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Protestant Reformation, Imperialism, and WW1: Impact on History Term Paper

… Protestant Ref., Imperialism, and WWI

An Analysis of the Effects of Protestantism, Imperialism, and WWI on History

The medieval world had been one in which the "age of faith" and the might of arms (thanks to men like Charlemagne) had unified Europe (Haaren, 1904, p. 102). The popes of the Church had been granted a certain authority by kings and princes, and State and Church ruled as one (in theory, if not always in practice) (Laux, 1989, p. 517). The scholastics, like Thomas Aquinas, had used Aristotelian philosophy to help prove the existence of God and the truth of Christianity. All of that would change in the 14th century when William of Occam challenged the Aristotelian notion of universals (Weaver, 1984, p. 7). Thereupon followed…. [read more]

Renaissance and Reformation Term Paper

… Renaissance

The Emergence of the Renaissance Movement

Determining and analyzing what gave rise to the Renaissance movement during the 14th to 16th centuries include a closer look into its main philosophy, humanism. The Renaissance movement was well-known for its support of the philosophy of humanism, which posited that humans have the capacity not only for reason, but also for committing goodness and seeking truth. It can be said that because of humanism, Renaissance flourished because of the innate trust that it provided humanity, and its capacity for progress and development.

Humanism was reflected in every aspect of people's lives during the Renaissance. Prior to the establishment of the movement, culture and the arts were dominated and oftentimes, dictated by the Church, producing artworks that are…. [read more]

Bacteria Effect of Date Extract Research Proposal

… The microbiologists have come across the fact that the aqueous extract of the dry dates has the quantity dependent property to inhibit the superoxide and the hydroxyl radicals. It is acknowledged that in the method of riboflavin photo reduction the amount of fresh extract that is used to scavenge the superoxide radical (50%) is equivalent to the 0.7 to 0.8 mg/ml of dry date extract. Similarly in the deoxyribose degradation method the dry date extract required to scavenging 50% hydroxyl radical amounted to 2.0 to 2.2 mg/ml. It is therefore observed that 1.5 to 2.0 mg/ml and 4.0 to 4.2mg/ml concentrations of the date extract has the potency to respectively inhibit superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (Dandamayev 2002).

The anti-inflammatory activity of date extract

The methanol…. [read more]

Historical Contexts and Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … human condition transcends the esoteric and becomes real is through the human ability to conceptualize events outside of the horrific reality of the event and turn these events into something nobler, something more timeless, and even something more meaningful to future generations. One way we humans tend to look at these grand processes is to extrapolate behaviors into their smallest component. When looking at human nature, for instance, we find that biological determinism has become part of the way we explain the human condition. . It claims, for example, that the behavior of human beings is determined by the genes possessed by individuals and leads to the conclusion that all human society is governed by the sum of the behavior of all the…. [read more]

Role of Women Since World War Term Paper

… Role of Women Since World War 2 (WWII)

The role of women in society may have changed more during and after World War Two than any other period in human history. As a brief indication of the change, five percent of American women were employed in the regular workforce, whereas 60% of women of working age were employed by 1990 (Goldin 1991). This paper will analyze how women's roles changed during and after World War II (hereafter called the "War") and to the present day.

The change in women's roles should be analyzed on more fronts than their contribution to the workforce, but workforce contribution is a key contributor to the change in how women are perceived (some would say 'valued') in the workplace.

Rather…. [read more]

Effect of Protestantism on the World Essay

… ¶ … 16th century, the Catholic Church had become overwhelmingly wealthy and powerful, influencing political and social realities throughout Europe. In 1517, German Christian monk and scholar Martin Luther penned a treatise called simply 95 Theses, dramatically nailing the document to the door of a Catholic Church to effectively protest the corruption he had personally witnessed in Catholic practices. Luther's protest essentially became known as "protestant" Christianity, or Protestantism. The era in which Luther and like-minded reformers worked is also fittingly known as the Reformation. Luther did not necessarily seek to start a new religion, but aimed more to reform the faith he had already known and practiced throughout his life. Although Luther made specific attacks against corrupt practices like "indulgences," which allowed Church members…. [read more]

Charles v. Hapsburg Monarchy and Murad III Ottoman Empire Term Paper

… Charles V and Murad III

Charles V of the Hapsburg dynasty and Murad III, sixteenth century rulers of the Roman and Ottoman empires, respectively, were in some ways polar opposites of each other. Part German, French and Spanish, Charles V ruled over a large territory with a heavy Catholic influence, but was a man who spent his life caught between nationalities and a bitter religious struggle. Murad III, by comparison, was a classic Turkish ruler who came complete with a large harem of women and a taste for life's luxuries and sensual pleasures. But despite their differences, there are many similarities in the reins of Charles V and Murad III, as both men were mediocre leaders who achieved limited success in their roles. While both…. [read more]

British History: Britain Essay

… Britain used its victory in this war together with victories in other battles to enhance its imperial power. Through its victory, Britain increased its imperialism as a colony of several countries across the globe, especially in Africa. If Britain could have lost the war, Adolf Hitler and Germany could have owned Europe, Middle East, Asia, and the entire African continent.

The Protestant Reformation:

The other major event in the history of Britain that had significant impacts on the country's society and her international presence is the protestant reformation in England. Protestantism was developed and introduced by the split in the Latin Christian church, which was initiated by Luther in 1517 and grew by several other people in the successive decades. From the time of Luther's…. [read more]

Effects of Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World Globalization Research Paper

… ¶ … Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World/Globalization

The effects of Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World/Globalizatio

An Overview of Russia


According to Russia Travel Guide, Russia is the largest country in the world by far; spanning nine time zones, its territory covers nearly twice as much of the earth as that of the next largest country, Canada. Besides, the U.S. Department of State claims that the official name of Russia is the Russia Federation. It has an area of 17 million sq. km. (6.5 million sq. mi.); about 1.8 times the size of the United States. Its capital city Moscow has a population of approximately10.4 million people while other cities like St. Petersburg has 4.6 million, Novosibirsk has 1.4 million, and…. [read more]

History of the Areas of Expertise Essay

… History Of the Areas of Expertise and Their

Application To Project Activities

History with its flickering lamp stumbles along the trail of the past, trying to reconstruct its scenes, to revive its echoes, and kindle with pale gleams the passion of former days.

Winston Churchill

The historical review conducted in chapter 2 can now be presented and analysed. This chapter will consider and summarise the data given there. The data will be investigated by obtaining significant results concerning development within the historical periods addressed by this research study. The same guiding categories will be utilised to arrange the analysis, namely:

Cultural environment

Scientific environment

Economic environment

General management

Architectural principles

Construction technology

The Master builder tradition

Analysis of project activities

In practice, these items are…. [read more]

History of Interpersonal Skill Literature Review

… Interpersonal Skill of Mesopotamia

The study of interpersonal skills among ancient civilizations like Mesopotamia consists mostly of major innovations and advances in society, technology and human development. Sargon is typically credited with being the first person to unify a world empire in the 24th century B.C. Most of what is known of Sargon comes from the Chronicles of Early Kings, a series of tablets forming one of the first known historiographies and written from the 8th century B.C. To the 3rd Century A.D. Sargon, as the world's first known leader is believed to have inspired future Kings and rulers for centuries to come with his ability to build, maintain and administer his empire (Snell 32).

Hammurabi ruled Babylon in the 18th century B.C. He is…. [read more]

That Renaissance Essay

… ¶ … renaissance actually means a revival. When it is capitalized, of course, it typically refers to the Italian Renaissance during the 14th and 15th centuries. There were similar revivals of knowledge and learning in other parts of Europe around the same time that are also associated with the capitalized version of this term. This term refers to the revival of science, knowledge, art, and learning that took place during the aforementioned time period. What happened during the Italian Renaissance in the fields of art and literature in this epoch was essentially a reawakening of artistic and literary expression after the relative quiescence of the dark ages. Italian art and literature began to thrive again during the Renaissance. Education was extremely important to leading members…. [read more]

Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that set off these and other societies from each other, there are many key connections as well. Societies borrow from each other all the time; indeed, one might argue that the level of "borrowing" from one culture to the next arises to the level of grand larceny.

When one thinks about it, though, there is every reason for societies to borrow from each other in the same way that one generation learns from its predecessor, and passes on what it has learned. Some of what different…. [read more]

Western Civilization Scholasticism Was a Method Term Paper

… Western Civilization

Scholasticism was a method of learning initiated in medieval universities in the 12th century which lasted for approximately four centuries. The main aim of scholasticism was to find an answer to a certain question through a specific method of inquiry. This method consisted of selecting a certain piece of writing by a renowned scholar which would become the object of investigation. Scholars would read it thoroughly and critically, and ultimately clearly formulate the theories of the author. Other documents could also be used. The final step of the inquiry consisted of identifying the points of disagreement and contention between the sources which would be written down and known as "sententiae." The critics of scholasticism argued that practitioners of scholasticism were only compilers of…. [read more]

Compare the Effects of the Enlightenment on Christianity and on Islam Religions Essay

… ¶ … Enlightenment on Christianity and on Islam religions

Religion and the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment refers to the zeitgeist of the 17th and 18th centuries that originated in Europe and spread to the Americas. The principle values of the Enlightenment advocated logic and reasoning over faith and subservience, and emphasized man and his individual achievement as opposed to supernatural beliefs. Traditional conceptions of divinity and religion, in particular, were challenged by man's intellectual capacity for accomplishment in diverse areas such as philosophy, mathematics and science, and blatantly contested man's unquestioningly subordinate status to God and realms traditionally associated with the divine such as nature, circumstance, and fate. Several religious pretexts were developed during this epoch (such as Deism, which held that God created the universe…. [read more]

Ten Greatest Revivals Book Report

… 1904 Revival, Beginning in Wales

The 1904 Welsh Revival was spurred by Jenkins of the church in Cardiganshire, who, in response to the growing worldliness and humanistic philosophy in Britain, began a season of intense prayer that was spread by Jenkins's student Roberts and his friends Evans and Joshua who spread the 'fire to other communities. The preaching had an almost immediate and dramatic effect on surrounding ills such as drunkenness to the extent that historians of the time commented and pastors from around the world came to witness.

Seymour was another result of this mass fervor. In the American South, in his Azusa Street church, he introduced the practice of speaking in tongues delivering apocalyptic messages, which soon developed into the Azusa Street Revival…. [read more]

Sociology: Changing Societies Book Report

… A union leader in Washington, D.C., isn't a miner, but miner's groups are his reference group because he identifies so strongly with their needs and aspirations.

Primary groups refer to groups where a person received his or her first important lessons about life and social realities - most often, a typical primary group is the family. Individuals develop their self-concepts and their sense of themselves in a primary group. In a secondary group, such as the HR department at work, a person is less emotionally connected, and feels less totally included in the group's values and actions. A secondary group allows for roles to be played in order to carry out that group's utilitarian functions, whereas in a primary group, one's role is pretty much…. [read more]

Decision Making Strategies Research Paper

… Terrorism is a way of life; watching for bombs and activities "normal," just as serving in the military and knowing your State is surrounded by enemies becomes so intrusive it is like being blinded by a horrible odor; other people can sense it, but after a while, it is moot to the individual. Thus, the Israeli culture has transposed from the various cultures that immigrated in the 1940s to one with three major paradigms: individualism, directness, and a polychromic world view:

Individualism -- The United States has always enjoyed a sense of rugged individualism, back from the pioneer days and the age of expansion into the west. For Israel, though, in decision making, the culture has become even more individualistic as it has evolved towards…. [read more]

Spirit Capitalism Max Weber's Philosophy Essay

… " (Kitch, 2001)

Researcher's Opinions on criticisms

The researcher has mixed views on the criticisms. Some of it has good argument and some does not. For instance, he agrees with Fanfani criticism of Weber. The reason for this is because Fanfani goes on to say that the point that it was not the Protestant Ethic which heartened the development of capitalism nonetheless the fact that numerous Protestants were forced to run away from Catholic nations to escape harassment which "nurtures in the settlers an internationalism that is no minor component in capitalist attitude." (Lehmann, 1993) In actual fact, he speaks that numerous early Protestant leaders were against capitalism, and that includes Calvin and Luther: "Luther's obscurantism in financial substances, to which his male-controlled thoughts on…. [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Paper

… Van Gogh

In Search of Illumination: An Analysis of the Life and Work of Vincent Van Gogh

If, as Richard Williamson (2010) says, art is a skill and that skill is the "expression of the soul," Vincent Van Gogh's artistic productivity (leaping into life in the final decade of his own) may tell us much about the soul of the man. With an oeuvre of over 2000 works Van Gogh's artistic passion matched the intensity of his religious fervor. Religion and art were, essentially, the basis of Van Gogh's life. And the history of his life is, in a way, a history of modern Europe; in another way it is a history of the prelude to 20th century modern art; and in another way it…. [read more]

Marx Weber Durkheim Term Paper

… Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of production - which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on which one is working. The relations of production are the social and technical means by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's productive assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A social relation may be a relation among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. This group may be an ethnic group, a social class,…. [read more]

Tudor Dynasty Essay

… ¶ … Tudor dynasty was arguably one of the most eventful and consequential in the history of England. It spanned from the final decades of the 15th century to the first couple years of the 17th century. During this time period, the dynasty produced substantial effects on the three primary areas of English life: religion, economics, and politics -- all of which influenced the culture of the country and the zeitgeist of the time. Some of these ramifications were unequivocally caused by the various monarchs of this dynasty and their particular passions and preferences. One may argue, however, that some of these effects were simply a result of the age during which the dynasty existed, and reflected general trends throughout Western Civilization and other parts…. [read more]

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The…. [read more]

Black Death an Analysis Research Paper

… " Elsewhere come reports of the stench that arose from the mass graves of churchyards or the trenches in London. Looking back on it, James gives a somber perspective:

We know, as 14th century people suspected, that the mortality caused by the bubonic plague of the Black Death was the worst demographic disaster in the history of the world. We also know that the mortality came to an end in the first outbreak soon after 1350; contemporaries could not have known this would happen -- so far as they were concerned everyone might well die. Some treated each day as if it were their last: moral and sexual codes were broken, while the marriage market was revitalized by those who had lost partners in the…. [read more]

Project City of Charlotte's Demographics and Crime Profile Term Paper

… Charlotte North Carolina

City Profile: Charlotte North Carolina

Since its beginnings, Charlotte has evolved into a bustling urban center of the South. It now reigns as one of the fastest growing cities on the East Coast. Charlotte has had a rich past, dating all the way back to before the Revolutionary War. Through the generations, it has continued to show promise, despite limitations such as the narrow needs of supporting the Caucasian majority of the population and fighting rising crime rates. However, recently new additions to transit systems and dedicated Police and Government officials have brought new hope to the city. More diversity is emerging out of the heart of Charlotte. Crime rates, especially murder, are decreasing from their 2005 highs.

First settled in 1755…. [read more]

Steven Gimbel: Einstein's Jewish Science Essay

… Steven Gimbel: Einstein's Jewish Science

Is Einstein's Theory of Relativity 'Jewish Science'?

The objective of this study is to examine the work of Steven Gimbel (2012) entitled "Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion" and to specifically examine the relationship between science and religion at the deepest levels of scientific research and thought. Hitler characterized the work of Albert Einstein and the emerging field of quantum mechanics in pre-WWII Germany as 'Jewish science'. As history shows, many German scientists were forced to leave Germany and the claim of Hitler is that some very important individuals in this group ultimately went to work in the United States and in the area of developing the atomic bomb. This study addresses the question of…. [read more]

History of Rosicrucian Order Thesis

… History Of the Rosicrucian Order

Despite being one of the oldest esoteric societies, the Rosicrucian Order remains one of the most mysterious and least well-known of the various groups that arose in Europe over the course of the second millennium. Although Rosicrucianism was one of the key influences on the development of Freemasonry, and, as will be discussed in the findings chapter of this study, has played an important role in the development of Western culture and society, its history, symbols, and legacy have frequently been overshadowed by more popular alchemical and metaphysical movements. For example, while most Americans know that many of the founding fathers were Freemasons, fewer likely know that the first governor of Connecticut was deeply interested in Rosicrucianism from an early…. [read more]

Violence and the Cross an Analysis Essay

… Violence and the Cross

An Analysis of Migliore's Comments on Violence and the Cross

Daniel Migliore comments upon the significance of Christ's violent death on the Cross in relation to a world already steeped in violence. The death of Christ is described as being an exercise in atonement, as being the ultimate expression of penitential sacrifice. Artists since the High Renaissance depicted it in its most gruesome aspect, highlighting the suffering that Christ underwent for "our sins." It is a violent image of sacrifice that has had deep and profound theological implications for many religious, from St. Paul to Augustine to Aquinas to Padre Pio (who, interestingly -- and like St. Francis -- is said to have received the stigmata -- Christ's wounds in his…. [read more]

Movement the Cold War Essay

… The changes in schematic orientation and their contributing impact on different choices in life differed in extent and time span across different areas of social life. By understanding how student activists varied from non-activists, while administering the factors that forested their need for participation, we will better understand how student participation in 1968 protests had an impact on these four realms: politics, religion, family and status quo. These four realms are discussed further below:


The 1960s movement is likely to have hired from students with a liberal political orientations. If students participating in the movement altered their schematic orientations as well as their resource interactions then they should vary considerably from non-activist over a number of issues related to politics. Also when talking about…. [read more]

Theology Missiology Term Paper

… Global Changes in the Missiology of the 20th Century


A Paradigm Shift

The Early Church

The Modern Church

Correcting Edinburgh Explored

Formation of International Missionary Council (IMC)

Confusion Abounds

Response of Fundamentalist & Evangelical Movements

Problems Between and Among Evangelicals & Ecumenists

The Present View


The aim of this study is to examine the influential ideas that shaped mission thinking over the last century. This work will seek to point out to some theological differences and emphases represented by the various confessional groups such as evangelicals, ecumenical and Eastern Orthodox Church. At the same time it will seek to identify points of convergence in missionary thinking developed in the course of 20th Century that go…. [read more]

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