physiological or genetic precursor to criminal behavior. Rarely absolute, biological theories usually admit that some environmental influences…. [read more]


Bastards of the Party and Social Deviance Essay

… Bastards of the Party and Social Deviance Theories

Anomie Theory:

The Anomie concept of human social behavior dates back to the turn of the 20th century and sociologist Emile Durkheim. According to Durkheim, the dramatic changes in society brought on by the Industrial Revolution resulted in profound economic changes and fundamental changes in the way many people worked and lived. Those whose means of earning livelihoods were rendered obsolete by the new industrial age found it more difficult to achieve the median standard of living and to participate in "normal society."

More specifically, Durkheim described the source of tension as the discrepancy between the continually improving lifestyles that became achievable through industrialization and what was, in fact, actually achievable for individuals whose economic and social…. [read more]


Criminology Theories Research Paper

… Criminology

This study explains the meaning of anomie and criminal activities in the world. The article describes the definition of anomie and its effects in the community. A state of anomie in society leads to the rise in criminal activity. Anomie in society gives potential criminals a reason for them to engage in social vices such as crime and cause insecurity in the community. The purpose of this study is to show why criminal activities increase in society. The article also gives ways in which relevant authorities can reduce crime and make the society a peaceful place for people to live in harmony (Cochran 2012). The article gives a theoretical understanding to crime. It also provides different meanings by different scholars who have researched about…. [read more]


Arise Gang Prevention Program Thesis

… ¶ … Gang Prevention Program

"Gangs contain bright boys who do well, bright boys who do less well, and dull boys who pass, dull boys who fail, and illiterates"

(Garabedian & . Gibbons, 2005, p. 26).

In regard to gangs, one never knows what may happen. In the article, "Gang grief: violence wounds teens and communities," Melissa Klein (2009) reports that Chantelle S., a 15-year-old from New York City relates that at times, students become fearful of what may happen when fights break out between rival groups in her high school. These fight lead to lockdowns with increased security in the school. Chantelle said: "It's kind of scary because you never know what can happen" (Chantelle, as cited in Klein, ¶ 1). During this paper,…. [read more]


Criminology One of the Most Prominent Essay

… Criminology

One of the most prominent and unfortunate components of modern society is crime. Various factors influence and individual's criminal tendencies, including childhood background factors, socialization, the economy, and a myriad other factors. In addition, there are about as many types of crimes as there are individuals to commit them. Hence, the study of crime and collection of crime data are somewhat challenging, especially in terms of unreported crimes. The fact that many crimes go unreported creates an element known as the "dark figure of crime," referring to unrecorded crime statistics. The two main methods of recording crime statistics in the United States that also address the dark figure of crime include National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS). These…. [read more]


Deviance Term Paper

… According to Howard Becker, the notion of deviance is always socially constructed or that social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance; by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as "outsiders," they become deviants (Turner, 1996). He further defined the term "outsiders," as those who are judged by others to be deviant from others deemed normal members of the group; also, the person that is viewed as deviant may see the people making the rules as outsiders (1996).

Becker proclaimed that specific social groups create those social rules. He also established that we live in highly differentiated societies that are split along lines of social class, ethnicity, occupation, and culture. The resulting differences cause the development of divergent…. [read more]


Crime Can Be Socially Constructed Essay

… The novel series On the Run also points out the interconnectedness of multiple economies and social dimensions. Furthermore, Anderson's "Iconic Ghetto" explains how race ties into the equation. The term "black market economy" and "white collar crime" both symbolize the racialized discourse that usually permeates any discussion of these two separate worlds. Anderson understands keenly that an African-American living in the white dominant culture straddles two worlds and is at risk for an identity-challenging confrontation at any moment.

Textual and sociological analyses of Venkatesh's Off the Books, Anderson's "The Iconic Ghetto," and Zelizer's "The Real Economy" all lend rich insight into the ways crime categories are created and sustained by the dominant culture. The dominant culture determines what activities and what people are deviant. Yet…. [read more]


White Collar Crimes Criminality Theories Discussion Chapter

… The theory contends that if and when there is a differentiation between the powerful in the society and the society as one unit, there will always be a strong potential for conflict to surface especially on those issues that are pertinent to the entire social structure. In terms of the Marxist approach, crime or criminal inclinations are a natural human phenomenon. The Marxist school of thought propagates that all human are always consciously evolving and are thus diverse individuals with differing traits -- thus the society as a whole will rarely form consensus of the rights and wrongs or the needs of the social structure. Hence, those criminology theorists who show support for the Marxist school of thought primarily assert that the social structure is…. [read more]


Jungle Upton Sinclair's 1908 Novel Term Paper

… ¶ … Jungle

Upton Sinclair's 1908 novel the Jungle reflects the burgeoning interest in Marxism and socialism that took root during the Industrial Revolution. Moreover, the novel testifies to the disillusionment with the American Dream experienced by scores of immigrants like the Lithuanian family in Sinclair's novel. Jurgis Rudkus's transition from idealistic young immigrant to a convict also exemplifies conflict theory. The corruption in business and city politics are the source of Jurgis' deviant behaviors: his heavy drinking and his repeated criminal assaults. The class conflicts that Sinclair describes in the Jungle are irreconcilable without wholesale changes to the structures and institutions that govern social norms in America.

Immigrant communities from Eastern Europe were underclass because of their deviation from the dominant cultural norms. Their…. [read more]


Criminology Theories Discussion Chapter

… Criminology

The relationship of crime and poverty

Robert Merton stated, "Poverty as such, and consequent limitation of opportunity, is not sufficient to induce a conspicuously high rate of criminal behavior (Cullen et al. 2011)." In the statement, Robert Merton wanted to put across that poverty is not the prime cause of crime in the society. Other factors can induce the rise in crime. Two elements according to Robert Merton make up the social and cultural structure. These are institutional norms and cultural goals. When people have no access to the institutional norms of attaining cultural goals, they will resort to crime to achieve these goals (Cullen et al. 2011). Cultural goals refer to monetary success where people want to acquire wealth. This statement concludes that…. [read more]


Three Theories of Social Structure That Help Explain Crime Essay

… ¶ … social structure that help to explain crime.

There are generally three social theories utilized by criminologists and sociologists to help explain criminal activity -- the social disorganization theory, the strain theory and the cultural deviance theory, all of which are closely related and often depend upon each other as a way of formulating an overall theory for crime.

With the first theory, this generally refers to "the failure of social institutions or social organizations. . . In certain communities and/or neighborhoods" which ultimately leads to criminal activity. Within the social disorganization theory, there are a number of important factors and conditions, such as that crime and delinquency are caused mostly by specific social factors, known as environmental determinism, the basic components of a…. [read more]


Money Laundering What Is the Deviance/Crime Research Paper

… Money Laundering

What is the deviance/crime, legally what level felony?

The crime of money laundering is defined as a "financial transaction scheme that aims to conceal the identity, source, and destination of illicitly-obtained money."

It is a federal felony in the United States, for which the penalty is "…a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the property involved in the transaction, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both."

Who is the victim(s)?

In money laundering, there are a number of victims. The most direct victim is the financial institution through which the money passed, which are typically deceived by the money launderer as to the source of the money. The crime victimizes nations in…. [read more]


Aims of Criminology Term Paper

… ¶ … Criminology

The beginnings of criminology in the United States began with the founding fathers and the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution and is a theory relating to criminal behavior of individuals. The theoretical framework is criminology within this view is one that is straightforward and simple and states that the individual, upon having been informed of a specific penalty for the commission of a crime will inherently weigh the options. Measurement of the options is based upon the potential present and future pleasure weighed against the potential present and future pain for having committed the crime, been caught and punished. There have been various theories posited to attempt to pin down precisely the precise theoretical framework that identifies the method to fulfill…. [read more]

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