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Testing vs. Alternative Forms of Assessment Term Paper

… Testing vs Alternative Forms of Assessment

Summary of "Testing vs. alternative forms of assessment"

Standardized tests, if used appropriately, can provide useful information about a non-native speaking student's skills and abilities. But such tests must not be used as the exclusive instrument to test a child's potential for success and need for academic remediation and support. Standardized tests provide incomplete and imperfect information because of ESL students' cultural as well as linguistic fluency (Law & Eckes 2007, p.23). Also, norming such tests is controversial, since by definition, half of the test takers 'have' to fall below the average (Law & Eckes 2007, p.23). Standardized tests also fail to give a complete portrait of the experiences of the test taker. Inadequate academic preparation, nervousness due to…. [read more]

Actuarial vs. Clinical Predictions Term Paper

… In certain situations, people need to be aware of these conditions, especially if they may adversely affect them. As such, it is largely up to the individual who has such a condition to take responsibility for his or her condition and to attempt to minimize the negative aspects of labeling by not enabling themselves to be circumscribed. Still, practitioners should be aware of these adverse effects of labeling, and attempt to explain them to patients to help them in the process of living after having received a label. As such, labeling is truly one of the moral issues (Kaplan, year, p. 554) associated with psychological practice today.

Divided Loyalties

Divided loyalties can make the job of a practicing psychologist difficult, for the simple fact that…. [read more]

Structure of Standardized Testing Essay

… Note, being a student with a disability or an English Language Learner does not change the content being assessed or the skill level (WDPI, 2011). Examples include a large-print test or using a scribe to record answers.

It is important to note that students with major limitations in cognitive functioning, in adaptive behavior, and in academic functioning expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills have the WKCE Alternate Assessment to judge their performance. Often, these students are identified as having a cognitive disability; however, students with some other types of disabilities (e.g., Autism, Traumatic Brain Injury, etc.) may also satisfy the criteria for participation on the WAA-SwD. When determining whether a student who is eligible for special education services should participate in the WAA-SwD…. [read more]

Alternative and Traditional Therapeutic Methods Term Paper

… al, 1994; Halfon,, 1993).

Often, these professionals are uncertain of where to begin with a child who has recently entered foster care, and therefore these assessments play a vital role in determining the course of treatment. This has long been a traditional method of determining how best to help foster care children, as they often have trouble with basic issues such as socialization, communication, and motor skills (Horwitz,, 1994).

Unfortunately, different professionals often assess these foster care children in different ways. This is part of human nature and cannot be helped, but because of this, some children do not get the proper diagnosis of their problems, which can make treatment difficult. Children are done a disservice when they are treated for things that…. [read more]

Standardized Testing vs. Authentic Assessment Term Paper

… One of the main differences between standardized testing and authentic assessment is based on the query of the standard against which students act is evaluated whether they are norm-referenced or criterion referenced. Normally standardized tests are standard-based tests. To be exact, a student or group of students is contrasted with the performance of students somewhere else and their achievements are accounted in terms of such things as percentile rankings. Usually authentic assessment calculates condition-based scoring. Student feats are contrasted and decided with regard to an approved set of standards related to the matter being tested. Most authentic assessments determine compound proportions of knowledge. It is essential that students have sufficient time to be evaluated or take the assessment tests. In reality, one of the clear…. [read more]

Normative Versus Positive Accounting Theory Term Paper

… Normative vs. Positive Accounting Theory

In the past few decades, accounting theory has slowly evolved; as a result, various research methodologies have been utilized to study the development of accounting theory. As accounting theory has developed, debates have emerged regarding the manner in which financial theory should be developed and applied in the accounting profession. This has been essentially a normative, philosophical exercise, imposing a view of how actuarial practice should progress (Thomas & Smith, 1997). In recent years, the differences in application between normative vs. positive accounting theories have become the subject of much debate, raising the awareness of those involved in the accounting profession. The underlying basis of normative theory is that it assists in standardizing the practice and thus facilitates the teaching…. [read more]

Exposure Testing a Comparison Essay

… Ongoing development and research will likely continue to change the essentials of this issue for several years.


Dodson, R., Perovich, L., Nishioka, M., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J. & Rudel, R. (2011). Long-term Integrated Sampling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: Measurement of Emerging Compounds Using Novel Active and Passive Sampling Methods. Epidemiology 22(1): 160-78.

Feng, L., Musto, C., Kemling, J. Lim, S. & Suslick, K. (2010). A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chemical Communication 46: 2037-9.

Hewitt, D. & Gandy, J. (2009). Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52(7): 579-86.

Hughes, S., Blake, B., Woods, S. & Lehmann, C. (2007). False-positive results on colorimetric…. [read more]

Intelligence Test Assessment and Critique Term Paper

… Intelligence Test Assessment & Critique

The title of the test is the KAIT: Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test authored Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L. Kaufman. Although it is based on the much earlier Cattell-Horn text, this particular version was last fully updated in 1983, although it has underwent small modifications since.

Test Description

The test content is multivariable. Rather than measure a singular 'g' factor of generalized intelligence, it measures a 'gf' factor of general/fluid intelligence, through a multi-subtest battery. The theoretical design is to problem-solving skills using fluid and crystallized abilities, rather than to merely measure intelligence capacity, as based on the Cattell-Horn model of fluid/crystallized intelligence. (Flanagan & Flanagan, 1994)

Purpose of Test

The purpose of the test was to create…. [read more]

ESL Assessment Annotated Bibliography

… Bassoff, Tobey. "A Time Effective Approach to Assessing ELL/ESL Students." Teachers Network.Org. n.d. .

The need to develop adequate assessment strategies is addressed by Bassoff in this simple yet engaging piece. The author notes that assessment of ESL students is a necessary feature of life but as often happens it is difficult for the teacher to provide adequate evidence for the assessment that was made. To address this imbalance the author suggests three approaches that will provide the teacher with useful tools to manage recall and fact for the purpose of assessment. The suggestions include taking snapshots for each student on paper, using visual grids and engaging a student self-assessment graph. While the style of the article was simple, it provides a rich approach to…. [read more]

Gall's "Figuring Out the Importance of Research Article Review

… Gall's "Figuring out the Importance of Research Results: Statistical Significance versus

Practical Significance" is a good and somewhat indecisive viewpoint on statistical methods used to test the null hypothesis. Perhaps his observations prove to focus more in the importance of research results vs. The unimportance of research results in statistical significance. He goes back and forth on the significance which tells from Gall's viewpoint, that null hypothesis was repetitive due to the level of certainty and that accurate circumstances, for example a random sampling from a defined population, have been satisfied, but are limited. Levin's, "What if There Were No More Bickering About Statistical Significance Tests?" is again a well thought out, somewhat emotional, take on "those who advocate replacing statistical hypothesis testing with alternative…. [read more]

Accelerated Reader Program Versus Traditional Reading Programs Term Paper

… ¶ … AR vs. Traditional

The Accelerated Reader program has received significant attention in the last few years, as it is reported to have shown great promise for correcting reading deficiencies in most grade levels. The program is a significant boost for some readers, as it offers rewards and excitement for increased reading behaviors and it also has an intrinsic assessment aspect that many educators find useful in understanding the reading levels of students. Yet, it is also a significant allocation for many schools as it requires resources that might not already be in place and has a rather significant price tag on top of that. The program has received positive and negative reviews from users and educators, and requires training and education to use…. [read more]

Eating and Cholesterol Term Paper

… ¶ … Eating Habits and Developing High Cholesterol Levels

Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading single cause of death in the United States today, and elevated serum cholesterol is widely recognized as being the risk factor responsible for myocardial infarction and CHD death; furthermore, a growing body of research supports the acceptance of hypercholesterolemia being as a causal and treatable agent in coronary artery arthersclerosis (Baum, Jennings, Manuck & Rabin, 2001).. According to statistics released by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), approximately half a million Americans die each year from coronary heart disease (Adams & Jennings, 1993). To date, researchers have determined that controllable risk factors such as the level of physical inactivity, smoking, overweight or obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol,…. [read more]

Labor Relations and Globalization Argue Term Paper

… Clark, R.T. (1988). Privatization, Outsourcing and Subcontracting: United States Experience: A Management Viewpoint. Retrieved May 30, 2012 from

Helper, Sue (1990) "Subcontracting: Innovative Labor Strategies," Labor Research Review: (1)15:1, Retrieved May 30, 2012 from:

5. What serious misconduct offenses should always result in discharge? Defend your position.

"Misconduct" under the law of unemployment compensation is basically something that the claimant did or failed to do that 1) caused a problem for the company, 2) was in violation of a rule, a policy, or a law, and 3) was within the claimant's power to control or avoid (Riddle, 2008). This can include attendance problems, poor work performance, problematic conduct, or off job-site conduct. Behavioral issues may include unprofessional manners, repeated insubordination, inability to work…. [read more]

Comparison of Spect Lung Scintigraphy and Ctpa for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism Article Review


Pulmonary embolism or PE is the sudden blockage in a lung artery by a blood clot coming from a vein in the leg (NHLBI 2009). PE can permanently damage part of the lung due to lack of blood flow into the tissue, decrease oxygen level in the blood, or damage other organs from lack of sufficient oxygen. A large clot or too many clots can cause death. PE is often a complication of deep vein thrombosis or DVT. Other causes are resting after surgery, a long trip by car or airplane, and being bedridden for a long time. Men and women are equally at risk for PE, although risk doubles every 10 years after age 60. Most common signs and symptoms are…. [read more]

Moore Kearsley Thesis

… ¶ … Technologies for Teaching at a Distance

Multiple technologies may aid the distance educator in creating optimal course material and engendering student participation. From simple online text-based readings to instant messaging during office hours, technological tools are enhancing the learning process. Yet technology is presenting tremendous challenges for distance educators. Instructors struggle to keep up with emerging technologies even before they have mastered those already in use. Exploring the range of different technologies for teaching at a distance requires many hours of work beyond that which is already required to design the course content, curriculum, and methods of assessment. Technology is increasing the demands placed on instructors at a time when funding and policy in education is floundering.

Technology can be capitalized on to…. [read more]

Management and Theory Leadership Application Essay

… initial success. But that would leave out other variables like geography, econometrics, type of product or service, technology, timeliness, etc. Strictly speaking, this is one of the difficulties in social science research. The internal validity must show that A caused B; while there still might be a trade-off between internal and external validity in certain situations. In general, looking at research into entrepreneurial activity we find that numerous threats exist: interaction of selection bias and treatment (issue may work only on a certain population); there may be reactive experimental arrangements that influence generalizations (e.g. actions between global consumers with different goals and belief systems), (Alvesson and Karreman; Locke).

Research is a step-by-step process that uses a systematic approach to the collection and analysis, and then…. [read more]

Configuring SAP R/3 and an Assessment Term Paper

… Configuring SAP R/3 and an assessment of the Production Planning Module

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems act as the center of data and information synchronization throughout an enterprise, requiring extensive integration to both legacy and third-party applications, databases and programs to support the many processes necessary to efficiently and profitability manufacture products and deliver services. Originally created to support the many processes within accounting, finance, logistics, manufacturing, supply chain management, service and other functional areas from a single database, ERP systems today include support for many customer-facing processes including Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and more intensive support for supply chain management (SCM), and the coordination of production planning as well. The first ERP systems concentrated on the order management process, with SAP AG of Walldorf,…. [read more]

CSR in Beijing Research Paper

… According to the authors, having an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories helps a study obtain objective data, free from forced choices. For this particular study, the middle/zero value has been labeled as 'neutral' to avoid situations whereby respondents with no opinion on a particular matter opt to leave a question unanswered.

Data Collection and Response Rate: respondents will be selected randomly among employees in the five companies selected for analysis. With the consent of management, and the go-ahead from the environmental bureau, questionnaires will be administered at different locations within each of the five companies to minimize the risk of bias. The researcher reckons that the steel manufacturing and cutlery industries are often very busy, and companies would most likely be reluctant to…. [read more]

Action the Importance of Creativity Case Study

… (2008). 'Global Decision-making: the Role of Managerial

Curiosity in Assessing Potentially Disruptive Information Technologies.' Multinational

Business Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 21-23.

Roth, W.F., Jr. (1999). Work and Rewards: Redefining Our Work-Life Reality. New York:

Praeger Publishers.

Section 2: Reflective Account

Personal and professional growth can occur in various ways, as well as in bits and spurts. Over time, though, it is reasonable to expect discernible results from the effort that is made towards becoming more creative in thinking, in decision making, and in leadership capacities. As the course readings illuminated these concepts in detail, two primary reactions occurred, varying only in degrees. The first reaction concerned just how complex and illusive the notion of creativity appears to be, with different authors weighing in…. [read more]

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning) Assessment

… ¶ … Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning)

How does a paradigm differ from a theory? Include information from Kuhn regarding a paradigm so that you demonstrate your understanding of Kuhn regarding a paradigm.

In his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970), Thomas Kuhn first used the term "paradigm" to describe the process that takes place on science when one major research paradigm is replaced by a newer one. According to Dobel, "For Kuhn, a paradigm is both an intellectual and a sociological construct. It provides a framework of basic assumptions about the nature of knowledge, rules of evidence and inference, and maps and directions for what constitutes important and vital problems" (2001, p. 166). While theories remain unconfirmed, it was Kuhn's perspective that paradigms provide…. [read more]

Law and Business When Glenn Assessment

… ¶ … Law and Business

When Glenn says that a legal tradition is information, he is referring to the way that the legal process helps form the basis of historical tradition, of the way societies decided to form a code of morality and ethics in order to retain a positive and cooperative (e.g. social) state of affairs. Since humanity is all part of some type of tradition, then it stands that legal traditions, through the ages, are able to provide us with information about ways in which past societies operated, and the lessons they can impart for present and future society. This is, in fact, broken up into two major areas: humans and groups and culture.

By the very nature of culture and humanity, humans…. [read more]

Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is not absolute. There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint which enables the thinkers to participate in social interaction and mainstream reality. (Glasersfeld)

One interesting area of constructionist theory is…. [read more]

Applied Management and Decision Sciences Thesis

… ¶ … management and decision sciences from various theorists; and, analyzes the evolution of managerial decision making from scientific management to the complicated forecasting models used today. The objectives of the Breadth component were four-fold: (a) to examine the theories of applied management and decision sciences as interpreted by the research of Ducker (1974), Harrison (1975), and others as listed in the reference section; (b) to analyze the historic evolution of decision making from scientific management to modern applications of operations research; (c) to examine the decision making process, with a particular emphasis on the importance of values and management judgment; and (d) to describe, assess, and evaluate various decision evaluation tools including matrix analysis, influence diagrams, payoff matrices, sensitivity analysis, decision tree, probabilistic forecasting,…. [read more]

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI Term Paper

… Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is one of the most widely used tests in the world for assessing personality characteristics for general non-psychiatric populations. The authors state that it is a self-report inventory, objective assessment that is not diagnostic in a psychopathological sense. Developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers and based on Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung's studies on psychological type, the MBTI is used extensively both in academic and corporate settings. Opinions about MBTI range from those who are leery of personality tests as a whole because of stereotyping and profiling, to those who specifically question this test's reliability, to those who believe that it's an essential tool for helping people become more satisfied with their lives and companies find a…. [read more]

Interviews With School Teachers Term Paper

… Proposed legislation additionally required that appropriate accommodations be provided when necessary and guidelines developed for administering alternative assessments (Thurlow, Erickson, & Danielson, 1996) (Journal, 1998)."

All of these studies provide a foundational argument for using several types of assessments in the future education system of the nation.

The literature indicates support for the current assessment methods being used by the three teachers who were the subject of this study. They each incorporate alternative assessment methods with the use of standardized testing to provide a more accurate picture of student performance and ability. The teachers have individualized such assessments by providing portfolio and observation report measurements of student assessment when the student has a language barrier or is special education. The teachers might find that allowing…. [read more]

Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity Thesis

… Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity

Over the last 50 years, the overall style of teaching has remained the same. Where, the approach has been to teach in the same universal standards for everyone. This is despite the fact that over 50 years ago several leading educational scholars disputed the model of using a one size fits all approach to teach. Instead, these leading thinkers advocated an approach of allowing each person to learn according to their own individual learning style. An example of this can been with Nathaniel Cantor who said, "The public elementary, high schools, and colleges, generally project what they consider to be the proper way of learning which is uniform for all students." (Guild,…. [read more]

Mindful vs. Traditional Martial Arts Thesis

… , 2001). As the existing research is largely limited to teenagers who are beyond the prime window of opportunity for prevention or early intervention efforts, this study will focus on children age 8-12, where early connections may inoculate at-risk students and set them on a more favorable trajectory. Terrence Webster-Doyle (personal communication, July 1, 2011) illuminates that by effectively challenging the self-imposed limits of each child, students will quickly realize that they can accomplish much more than they ever thought possible. Essentially, this parallels the old adage that we are each our own worst enemy -- the biggest fight for each of us, regardless of age, is within.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Mindfulness psychotherapies are considered the third wave of behavior therapy, preceded by cognitive…. [read more]

Overarching Goal Essay

… ¶ … overarching goal of this study was to develop an improved understanding concerning assessing and developing the survey research methodology within an educational setting in general and the use of the survey research method to determine attitudes and behavioral intentions of the students in a university setting regarding their acceptance of e-learning in particular. The first part of the study presents the breadth component which is used to identify the differences between three important research paradigms which are defined, compared, and contrasted with various types of research methodologies with a particular emphasis on survey research methodology, using a selected bibliography to evaluate the methods.

Identifying Constraints to e-Learning for Rural Nigerian Students

The Breadth Component


This study is organized into three parts. The…. [read more]

Hybrid on Line Instruction Essay

… Hybrid Online Instruction

There is push of the higher education towards novel instruction delivery models by the advent of the internet. This leads to the student being the focus of the learning process and the new models results into the creation of instructions which are tailor made for the student delivery. Self paced learning approach has become popular because of the different learning styles of the student that have evolved. Therefore technology has been integrated in this self paced learning whereby interactive computer programs, interactive audio visual programs and audio visual cassettes. Again the focus on the skills development of the student as a competency rather than the focus on the knowledge obtained by the student is a debatable issue though recent industrial trends are…. [read more]

Performance Appraisal Methods the 360 Degree Feedback Case Study

… Organizational development experts agree that performance management systems that provide timely information concerning employee performance are an essential requirement for almost any type or size of enterprise today. A number of performance evaluation methods are available for this purpose, with some being better suited to certain working environments than others. One of the more popular approaches to emerge in recent years has been multisource feedback methods such as the 360-degree feedback approach that collects survey information from a wide range of sources including supervisors, subordinates, customers, vendors and suppliers. While the 360-degree feedback approach has produced good results for some companies, others have faltered in its application for a number of reasons. Because organizations typically invest large amounts of resources in such performance evaluation systems,…. [read more]

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