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Tenure Has Become a Civil Service Style Essay

… Tenure has become a civil service style protection for academic faculty and provides "legal contours, including property and liberty interest as well as contract principles and procedural rights" (Olivas, 1997). but, over the last decade, where public interest is focused on accountability, post-tenure review processes have become a hot topic. Several court cases have helped shape the process for accountability in post-tenure reviews, both for the faculty member and the institutions. Some argue that tenure adds burdens to institutions and creates mediocrity environments, where others argue that teachers need freedom to grow and require intellectual and didactic latitude to accomplish demanded tasks (Hill, 2010).

Tenure was designed to give teachers academic freedom, or the freedom to conduct research and publish the results as well as…. [read more]

Post-Tenure Review: A Research Design Thesis

… Post-Tenure Review: A Research Design

Post-tenure review is believed to be that, which serves as a mechanism to gauge the productivity of an individual, in this case, of faculty member with the end goal of encouraging sustained performance at this prime level (The Texas A&M University System, n.d.). The issue of post-tenure review has sparkled debates for quite some time now with three directions of contentions: one which says that leave the post-tenure review as is, another claiming that review policy should be maintained but make necessary changes, while the last in contention argues that it should be scrapped altogether. Surrounding this contention are the following issues: the need to evaluate faculty performance, the need to update the review processes and make it more relevant,…. [read more]

Tenure and Post Thesis

… Tenure and Post-Tenure

What are some new insights you have discovered as you continue to read and explore literature of Tenure and Post-tenure review?

The question of Tenure and Post-tenure review in the university context has received considerable attention in the literature. One of the most interesting insights is the fact that it is a very complicated issue, particularly when issues such as academic integrity and the value of higher education are considered.

O'Brien (1998, p. 17) for example notes that higher education institutions lack the necessary level of post-tenure competency reviews. By implementing non-mandatory retirement, there is once again a focus upon competence. The author states that senior faculty should only be compelled to retire on the basis of failing competence. This would be…. [read more]

Tenure and the Post-Tenure Review System Thesis

… ¶ … Tenure and the Post-Tenure review system

The tenure system was initially implemented to ensure that academic institutions retain the research prowess and teaching expertise of their long-term staff. However, not being regulated in many cases has caused considerable controversy in both internal and external academic circles. Indeed, according to Wood and Des Jarlais (2006, p. 566), the tenure system has attracted the close scrutiny of both legislators and funding agents, who regarded tenure as "a free ride designed to protect non-productive faculty members." On the other hand, proponents of the system have regarded it as a protection measure for academic freedom. This controversy has sparked considerable debate before the implementation of post-tenure review, a system to measure the effectiveness and exercise control over…. [read more]

Tenure: Perceptions of Online Professors Essay

… Post Tenure

The Perceptions of Online Professors Regarding Tenure and Post-Tenure Review

Over the course of several months, researchers here have compiled a wealth of resources relating to the subjects of academic tenure and post-tenure review. These resources have served in the preliminary capacity to prepare for a focused scientific inquiry on the subject, producing a full spectrum of opinions and findings relating to the institution of tenure. Among these opinions and findings are those endorsing the importance of tenure; arguing on the behalf of its protection; espousing such imperatives as the need for academic freedom; and responding with defensiveness, resistance and concern over the notion of post-tenure review. Conversely, research has also produced a bevy of opinions and…. [read more]

Post Tenure Review Post-Tenure Review: Envisioned Research Essay

… Post Tenure Review

Post-Tenure Review: Envisioned Research

Tenure is a practice which was originally put into action as a way to protect professional educators against administrative imposition, politically-motivated job insecurity and external threats to academic freedom. For educational professionals working in higher education settings especially, this is a deeply guarded practice that provides for continuity, consistency and experience amongst staffs and faculties. This same practice has come under heavy criticism in recent years though, with students, communities, administrators and public office holders volleying blame for low test scores, poor student performance, diminished overall university performance and other negative academic indicators. Among the many culprits which have been identified as we troubleshoot our educational system, educators have been subjected to significant measures of scrutiny and with…. [read more]

Tenure the Wood Essay

… The study's authors maintained the university's anonymity by assigning arbitrary names to the two schools. Each school was chosen due to the different manner in which each approached the implementation of the post-tenure review process.

As with the first study, the second study also used a mixed-research design with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative side of this study was produced with tools that included surveys that rated the nine study constructs with a Likert Scale data gathering tool. This allowed for qualitative responses to provide a quantitative result. Additionally, the study used a qualitative section to the survey that asked for participant's responses to two open-ended questions concerning thoughts, viewpoints, ideas, and perceptions of post-tenure review.

The study determined that there were a number…. [read more]

Tenure and Post Tenure Review Research Proposal

… Post Tenure Ann Bib

Tenure and Post Tenure Review Annotated Bibliography

Baldwin & Chronister. (2001). Teaching Without Tenure: Policies for a New Era. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

The research by Baldwin & Chronister differentiates between instructors who will be given tenure and those who are hired as non-tenure personnel. The article reviews the various conditions which are in place to protect such individuals through collective bargaining and, simultaneously, identifies some of the reasons that it is appropriate to maintain a staff that is at least partially comprised of non-tenure educators. The primary causes for maintaining full-time non-tenure personnel relate to efficiency, economic sensibility and preservation of the proper charges for the tenured instructor. The research here conducted would employ a survey of studied institutions,…. [read more]

Post Tenure Review Research Proposal

… Tenure Biblio

Kratz, A.R. (2005). The effectiveness of post-tenure review practices in Texas graduate institutions as perceived by academic deans (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, TX.

This study identifies the main motivation and impetus behind post-tenure reviews as the maintenance of standards of quality in teaching positions, as is evidenced by a general consensus of professors and administrators at the several institutions discussed. External pressures regarding continued accountability are also cited as a primary reason such practices are undertaken. Different formats and delivery schedules of post-tenure reviews are reviewed for efficacy, and such reviews generally have very mixed results. The assertion that effective post-tenure review is enormously time consuming and expensive is commonly made.

Jaschik, S. (2009). Defeating post-tenure review. Retrieved November…. [read more]

Changing Attitudes Toward and Approaches to Tenure and the Emergence of Post Tenure Review Models Thesis

… Tenure

Changing Attitudes Toward and Approaches to Tenure

and the Emergence of Post-Tenure Review Models

The institution of tenure is designed to protect teachers against the various pitfalls of the educational profession, including political pressures, district resource shortfall and the host of other conditions which can threaten the stability of a teaching job. The acquisition of tenure for an individual instructor can provide an assurance of job security, a freedom to act according to more individualized educational premises and the opportunity to project long-term plans and expectations within the confines of the position. On the other hand, tenure also frequently acts to insulate veteran instructors from criticism, to protect them from accountability and to allow academic shortcomings or behavioral divergences to go unchecked. These conditions…. [read more]

Finances Critical Book Reviews "America's Oligarchy" Johnson Book Review

… Finances

Critical Book Reviews

"America's Oligarchy"

Johnson, Simon., & Kwak, James. (2010). The wall street takeover and the next financial Meltdown. New York: Pantheon Books.

Paperback: $15.95

ISBN: 030747660X

Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group

Simon Johnson is one of the most frequently cited economists of the 21st century and was considered a "go to guy" during the recent economic meltdown. Simon Johnson, previously the chief economist of the International Monetary Fund, Professor of Entrepreneurship at MIT, and author of the controversial "The Quiet Coup."

Johnson and Kwak's, "The Wall Street Takeover and the Next Financial Meltdown" asserts that Washington has and will accede to the vested interests of an unbridled financial sector that runs up profits in good years and dumps its losses on taxpayers in…. [read more]

Post Tenure Post-Tenure Review: Survey Instrument Evaluation Essay

… Post Tenure

Post-Tenure Review: Survey Instrument Evaluation

The ongoing focus of the present research engagement is the variant of perspectives which exist on the subject of post-tenure review. This range of varying opinions is a direct function of the continuing debate over the subject of tenure itself, with far-ranging views advocating the protection, undermining or reform of this system in higher education. The study here by Wood & Johnsrud (2005) offers a survey-driven methodology that is intended to catalogue and clarify this array of perspectives on the subject.

As we consider the methodology utilized by the authors of the present study, it is appropriate to make note of the design of the study and the particular components that would ultimately be incorporated into the design…. [read more]

Tenure in Academic Institutions: Aper, J.P Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure in Academic Institutions:

Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003, May/June). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. Journal of Higher Education. 74.3, pp. 241-254.

In their discussion of post-tenure review, Aper and Fry (2003) present the different sides of the argument regarding the appropriateness of this institution. Some argue that it is necessary for performance reasons, while others contend that it inappropriate and a threat to academic freedom. The article discusses the importance of the AAUP in such matters, and reports the results of a study comparing the post-tenure review process in several graduate organizations that had received a post tenure review policy recommendation from the AAUP. The study reports that post-tenure review is becoming more popular in institutions, as well as…. [read more]

Educator's Perception of Tenure Essay

… , (2008) found that significant gender inequality exists, with respect to tenure, in fields in which women are the majority of students, doctorates, and professionals in practice. In the study, the main demographics to be considered are gender, relationship status, partner's level of involvement, and family background (spouse's education level included). In effect, it is clear that gender inequality issues will drastically effect perceptions of tenure and post-tenure review.

In Williams and Williams (2006), a qualitative online interviewing approach is implemented as a method to investigate the perceptions of 32 African-American male faculty at predominately white institutions in order to comment on the needs for improving support systems and mechanisms for promotion and tenure. The study revealed the absolute significance of what it calls "social…. [read more]

Examining Worldviews Thesis

… Post-Tenure Review

The Four Worldviews: Perspectives on Current Faculty and Public Attitudes toward Post-Tenure Review Practices

Post-tenure review has become, in the past decade or so, an additional evaluative tool for faculty in higher education. The reason for post-tenure review implementation was the public disappointment with the tenure system, which included the review of tenured faculty in order to define their eligibility and progress and the desire to assist the faculty members and further development. Faculty, administration, students, and the general public all have very different perspectives on the issue of post-tenure review, however, and there is a high level of disagreement on the matter even within these groups on certain issues. A hypothetical discussion of four prevailing worldviews in current education theory in relation…. [read more]

Annotated Bibliography of 10 Web Sites Annotated Bibliography

… Tenure Bibliography

"Tenure." National education association. Accessed 8 September 2009.

This website provides an overview of the current tenure situation, noting that tenure-track positions are going unfilled as they are vacated due to retirement with short-term and temporary contracts being implemented in tenure's stead. A basic summary of the sides of the tenure issue (protecting the freedom to teach vs. guaranteeing immunity) is also provided. This site also makes the NEA's position in favor of tenure quite clear. The NEA provides many links to articles in their own publications as well as elsewhere that document the decline of the tenure system in the recent decade and the dangers that this poses (according to the association) to higher education in this country. These links also…. [read more]

Practicality of Tenure and the Affect on the Organization Essay

… Affective Tenure

Affective Organizational Commitment and Tenure

Affective organizational commitment is derived from the sense of an employee that his or her organization meets the emotional and psychological needs related to the terms of employment. In the context of education, our research considers the relationship between affective commitment and the continued erosion of tenure.

The text by Wriston (1940) is particularly compelling on this subject because of its age and its relatively philosophical tone. Wriston weighs the question of academic tenure with a particularly scholarly and discursive approach, revealing a similar set of dimensions to the debate today as existed generations ago. Wriston remarks that while academic freedom is a valuable asset to the pursuit of education, it is not without its problematic dimensions. As…. [read more]

Corporate Governance: A Review Essay

… , 2003). Increased need of capital resources to be raised from open markets has also led the importance of corporate governance to increase in recent years. Another aspect of corporate governance culture that has increasingly come to be scrutinized is the value-based governance and bottom line governance. Firms in Europe and specifically in the U.S. market have emphasized that their companies should reengage in value-based corporate governance (Du Plessis, et al., 2010; p. 11)In modern corporations, corporate governance arises through the severance of ownership and management control in the organizations.

Principles of Corporate Governance

Researchers have also identified the essential principles on which the conduct of corporate governance rests. These are:







Social responsibility (Du Plessis, et al., 2010).

Du…. [read more]

Work Disability in Small Firms Literature Review Chapter

… The DOL-WHD will recognize productivity norms set "through an accepted method of industrial work measurement," including but not limited to "stopwatch time studies, predetermined time systems, or standard data or other recognized [but unspecified] measurement methods" (U.S. Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division, 2008, n.p.). These standards must include every aspect of work performed, but may not include "[b]ehavioral factors" including "personal appearance and hygiene, promptness, social skills, willingness to follow orders, etc." (U.S. Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division, 2008, n.p., emphasis in original). If, given all these constraints, a worker with disability produces less than an experienced non-disabled worker, the employer can legally pay less, even if that ends up below federal minimum wage. What this demonstrates is recognition of productivity…. [read more]

Judicial Review and Democracy the Basic Premise Term Paper

… Judicial Review and Democracy

The basic premise of democracy is the idea of one man, one vote. However, in large societies, the idea of one man, one vote, necessarily becomes diluted because it is impracticable. In fact, one would not expect a country the size of the United States to be a true democracy, but a representative government. Furthermore, the idea of a republican government strains the concept of democracy further; to balance state's rights and the rights of all of the nation's citizens, the framers of the Constitution came up with the concept of an Executive branch that represents the will of the nation and a Legislative branch that represents the will of the states. However, that does not explain the third branch of…. [read more]

Measurement in Mixed Methods Design Thesis

… ¶ … Post Tenure Review

The issue of post-tenure review gives rise to a wide divergence of perspectives. As a measure designed to prevent the abuses of the tenure system that are alleged to protect professors who are inherently lazy, unmotivated and declining in capability with age, it is widely debated both on the grounds of its philosophical imperative and its practicality. With both of these called into question be a collective faculty class which viewed post-tenure review as an attack on academic freedom and earned job security, the proposed study here would proceed to engage the thesis that there is little evidence to suggest that post-tenure review is effective at improving the educational conditions which it is intended to address. Indeed, "institutions have had…. [read more]

Negative Aspects and Perceptions of the Tenure Essay

… ¶ … negative aspects and perceptions of the tenure system have led to the implementation of many so-called "post-tenure review" processes in the vast majority of states' public college and university systems and many private institutions of higher education, as well (Wood & Jarlais, 2006). This research will attempt to ascertain and define the effects of these post-tenure review processes and policies, specifically attempting to locate evidence regarding the effects on teaching, research, academic freedom, and institutional culture that such practices and policies have. Research will take place at several large public and private higher-education institutions, using samples sizes of no less than fifty tenured and non-tenured instructors, students, and administrators in separated research samples, on both a quantitative and qualitative basis in an attempt…. [read more]

Impact of Human Resources Information Systems Peer-Reviewed Journal

… While efficient HRM processes have assumed the shape of a crucial element of some Middle Eastern nations’ progress, several experts criticize their HRM, particularly in terms of their implementation efficacy. Until a few years ago, Saudi Arabia possessed a scant number of HRM practice-related policies (YanXia and Saeed, 2015). Since the realization hit that its natural resources (especially oil) won’t help it sustain forever, Saudi Arabia has grasped the need to focus on the growth and development of its other economic sectors, including human capital utilization.

The uniqueness of the HRM growth context within Saudi Arabia was limited by policies between the late 60s and the start of the new millennium; only recently has there been a shift in approaches and attitudes towards modernization…. [read more]

Reducing Turnover in New Graduate Research Paper

… Research stage


If exit interview are already being done, compile and cross-tabulate the results. If they are not being done, institute an immediate policy.

Analysis state


Use qualitative analysis from group members and hospital surveys; more quantitative studies based on tabulations of exit interviews. The question: What are the major reasons employee's leave



Based on the qualitative and quantitative measurements, make recommendations on higher employee retention



The research will most likely cooborate national findings about job satisfaction: It is likely that a more robust residency program will provide the needed structure for retention.



The residency program should include mentoriship, monthly resident workshops and/or discussion groups; easily available stress and psychological counseling opportunities; rethinking resident's schedules and burnout;…. [read more]

E-Learning Master's Degree Program in Teaching Literature Review

… ¶ … E-learning master's degree program in teaching at a University and the important Characteristics of a successful e-learning master's in education degree program.

E-learning is gaining great popularity worldwide for its cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and speed of knowledge transfer.The number of students enrolled in e-learning classes has more than doubled in the past three years, from 670 students during the 2005-2006 to1350 students during the 2007-2008 academic year.This growth has meant more -and different - classes are being offered through e-Learning This is a great opportunity for students who are juggling work and family obligations. Some who have started their degree on campus are finding the online option a great way to finish - rather than postpone - their academic goals ( Mclaren 2010).Carnevale (2005)…. [read more]

Impact of Technology on Human Resources Literature Review

… ¶ … Technology on Human Resource Management

By any measure, innovations in technology have affected the manner in which companies of all types and sizes compete in an increasingly competitive marketplace, but perhaps no other discipline has been so profoundly affected by technology as human resource management. Indeed, the traditional "personnel department" of the mid- to late-20th century has been fundamentally transformed by information and communications technology. To determine the various impacts of technology on human resource management, this paper provides a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature concerning traditional human resource tasks and responsibilities and how the introduction of technological innovations have affected these traditional activities. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Traditional Human Resource…. [read more]

Public Private Partnership athe Proposed Amman Zarqa Light Rail System Case Study


Conceived during the mid to late 1990s, the Amman - Zarqa Light Rail System (LRS) proposed to present a solution to address the increasing traffic congestion between Amman, the Jordanian capital, and Zarqa, a neighboring industrial city. More than a decade after the birth of the Amman - Zarqa LRS concept, albeit, "intended to be the first link in a more extensive regional urban rail network," according to Marc-Andre Roy (2009, p. 34) in the report, "Amman - Zarqa Light Rail project derailed, the uncompleted project remains stuck - a failure. During the case study, the writer examines a number of concerns relating to the proposed Amman-Zarqa Light Rail System Project as well as information on Public-Private Partnership. The…. [read more]

Race to the Top Literature Review

… Race to the Top

Racing to the Top: The Plan to Lift the Hopes for American Public Schools

According to the White House, "Providing a high-quality education to every young American is vital to the health of our nation's democracy and the strength of our nation's economy." The newly proposed Race to the Top grant program is designed to improve the standards of public schools nationwide, but on a state-by-state basis. The ultimate goal of Race to the Top is to help emerging generations of students to perform better not just in school but in the global marketplace. Race to the Top provides federal funding to states that meet key educational requirements. Those requirements are built around four key areas: educational standards and assessments; data…. [read more]

Validity and Integrity Essay

… Validity and Integrity

In the field of higher education, post tenure review has become a common way of reviewing the overall performance of tenured faculty. Yet, many critics will claim that this is an attack on the independent spirit of the tenure system itself. To determine which viewpoint is most accurate requires that you examine a number of different variables of the post tenure system to include: the effectiveness and validity of post tenure review. This will be accomplished though a mixed method design, examining important ethical principals and integrity. Together, these different elements will tell you how effective the post tenure review system is in the field of higher education.

Post tenure review is often viewed to be unpopular with faculty. This is because…. [read more]

Hypothetical Designs Thesis

… Hypothetical Designs

Three hypothetical study designs: Post-tenure review

Quantitative hypothetical design

To assess the ability of the post-tenure review process to enhance student learning, a quantitative study could compare students' satisfaction levels with professors at institutions that used post-tenure review with students' levels of satisfaction at institutions that did not utilize the post-tenure review process. Surveys of students of tenured professors at institutions that used the post-tenure review process could be compared with the results of student satisfaction surveys at other institutions where post-tenure reviews were not deployed. The professors of the students being surveyed in the control group should be demographically similar to those in the experimental group. For example, if at the institution with post-tenure review, students of history, chemistry, and English professors…. [read more]

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