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Tenure Has Become a Civil Service Style Essay

… Tenure has become a civil service style protection for academic faculty and provides "legal contours, including property and liberty interest as well as contract principles and procedural rights" (Olivas, 1997). but, over the last decade, where public interest is focused on accountability, post-tenure review processes have become a hot topic. Several court cases have helped shape the process for accountability in post-tenure reviews, both for the faculty member and the institutions. Some argue that tenure adds burdens to institutions and creates mediocrity environments, where others argue that teachers need freedom to grow and require intellectual and didactic latitude to accomplish demanded tasks (Hill, 2010).

Tenure was designed to give teachers academic freedom, or the freedom to conduct research and publish the results as well as…. [read more]

Tenure: Perceptions of Online Professors Essay

… Post Tenure

The Perceptions of Online Professors Regarding Tenure and Post-Tenure Review

Over the course of several months, researchers here have compiled a wealth of resources relating to the subjects of academic tenure and post-tenure review. These resources have served in the preliminary capacity to prepare for a focused scientific inquiry on the subject, producing a full spectrum of opinions and findings relating to the institution of tenure. Among these opinions and findings are those endorsing the importance of tenure; arguing on the behalf of its protection; espousing such imperatives as the need for academic freedom; and responding with defensiveness, resistance and concern over the notion of post-tenure review. Conversely, research has also produced a bevy of opinions and…. [read more]

Post Tenure Review Post-Tenure Review: Envisioned Research Essay

… Post Tenure Review

Post-Tenure Review: Envisioned Research

Tenure is a practice which was originally put into action as a way to protect professional educators against administrative imposition, politically-motivated job insecurity and external threats to academic freedom. For educational professionals working in higher education settings especially, this is a deeply guarded practice that provides for continuity, consistency and experience amongst staffs and faculties. This same practice has come under heavy criticism in recent years though, with students, communities, administrators and public office holders volleying blame for low test scores, poor student performance, diminished overall university performance and other negative academic indicators. Among the many culprits which have been identified as we troubleshoot our educational system, educators have been subjected to significant measures of scrutiny and with…. [read more]

Tenure the Wood Essay

… The study's authors maintained the university's anonymity by assigning arbitrary names to the two schools. Each school was chosen due to the different manner in which each approached the implementation of the post-tenure review process.

As with the first study, the second study also used a mixed-research design with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative side of this study was produced with tools that included surveys that rated the nine study constructs with a Likert Scale data gathering tool. This allowed for qualitative responses to provide a quantitative result. Additionally, the study used a qualitative section to the survey that asked for participant's responses to two open-ended questions concerning thoughts, viewpoints, ideas, and perceptions of post-tenure review.

The study determined that there were a number…. [read more]

Tenure and Post Tenure Review Research Proposal

… Post Tenure Ann Bib

Tenure and Post Tenure Review Annotated Bibliography

Baldwin & Chronister. (2001). Teaching Without Tenure: Policies for a New Era. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

The research by Baldwin & Chronister differentiates between instructors who will be given tenure and those who are hired as non-tenure personnel. The article reviews the various conditions which are in place to protect such individuals through collective bargaining and, simultaneously, identifies some of the reasons that it is appropriate to maintain a staff that is at least partially comprised of non-tenure educators. The primary causes for maintaining full-time non-tenure personnel relate to efficiency, economic sensibility and preservation of the proper charges for the tenured instructor. The research here conducted would employ a survey of studied institutions,…. [read more]

Tenure Mixed Methods Post-Tenure Review: Research Questions Dissertation

… Tenure Mixed Methods

Post-Tenure Review: Research Questions

What changes in organizational structure occurred after tenure was granted?

The primary intention behind this research question is to determine if there is a distinctive behavioral or professional change which occurs once an individual is granted tenure to the extent that changes occur organization-wide. Such is to say that a primary point of contention in the debate over tenure relates to the criticism that individuals who are granted tenure tend to become complacent with respect to providing meaningful teaching or instruction. This accusation is predicated on the idea that those who attain the tenure status will abuse the professional security thereby granted by gradually or even rapidly declining in attentiveness, dedication and overall quality. The research question here…. [read more]

Post Tenure Review Research Proposal

… Tenure Biblio

Kratz, A.R. (2005). The effectiveness of post-tenure review practices in Texas graduate institutions as perceived by academic deans (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, TX.

This study identifies the main motivation and impetus behind post-tenure reviews as the maintenance of standards of quality in teaching positions, as is evidenced by a general consensus of professors and administrators at the several institutions discussed. External pressures regarding continued accountability are also cited as a primary reason such practices are undertaken. Different formats and delivery schedules of post-tenure reviews are reviewed for efficacy, and such reviews generally have very mixed results. The assertion that effective post-tenure review is enormously time consuming and expensive is commonly made.

Jaschik, S. (2009). Defeating post-tenure review. Retrieved November…. [read more]

Post Tenure Recent Insights Essay

… Post Tenure

Recent Insights in Tenure and Post-Tenure Policies

The concept of tenure is to an extent unique of the educational profession. The protections which tenure implies, our studies have demonstrated, are not afforded to a great many other professionals. It is perhaps for this reason that tenure practices have come under scrutiny and have engendered such a degree of political and administrative disagreement. As we continue our studies on the subject, new insights have emerged concerning the emergence of post-tenure review policies in recent years. Particularly, evidence suggests that ulterior motives exist in the policy orientation toward post-tenure review which inherently hurt the job security of the professor.

One of the most troubling insights is that the development, review and maintenance of tenure policies…. [read more]

Post-Tenure Review: A Research Design Thesis

… Post-Tenure Review: A Research Design

Post-tenure review is believed to be that, which serves as a mechanism to gauge the productivity of an individual, in this case, of faculty member with the end goal of encouraging sustained performance at this prime level (The Texas A&M University System, n.d.). The issue of post-tenure review has sparkled debates for quite some time now with three directions of contentions: one which says that leave the post-tenure review as is, another claiming that review policy should be maintained but make necessary changes, while the last in contention argues that it should be scrapped altogether. Surrounding this contention are the following issues: the need to evaluate faculty performance, the need to update the review processes and make it more relevant,…. [read more]

Tenure and Post Thesis

… Tenure and Post-Tenure

What are some new insights you have discovered as you continue to read and explore literature of Tenure and Post-tenure review?

The question of Tenure and Post-tenure review in the university context has received considerable attention in the literature. One of the most interesting insights is the fact that it is a very complicated issue, particularly when issues such as academic integrity and the value of higher education are considered.

O'Brien (1998, p. 17) for example notes that higher education institutions lack the necessary level of post-tenure competency reviews. By implementing non-mandatory retirement, there is once again a focus upon competence. The author states that senior faculty should only be compelled to retire on the basis of failing competence. This would be…. [read more]

Post-Tenure Review Research: Ethical Concerns Thesis

… Post-Tenure Review Research: Ethical Concerns

When conducting exploratory research upon human subjects, the researcher must always weigh the potential benefits of the research with the potential costs that might be incurred by the individuals under scrutiny. The proposed topic of research, of "Post-tenure review," can yield valuable knowledge for professors, departments, and students alike. As institutions of higher learning are being forced to educate students with fewer financial resources, instituting procedures to target the most effective faculty, and improve pedagogical procedures amongst tenured faculty is essential.

Such research does not present some of the ethical problems of medical or scientific experimental research: there are no physical risks to the subjects. However, privacy concerns are an important ethical issue that may be of concern to professors,…. [read more]

Tenure and Higher Education Term Paper

… However, this may be a fact that there are some areas of universities that need reformation, since it is unsafe to drastically modify the relationship between faculty members and students (Blau, 1973).

Thus, transferring many students to each faculty member risks has greatly withdrawn the class of education that is being given. For example, over the last forty years at Brown University, the student-faculty ratio has almost stayed about constant (at about 12-14).

Although tenure has received a lot of negative attention in order to claim it as an outdated system. Firstly, it was in the year 1993 when Congress eradicated the obligatory retirement age for police, professors and firefighters (Allen, 1996).

However, it was again reinstated for the police and firefighters in 1996, but…. [read more]

Changing Attitudes Toward and Approaches to Tenure and the Emergence of Post Tenure Review Models Thesis

… Tenure

Changing Attitudes Toward and Approaches to Tenure

and the Emergence of Post-Tenure Review Models

The institution of tenure is designed to protect teachers against the various pitfalls of the educational profession, including political pressures, district resource shortfall and the host of other conditions which can threaten the stability of a teaching job. The acquisition of tenure for an individual instructor can provide an assurance of job security, a freedom to act according to more individualized educational premises and the opportunity to project long-term plans and expectations within the confines of the position. On the other hand, tenure also frequently acts to insulate veteran instructors from criticism, to protect them from accountability and to allow academic shortcomings or behavioral divergences to go unchecked. These conditions…. [read more]

Tenure and the Post-Tenure Review System Thesis

… ¶ … Tenure and the Post-Tenure review system

The tenure system was initially implemented to ensure that academic institutions retain the research prowess and teaching expertise of their long-term staff. However, not being regulated in many cases has caused considerable controversy in both internal and external academic circles. Indeed, according to Wood and Des Jarlais (2006, p. 566), the tenure system has attracted the close scrutiny of both legislators and funding agents, who regarded tenure as "a free ride designed to protect non-productive faculty members." On the other hand, proponents of the system have regarded it as a protection measure for academic freedom. This controversy has sparked considerable debate before the implementation of post-tenure review, a system to measure the effectiveness and exercise control over…. [read more]

Post-Tenure Review Thesis

… ¶ … Post-Tenure Review

The idea of a post-tenure review process sits well with some and not with others. It is generally assumed that an instructor is reviewed and corrected while he or she is working to attain tenure, but once tenure is achieved it is virtually impossible to correct or discipline a professor. Once a person has tenure, he or she feels 'safe.' Some tenured professors assume that they cannot be fired, etc. However, a problem that institutions see is that tenured professors are not getting paid commensurate with their experience if they have been tenured for a long time -- they are simply getting paid more because they are tenured, where someone just as able to do the job could be offered considerably…. [read more]

Tenure and Post-Tenure Review: Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure and Post-Tenure Review: Annotated Bibliography

The issue of tenure is a matter which is reflective of many of the broader issues and debates in the context of higher education. This institution, designed to protect the academic freedom, political objectivity and job security of educators, has become a battleground whereupon philosophical differences are sorted out between personnel in administration and in education. To the point, the notion of post-tenure review has been introduced into many higher-education contexts with the intent of applying some measure of regulatory oversight and control for administrators over educators. Its intention is to prevent some of what administrators view as the 'dead wood' created by tenure, where job security is said to encourage lesser efforts and a diminished focus on the…. [read more]

Post Tenure Post-Tenure Review: Survey Instrument Evaluation Essay

… Post Tenure

Post-Tenure Review: Survey Instrument Evaluation

The ongoing focus of the present research engagement is the variant of perspectives which exist on the subject of post-tenure review. This range of varying opinions is a direct function of the continuing debate over the subject of tenure itself, with far-ranging views advocating the protection, undermining or reform of this system in higher education. The study here by Wood & Johnsrud (2005) offers a survey-driven methodology that is intended to catalogue and clarify this array of perspectives on the subject.

As we consider the methodology utilized by the authors of the present study, it is appropriate to make note of the design of the study and the particular components that would ultimately be incorporated into the design…. [read more]

Tenure in Academic Institutions: Aper, J.P Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure in Academic Institutions:

Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003, May/June). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. Journal of Higher Education. 74.3, pp. 241-254.

In their discussion of post-tenure review, Aper and Fry (2003) present the different sides of the argument regarding the appropriateness of this institution. Some argue that it is necessary for performance reasons, while others contend that it inappropriate and a threat to academic freedom. The article discusses the importance of the AAUP in such matters, and reports the results of a study comparing the post-tenure review process in several graduate organizations that had received a post tenure review policy recommendation from the AAUP. The study reports that post-tenure review is becoming more popular in institutions, as well as…. [read more]

Educator's Perception of Tenure Essay

… , (2008) found that significant gender inequality exists, with respect to tenure, in fields in which women are the majority of students, doctorates, and professionals in practice. In the study, the main demographics to be considered are gender, relationship status, partner's level of involvement, and family background (spouse's education level included). In effect, it is clear that gender inequality issues will drastically effect perceptions of tenure and post-tenure review.

In Williams and Williams (2006), a qualitative online interviewing approach is implemented as a method to investigate the perceptions of 32 African-American male faculty at predominately white institutions in order to comment on the needs for improving support systems and mechanisms for promotion and tenure. The study revealed the absolute significance of what it calls "social…. [read more]

Examining Worldviews Thesis

… Post-Tenure Review

The Four Worldviews: Perspectives on Current Faculty and Public Attitudes toward Post-Tenure Review Practices

Post-tenure review has become, in the past decade or so, an additional evaluative tool for faculty in higher education. The reason for post-tenure review implementation was the public disappointment with the tenure system, which included the review of tenured faculty in order to define their eligibility and progress and the desire to assist the faculty members and further development. Faculty, administration, students, and the general public all have very different perspectives on the issue of post-tenure review, however, and there is a high level of disagreement on the matter even within these groups on certain issues. A hypothetical discussion of four prevailing worldviews in current education theory in relation…. [read more]

Annotated Bibliography of 10 Web Sites Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure Bibliography

"Tenure." National education association. Accessed 8 September 2009.

This website provides an overview of the current tenure situation, noting that tenure-track positions are going unfilled as they are vacated due to retirement with short-term and temporary contracts being implemented in tenure's stead. A basic summary of the sides of the tenure issue (protecting the freedom to teach vs. guaranteeing immunity) is also provided. This site also makes the NEA's position in favor of tenure quite clear. The NEA provides many links to articles in their own publications as well as elsewhere that document the decline of the tenure system in the recent decade and the dangers that this poses (according to the association) to higher education in this country. These links also…. [read more]

Audience Tenure and the Tenure Review Process Thesis

… ¶ … Audience

Tenure and the tenure review process: How best to implement it?

The question of the potentially helpful or harmful aspects of granting tenure to faculty members affects all individuals involved in higher education. For professors, of course, it relates directly to the question of their future employability -- the granting of tenure leads to a much longer period of secure contract renewal, in most of its incarnations (Johnson & Kelly 1998, 739). However, even for a student, the ability to go to a school where faculty members can engage in freedom of expression as a result of a fair tenure review process can potentially improve the quality of his or her education, according to some theories of the benefits of tenure. Critics,…. [read more]

Practicality of Tenure and the Affect on the Organization Essay

… Affective Tenure

Affective Organizational Commitment and Tenure

Affective organizational commitment is derived from the sense of an employee that his or her organization meets the emotional and psychological needs related to the terms of employment. In the context of education, our research considers the relationship between affective commitment and the continued erosion of tenure.

The text by Wriston (1940) is particularly compelling on this subject because of its age and its relatively philosophical tone. Wriston weighs the question of academic tenure with a particularly scholarly and discursive approach, revealing a similar set of dimensions to the debate today as existed generations ago. Wriston remarks that while academic freedom is a valuable asset to the pursuit of education, it is not without its problematic dimensions. As…. [read more]

Executive-Legislative Relations in Post-Communist Europe Term Paper

… Any analysts consider that the Russian presidential system suffers from such deadlocks, raising the specter of democratic failure. An examination of recent Russian executive-legislative relations unexpectedly reveals that in reality former Pres. Yeltsin and the State Duma cooperated regularly to govern. Both the president and the Duma shared a common, patronage-based constituency that structured cooperation between them. With the upsurge of nationalist sentiment in post-communist societies, the problem of political rights for ethnic minorities became a dangerous flashpoint. The introduction of electoral competition, the rewriting of constitutions, the breakup of federations, the weakness of civic institutions, and the social and economic dislocations associated with marketization have all contributed to the salience of majority-minority relations, basic problems of constitutionalism and human rights in the transition from…. [read more]

Remain Gaps in That Literature Chapter

… Since the post-tenure review is only now coming of an age where it can be empirically evaluated, the proposed study should contribute to the evaluative effort by supplying data that will assist those in power to make decisions to improve or enhance the current method of evaluating instructors who have achieved tenure. The proposed study seeks to benefit a number of stakeholders; university and college instructors, educational institutions, students, funding entities and the general public. A recent study determined that "unfortunately, evaluations of scholarship, teaching and service do not always explicitly express the power relationships that the evaluated individual maintains with the other members of the institution" (Di leo, 2005, p. 100). If it is true that post-tenure reviews do not take a look at…. [read more]

Measurement in Mixed Methods Design Thesis

… ¶ … Post Tenure Review

The issue of post-tenure review gives rise to a wide divergence of perspectives. As a measure designed to prevent the abuses of the tenure system that are alleged to protect professors who are inherently lazy, unmotivated and declining in capability with age, it is widely debated both on the grounds of its philosophical imperative and its practicality. With both of these called into question be a collective faculty class which viewed post-tenure review as an attack on academic freedom and earned job security, the proposed study here would proceed to engage the thesis that there is little evidence to suggest that post-tenure review is effective at improving the educational conditions which it is intended to address. Indeed, "institutions have had…. [read more]

Choosing a Mixed Method Design Thesis

… ¶ … post-tenure review can have a serious impact on the study findings. This research aims to explore the nature of post-tenure review, and how it affects not only teacher performance and perceptions, but also student academic performance. Thus, there are qualitative and quantitative elements which much be mixed and blended properly to provide the most sound results.

In order to achieve this, research methods must be fine tuned. This study will be a naturalistic inquiry with a qualitative design, where phenomenon is observed, recorded, and then analyzed. These study designs have been used in countless prior research to evaluate a particular human phenomenon that occurs outside the range of the study designers. Thus, this is meant to evaluate such a phenomenon, not recreate it.…. [read more]

Post Tenure Review Validity and Integrity Essay

… ¶ … Validity, Ethics, and Integrity

Ensuring validity, ethics, and integrity in the previously proposed research study into the effects of post-tenure review on teaching research, and overall service as well as to school culture is a somewhat complex process, but one that is well mapped-out in previous literature. Mixed-method research studies such as that proposed maintain validity through careful and conscious sample size and population selections, with larger and more randomized populations for quantitative portions of a study and more narrow and purposefully, specifically selected populations of individuals for qualitative portions of the study (Creswell & Plano-Clark, 2008). The ethicality concerns of the research are not as extreme as in many other research studies; the preservation of anonymity within institutions is the primary ethical…. [read more]

Negative Aspects and Perceptions of the Tenure Essay

… ¶ … negative aspects and perceptions of the tenure system have led to the implementation of many so-called "post-tenure review" processes in the vast majority of states' public college and university systems and many private institutions of higher education, as well (Wood & Jarlais, 2006). This research will attempt to ascertain and define the effects of these post-tenure review processes and policies, specifically attempting to locate evidence regarding the effects on teaching, research, academic freedom, and institutional culture that such practices and policies have. Research will take place at several large public and private higher-education institutions, using samples sizes of no less than fifty tenured and non-tenured instructors, students, and administrators in separated research samples, on both a quantitative and qualitative basis in an attempt…. [read more]

External Internal Construct Validity Thesis

… ¶ … participating in post-tenure review, one primary concern consists of the need to ensure that envisioned research is conducted within the limits and expectations of acceptable statistical methodology. Because of the potential conflicts of cultural differences in faculty oversight (Wood and Johnsrud, 2001), the need to understand and promote objective research methodology is crucial to faculty adhesion. Through controlling such factors as research validity through appropriate methodological constraints, the researcher can avoid some of the potential pitfalls of cultural disagreements which may arise in the absence of such controls. Therefore, this brief paper will consider the role of design validity, specifically focusing on external, construct, and internal validity, as a means of facilitating discussions involved in post-tenure review. Through definition of the concepts and…. [read more]

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