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Tenure and Higher Education Term Paper

… However, this may be a fact that there are some areas of universities that need reformation, since it is unsafe to drastically modify the relationship between faculty members and students (Blau, 1973).

Thus, transferring many students to each faculty member risks has greatly withdrawn the class of education that is being given. For example, over the last forty years at Brown University, the student-faculty ratio has almost stayed about constant (at about 12-14).

Although tenure has received a lot of negative attention in order to claim it as an outdated system. Firstly, it was in the year 1993 when Congress eradicated the obligatory retirement age for police, professors and firefighters (Allen, 1996).

However, it was again reinstated for the police and firefighters in 1996, but…. [read more]

Establishment of Higher Education Essay

… The use of an educational self preparation for accreditation will require faculty to participate in evaluating their own fields of study within the campus based on national regulatory standards. Faculty members can sit on committees that work together to formulate guidelines and establish coursework and required texts for example that meet the departmentally determined prerequisites (AAUP, 2012). The self-study of an institution sometimes is handled by educational administrators and those that manage faculty. However oftentimes accreditation is viewed as a mysterious process that faculty is unaware of. Yet many Higher education institutions provide access to the self-study procedures with full disclosure to faculty members (AAUP, 2012). Administrators are generally very open to having assistance from faculty to fulfill accreditation requirements.

Faculty members are best able…. [read more]

Higher Education From 1970 Essay

… On the other hand, institutions of higher education have also been spotted to have assumed a key role in the promotion of the successful insertion of the country into the global market (Raby & Valeau, 2009).

Besides, the role of higher education has taken two different forms: reasonable increases in skills and training developments in key areas from 1970 to 2000. In addition, targeted investments in Research and Development began in the mid 1970s. Since 1970s, economic national policies have trusted major funding towards dramatically enhancing the nation's innovative, technological, and technical skill base by increasing government support of most institutions of higher education (Larsen & Vincent-Lancrin, 2004). Consistent with trends across the nations of the EU zone, participation and enrollment rates at higher levels…. [read more]

Tenure and the Post-Tenure Review System Thesis

… ¶ … Tenure and the Post-Tenure review system

The tenure system was initially implemented to ensure that academic institutions retain the research prowess and teaching expertise of their long-term staff. However, not being regulated in many cases has caused considerable controversy in both internal and external academic circles. Indeed, according to Wood and Des Jarlais (2006, p. 566), the tenure system has attracted the close scrutiny of both legislators and funding agents, who regarded tenure as "a free ride designed to protect non-productive faculty members." On the other hand, proponents of the system have regarded it as a protection measure for academic freedom. This controversy has sparked considerable debate before the implementation of post-tenure review, a system to measure the effectiveness and exercise control over…. [read more]

Tenure Has Become a Civil Service Style Essay

… Tenure has become a civil service style protection for academic faculty and provides "legal contours, including property and liberty interest as well as contract principles and procedural rights" (Olivas, 1997). but, over the last decade, where public interest is focused on accountability, post-tenure review processes have become a hot topic. Several court cases have helped shape the process for accountability in post-tenure reviews, both for the faculty member and the institutions. Some argue that tenure adds burdens to institutions and creates mediocrity environments, where others argue that teachers need freedom to grow and require intellectual and didactic latitude to accomplish demanded tasks (Hill, 2010).

Tenure was designed to give teachers academic freedom, or the freedom to conduct research and publish the results as well as…. [read more]

Tenure and Post Thesis

… Tenure and Post-Tenure

What are some new insights you have discovered as you continue to read and explore literature of Tenure and Post-tenure review?

The question of Tenure and Post-tenure review in the university context has received considerable attention in the literature. One of the most interesting insights is the fact that it is a very complicated issue, particularly when issues such as academic integrity and the value of higher education are considered.

O'Brien (1998, p. 17) for example notes that higher education institutions lack the necessary level of post-tenure competency reviews. By implementing non-mandatory retirement, there is once again a focus upon competence. The author states that senior faculty should only be compelled to retire on the basis of failing competence. This would be…. [read more]

Higher Ed Action Research in the Context Term Paper

… Higher Ed

Action Research in the Context of Higher Education

Conducting a scientific inquiry requires a highly formalized process which is outfitted with the proper controlling mechanisms, which has clearly identified goals and which is designed in such a manner as to prevent unwanted changing in the character of its major variables. This is called the research process and, as the primary text by Dick (2000) notes, this is an essential part of driving theoretical discourse and establishing usable findings. However, as Dick also notes, this is not always the most appropriate framework through which to approach a research problem. Often, the context in which findings are sought may be in a constant state of flux, always evolving, and sometimes even shifting dramatically according to…. [read more]

Higher ED Faculty Adoption of Technology in the Classroom Term Paper

… Higher Ed Faculty Adoption Of Technology in the Classroom

The Principal Proposition

In 1989, 38 CEOs came together and founded the 'Cable Alliance for Education', which as a non-profit foundation created to provide support to excellence in education. This consortium was an alliance among cable operators and networks that had as their aim "serving teachers and students...across the country, and based on the premise that powerful technology and rich content can make learning happen." (Marshall, 2002) the educational philosophy that served as a guide was that each student and teacher has a right to five elements that are essential to a good education in the 21st century. Those five are stated to be as follows:

Visionary and sensible use of technology to extend learning;

Engagement…. [read more]

Tenure Elimination in Detail Essay

… At the same time, the peers whose performance is lower than average must be discouraged resulting in their absence and reduced influence over the pupils. It is to be understood by those who support tenure system than only a single teacher who lacks ability to teach effectively can doom hundreds of students unnecessarily. This is because even poor instructions can affect the minds of hundreds and thousands of unfortunate students who are taught by such kinds of teachers (Hassel, Kowal, Ableidinger & Hassel, 2011). The elimination of tenure is not only feasible in a political sense but it is also one of the swifter ways to get schools and districts free from the monetary and tenure-caused costs that also affect student learning.

Despite the fact…. [read more]

Tenure and Organizational Effectiveness Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure and Organizational Effectiveness

Tierney (1996). Tenure and Community in Academe. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 8.

The above article is about the importance of tenure in an academic community. According to this article tenure has two specific meaning; tenure and academic community provides liberty of teaching, research and educational activities, it provides opportunity to both male and female to utilize their ability and have economic security to some extent to increase the credibility of profession.

It is a fact that during 1960's the children receives their professional education but they didn't have any recklessness of any radical culture transformation. They set out their educational plans and implement them. Their education system is quite smooth and education system is perfect without having any bottle necks.…. [read more]

Tenure -- Literature Review Academic Literature Review

… The department will then vote to recommend the candidate for tenure, to dismiss the candidate, or to postpone tenure. Senior hires may be made for experienced professors who have excelled in their fields and are brought in as "full Professors." Tenure can only be revoked following severe misconduct by the professor and is typically an arduous and lengthy process. A Wall Street Journal study found that 50-75 tenured professors, out of almost 300,000 lose their tenure each year based on misconduct. Tenure, however, does not protect the elimination of the faculty position, and as institutions eliminate or downsize, some tenured positions are also lost (Issues in Higher Education, 2011; Hilsenrath, 2005).

In an odd similarity to unionism, tenure in the 21st century has some strong…. [read more]

Higher ED Law Thesis

… Education

Higher Education Law

Overall since the U.S. Supreme Court's rulings on affirmative action in 2003, colleges have had to reconsider how they give preference to students according to race, ethnicity, sex and age not only in admissions, but in financial aid, internships, along with various other programs. It is now felt that it is time for them to do the same thing for employment preferences. It is well-known that many colleges still weigh such factors in faculty hiring decisions. A practice that is completely at odds with Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which bans employers from such discrimination (Clegg, 2006). Recent legislation has provided hope that these practices will soon change for the better.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of…. [read more]

Increasing Access and Equity of Higher Education by the Population Essay

… Policy alternatives available

President Barrack Obama in a national conversation presented specific suggestions to cut the cost of college tuition in the country. These suggestions, laudable as they are, include strategies such as creating a federal college ratings system to enable students choose courses easier, offering more loans to students through federal college aid, and increasing state allocations to higher education.

Other options presented by other scholars and education experts include adopting three-year bachelor's programs similar to other European countries, using online learning methodologies, offering residential degrees at lower costs by reducing capital and labor costs significantly, creating a national college equivalence test similar to the high school GED, and reducing federal involvement in student loans.

These experts argue that a three-year degree is a…. [read more]

Tenure: Perceptions of Online Professors Essay

… Post Tenure

The Perceptions of Online Professors Regarding Tenure and Post-Tenure Review

Over the course of several months, researchers here have compiled a wealth of resources relating to the subjects of academic tenure and post-tenure review. These resources have served in the preliminary capacity to prepare for a focused scientific inquiry on the subject, producing a full spectrum of opinions and findings relating to the institution of tenure. Among these opinions and findings are those endorsing the importance of tenure; arguing on the behalf of its protection; espousing such imperatives as the need for academic freedom; and responding with defensiveness, resistance and concern over the notion of post-tenure review. Conversely, research has also produced a bevy of opinions and…. [read more]

Tenure the Wood Essay

… The study's authors maintained the university's anonymity by assigning arbitrary names to the two schools. Each school was chosen due to the different manner in which each approached the implementation of the post-tenure review process.

As with the first study, the second study also used a mixed-research design with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative side of this study was produced with tools that included surveys that rated the nine study constructs with a Likert Scale data gathering tool. This allowed for qualitative responses to provide a quantitative result. Additionally, the study used a qualitative section to the survey that asked for participant's responses to two open-ended questions concerning thoughts, viewpoints, ideas, and perceptions of post-tenure review.

The study determined that there were a number…. [read more]

Assessments Measure Learning in Colleges and Universities Research Paper

… In my own future position as a faculty member, I fully intend to study the most pertinent, most applicable assessment techniques and implement them -- with emphasis on learner-centered themes.


The time has come for reform throughout higher education, including business schools as well as liberal arts and science-based institutions. The trend should be away from emphasis on what instructors should teach and toward a more learning-centered approach, which utilizes some of the assessment strategies presented in this paper. And if the true value of the learning experience does not lead to a student being inspired as well as knowledgeable, then the experience of higher education could be seen as an exercise in futility. On the other hand, when believable, proven learner-centered assessment approaches…. [read more]

Education -- Philosophical Approaches and Teaching Methods Essay

… Education -- Philosophical Approaches and Teaching Methods

(1) How do you pose questions that reflect academic concepts in real-world terminology?

One way of posing questions that reflect academic concepts in real-world terminology would be to frame them in relation to the long-term purposes and goals of education instead of the short-term strategies used to achieve those long-term objectives. For example, in educational terms, one might very well argue that the key to effective modern education is to promote inquiry-based learning instead of an exclusive focus on transferring substantive information and to transition away from passive learning and toward active learning methodologies. In real-world terminology, the same concerns could be expressed much more simply by starting with the intended end product. For example, real-world questions on…. [read more]

Higher Education Challenge of Financial Term Paper

… The president could have input into the report and the ideas by sitting on the committee, and the president and board would make the decision of what plans to accept and what plans not to accept.

When funding drops, services are affected, so the university must find other ways to save money, as well. The university president could take suggestions from staff and students to come up with creative ways to save money and keep tuitions at current levels. For example, the president could decide to close the campus one day a week, and have staff work four 10-hour days, saving on energy usage, wear and tear on the classrooms, and maintenance costs. Services would still be provided, but most buildings would shut down, except…. [read more]

Changing Attitudes Toward and Approaches to Tenure and the Emergence of Post Tenure Review Models Thesis

… Tenure

Changing Attitudes Toward and Approaches to Tenure

and the Emergence of Post-Tenure Review Models

The institution of tenure is designed to protect teachers against the various pitfalls of the educational profession, including political pressures, district resource shortfall and the host of other conditions which can threaten the stability of a teaching job. The acquisition of tenure for an individual instructor can provide an assurance of job security, a freedom to act according to more individualized educational premises and the opportunity to project long-term plans and expectations within the confines of the position. On the other hand, tenure also frequently acts to insulate veteran instructors from criticism, to protect them from accountability and to allow academic shortcomings or behavioral divergences to go unchecked. These conditions…. [read more]

College Professors Perceptions of Organizational Effectiveness of Tenure Research Proposal

… Professors' Perceptions of Organizational Effectiveness of Tenure

In this era of finger-pointing, blame-shifting and acrimony, true educational reform frequently occurs in the midst of problematic vitriol. This is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the discussion of tenure in higher education. While those who advocate the institution of tenure value this as a protection of academic freedom for educators against political or administrative pressures, those who criticize it view this as a way of allowing aging, incompetent and disinterested educators to work to a mediocre standard without fear of reprisal. This stark divide begs further investigation into the relationship between tenure and organizational effectiveness. Particularly, this research endeavor will proceed with an interest in measuring this relationship according to the perspective of professors, both tenured…. [read more]

Audience Tenure and the Tenure Review Process Thesis

… ¶ … Audience

Tenure and the tenure review process: How best to implement it?

The question of the potentially helpful or harmful aspects of granting tenure to faculty members affects all individuals involved in higher education. For professors, of course, it relates directly to the question of their future employability -- the granting of tenure leads to a much longer period of secure contract renewal, in most of its incarnations (Johnson & Kelly 1998, 739). However, even for a student, the ability to go to a school where faculty members can engage in freedom of expression as a result of a fair tenure review process can potentially improve the quality of his or her education, according to some theories of the benefits of tenure. Critics,…. [read more]

Education -- Major Policy Themes the American Essay

… ¶ … Education -- Major Policy Themes

The American education system has fallen tremendously behind those of other nations, including those of many much smaller and less wealthy nations. The United States ranks fifth among all nations in spending per student but ranks only twenty-first in science literacy and twenty-fifth in math literacy compared with the students of thirty other developed nations. In 2009, sixty-nine percent of American eight graders scored below proficiency levels in reading and sixty-eight percent scored below proficiency levels in mathematics; that is particularly troubling in light of nearly a decade of federal policies (i.e. NCLB) expressly justified by the need to improve literacy and mathematics proficiency among American students.

Since the early 1970s, education administrators have emphasized reducing the student-to-teacher…. [read more]

Colonial Education the Colonial Era Essay

… The colonial era's version of higher education seemed much more about quality than quantity. The seven liberal arts and sciences were the main subjects presented which allowed the students plenty of room for self-exploration and artistic expression. This behavior is often frowned upon in many modern classrooms today, where conformity and aggressive compliance with rules and regulations can earn a student great accolades in today's colleges and institutions of higher learning.

The culture in today's educational system demands that students be understood what to think instead of how to think. The seven liberal arts and sciences presented a purpose to its students that man is more than just a machine capable of regurgitation of facts and trends, rather man's imagination and his ability to employ…. [read more]

Growth Diversification and Change Thesis

… Education

Growth, Diversification and Change

What changes occurred in the undergraduate curriculum and student life during this period?

The appearance of American universities between 1893 and 1910 was greatly due in part to the good luck of the best possible timing. During this time there was unprecedented industrial wealth along with a new level of philanthropic generosity. Research has shown that American giving between 1893 and 1916 consisted of two important coincidences. The first was the incidence of gifts and bequests increased dramatically, more than fivefold, in that quarter century. And second was the promotion of those gifts going to colleges jumped from about 47% to around 75% (Thelin, 2004, 114).

In order to facilitate these new American universities, campuses were enhanced into large, complex…. [read more]

Historical Context of Distance Education Thesis

… ¶ … distance education offers a timeline of distance education that stresses a new and independent view of individuals. Most interestingly distance education began as a for profit industry associated with teaching those who could not travel to educational institutions, vocational subjects that would be of interest to them, even though they were often many miles from the instructor and received material only by mail. This shows in part the interest of opening education to a broader audience, including women and to those who were working to make a living. Women also benefited greatly from early distance education, and though the article does not mention it the contention that women would be damaged by the society of higher education, removing this environment from the equation…. [read more]

Tenure and Post-Tenure Review: Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure and Post-Tenure Review: Annotated Bibliography

The issue of tenure is a matter which is reflective of many of the broader issues and debates in the context of higher education. This institution, designed to protect the academic freedom, political objectivity and job security of educators, has become a battleground whereupon philosophical differences are sorted out between personnel in administration and in education. To the point, the notion of post-tenure review has been introduced into many higher-education contexts with the intent of applying some measure of regulatory oversight and control for administrators over educators. Its intention is to prevent some of what administrators view as the 'dead wood' created by tenure, where job security is said to encourage lesser efforts and a diminished focus on the…. [read more]

Tenure and Post Tenure Review Research Proposal

… Post Tenure Ann Bib

Tenure and Post Tenure Review Annotated Bibliography

Baldwin & Chronister. (2001). Teaching Without Tenure: Policies for a New Era. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

The research by Baldwin & Chronister differentiates between instructors who will be given tenure and those who are hired as non-tenure personnel. The article reviews the various conditions which are in place to protect such individuals through collective bargaining and, simultaneously, identifies some of the reasons that it is appropriate to maintain a staff that is at least partially comprised of non-tenure educators. The primary causes for maintaining full-time non-tenure personnel relate to efficiency, economic sensibility and preservation of the proper charges for the tenured instructor. The research here conducted would employ a survey of studied institutions,…. [read more]

Tenure in Academic Institutions: Aper, J.P Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure in Academic Institutions:

Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003, May/June). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. Journal of Higher Education. 74.3, pp. 241-254.

In their discussion of post-tenure review, Aper and Fry (2003) present the different sides of the argument regarding the appropriateness of this institution. Some argue that it is necessary for performance reasons, while others contend that it inappropriate and a threat to academic freedom. The article discusses the importance of the AAUP in such matters, and reports the results of a study comparing the post-tenure review process in several graduate organizations that had received a post tenure review policy recommendation from the AAUP. The study reports that post-tenure review is becoming more popular in institutions, as well as…. [read more]

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