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War of the Roses Essay

… d.). Of King Henry VII's and Elizabeth of York's children, Henry VIII, would succeed King Henry VII and be succeeded by Queen Elizabeth I (Wheeler, 2013).

Paradoxically, the conflict between the House of York and the House of Lancaster resulted in neither family staking a sole claim on the English throne and not only ended the Plantagenet dynasty, but also allowed the Tudors to establish themselves on the throne. Although the Tudor dynasty only lasted three generations -- King Henry VII, King Henry VIII, and Queen Mary I and Queen Elizabeth I -- the historical impact they had on England forever changed England in terms of politics, art, and culture. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the Plantagenet dynasty as King Richard III's remains…. [read more]


War and Drugs Research Paper

… War Drugs

Drug Use, Addiction and the Vietnam War

During the mid to late 1960s, the movement of radical activism would become the most apparent demonstration of crisis in the United States, filling America's streets increasingly throughout the 1960s with civil demonstrators desiring to enact revolutionary change in the domestic policies of racial inequality and political exclusivity as well as foreign policies pertaining to the Cold War, and especially to the war in Vietnam. Key examples in our memory illustrate that, indeed, the United States was all but engaged in a civil war, with its citizens producing a significant counter-culture movement which had set as the target of its frustration the government itself. That was the frustration that would gestate over the course of the…. [read more]


Great War the United States Essay

… By governmental action many millions of people became employed to support the war efforts and now people wondered what else the government could do to help the U.S. spur economic activity. This debate has not yet been settled and many of the same questions are currently being asked in today's weakened economy as well.

There were many other changes that occurred domestically after the war. One was that racism seemed to spike and tensions between white men and minorities grew rapidly. One incident that illustrates these tensions is the "Red Summer" of Chicago in which a young African-American in avertedly crossed over an invisible line that served as a racial barrier in a swimming area on a Chicago beach. The young man was killed by…. [read more]


War in Iraq the Conflict Term Paper

… War in Iraq

The conflict between Iraq and a coalition of thirty-four nations led by the United States of America is generally referred to as the 'Persian Gulf War', the 'Gulf War', the 'War in the Gulf', the 'Iraq Kuwaiti Conflict', the UN Iraq Conflict', the Desert Storm', the '1990 Gulf War', and so on. The war started when Iraq invaded Kuwait during the month of August 1990. When this happened, the immediate result was that of the passing of various economic sanctions on the part of the UN, or the United Nations, against Iraq. By the month of January 1991, hostilities had commenced in full swing, and what resulted was a complete victory for the coalition forces, which in turn forced Iraq out of…. [read more]


30 Years War Essay

… War

Years war

Thirty Years War

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) is described as a period of intense and extremely disruptive conflict in Germany and Europe. One historian states that it was "…an epoch of the most fanatical and savage conflict, a bloody time of religious war, whose flame was lit in Bohemia in 1618 to rage through Germany with devastation and fire for a quarter of a century."

Cramer ( 2007) also refers to this period as a time in which governments were "torn asunder" and that the era was a time of "shame and horror."

The intensity and the impact of this conflict can be derived from its aftermath.

The gruesome devastations of the 30 years war were followed by…. [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… World War II

When attempting to discern what the "real war" was in a world involving as many international powers such as those represented in World War II, it is easy to examine this issue in regards to the goals sought by those sides. For Hitler and the other Axis leaders, those goals were the implementation of fascist, totalitarian governments and the eventual conquest of the world itself. For Franklin Roosevelt and the other Allied leaders, the war was a means of preserving democracy and a free market. All of these ends become complicated by the economic value of this conflict for the participants involved, as well as by definite social concerns related to genocide and a host of other evils. Yet when one examines…. [read more]


Europe Faced After WWII Essay

… [3: Ibid.]

The transition of Eastern Europe from a command economy to a capitalist economy proved to be difficult for many states. "The fact that Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians and Slovenes have had for more than a thousand years permanent political, cultural and commercial interactions with German speaking neighbors certainly made the resumption of commercial ties with Germany and Austria after 1989 much easier.[footnoteRef:4]" These economies had a strong, thriving capitalist tradition before their incorporation into the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact. A far more rocky transition was experienced by poorer nations, such as Romania, and the former communist nation of Yugoslavia became completely fragmented into warring enclaves, cumulating most famously in the bloody Balkan wars. The dominance of the U.S.S.R., while oppressive, contained many age-old…. [read more]


Civil Wars it Is Estimated Term Paper

… During the late 1960's, rightist groups were using the same terrorist tactics as the communists to attack the government, which slowly began to implement programs to improve the lives of the Indian peasants (Guerrilla pp). In 1968, communist guerrillas killed two U.S. embassy military attaches and the U.S. ambassador (Guerrilla pp). By 1970, leftist dissidents, abetted by rightist dissidents, were creating widespread fear and turmoil though violence and murder (Guerrilla pp). In 1970, leftist terrorists kidnapped and killed the West German ambassador when the government rejected their demands of $700,000 ransom and the release of twenty-five political prisoners (Guerrilla pp).

In 1978, General Romeo Lucas Garcia became president and, according to reports, ordered the deaths of approximately 5,000 persons, including 76 political leaders of the…. [read more]


Food Wars Place of Publication Book Review

… " This agreement may have been drawn up and agreed to in 1948, but it would do us good to review it and to remind ourselves of its importance. This is what Susan Waltz, in her article "Reclaiming and Rebuilding the History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights," would have us do. Reviewing this document "indeed raises questions about great power support for efforts to craft international human rights standards," she writes (Waltz 437). Taken one step further, we can look to the work of Jack Donnelly. As he points out, in the UDHR "we can see a set of rights formulated to protect basic human -- not merely cultural -- values against the special threats posed by modern institutions" (Donnelly 415).

The urgency…. [read more]


Slavery in America Essay

… The sellers were required to disclose any known defects (as well as defects they were not aware of at the time of the sale), and they were bound "by explicit contractual language" (Wahl, 5).

This illustration from www.infographics.com

(Google images) shows a group of slaves being offered to buyers. The laws in two particular states regarding the sale of slaves stand out as unique in this milieu. In South Carolina the pro-buyer policy presumed that "any slave sold at full price was sound" (Wahl, 5). In Louisiana if a purchased slave turned out to be diseased or who committed a crime, the buyer could "generate a lawsuit" (Wahl, 5).

What was the southern argument for slavery?

Defenders of slavery argued that if slavery ended, it…. [read more]


South Korean Government Humanitarian Aid Policy Toward North Research Paper

… ¶ … Korean War is one of those rare events in human history: it had no official ending and had no official ending. Although there is a marked date for the beginning of War, June 25, 1950, when the 75,000 North Korean soldiers invaded South Korea across the 38th parallel, War was never officially declared and in July of 1953 an armistice was signed between North Korea and the United Nations forces but an official treaty ending the War was never signed and, although the Cold War has ended on the world stage it continues between the nations of North and South Korea (Stueck).

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the peninsula of Korea was part of the Japanese empire. When World War II…. [read more]


Why Was the Thirty Years War Fought? Term Paper

… ¶ … War was fought mainly over religion. Lutherans and Catholics already had tension between them as the 1600s approached. Additionally, Calvinism was on the rise in Europe. Since individual leaders were sanctioning religious activities, many groups were pressed to violence. Germany and the rest of the Holy Roman Empire was fragmented politically, adding to the overall tensions in European economies and politics in the 1600s. When Matthias the King of Bohemia died without descendents his cousin Ferdinand became King of Bohemia, as well as the leader of the Holy Roman Empire. In trying to force his Catholicism on the Bohemian Hussites, Ferdinand sparked anger and violence based on religious preference and availability of choice that escalated into the Thirty Years War.

Politics greatly affected…. [read more]


War on Drugs Moral and Economic Arguments Essay

… War on Drugs

Moral and Economic Arguments on Both Sides of the War on Drugs

Today's Americans are obsessed with war. War with Iraq, war in Afghanistan, and war among the nations of Asia and the Middle East are all common topics on the lips of Americans discussing politics. Still, many forget that one old war is still raging, a war that has been overshadowed by the Vietnam war, the Cold War, the Korean War, and three Wars in the Middle East. Although occasionally a conflict of arms, this war has primarily been fought with law enforcement and incarceration, with politics and civil rights law, in town halls and among the D.C. lobbyists. This war is the War on Drugs. Founded in 1971 by President…. [read more]


Northern and Southern Colonies Term Paper

… An ordinance of succession followed that saw the other states that were populated with slaves sign take the oath to the Confederate States of America. This oath was aimed at fostering the existence of the slave trade. The situation could not be negotiated, and the country had to divide into two. The Northern territory had a stable economy because of their industrialization, but the South had the economy founded on slavery. When potential exposed itself in the west, the South was for acquiring these territories for expansion use slavery. The North opposed this move; they even stopped the extension of the slave trade in new territories. The intention of the North was to constrain the number of slave countries in the Union. The perception of…. [read more]


Racial Profiling the War on Drugs and Urban Poverty Term Paper

… Racial Profiling, The War on Drugs and Urban Poverty

Law enforcement officers often claim that racial disparities in rates of arrest and conviction for drug crimes merely correspond to difference in rates of criminal behavior, yet critics argue that law enforcement simply believe that minorities are more likely than whites to transport drugs because African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately arrested and convicted for narcotics offenses (Banks pp).

Research demonstrates the overall negative impact of current drug enforcement policies upon minorities who live in poor inner city neighborhoods (Coker pp). Official incarceration data reveals that although African-Americans make up roughly twelve percent of the national population, they represent approximately half of those who are incarcerated for crimes (Coker pp). In the year 2002, some twelve percent…. [read more]


World War II Essay

… [footnoteRef:18] [17: Geoffrey Parker, The Cambridge History of Warfare (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 451.] [18: Overy, pp. 4, 31, 76; Weinberg, p. 1.]

Keegan and Ferguson do not specifically mention the importance of World War I developments of tanks; however, they discuss of the extensive use of tanks during World War II.[footnoteRef:19] For the airplane, in particular, this was revolutionary: during World War I, the airplane went from a flimsy machine that was not taken seriously by military commanders to a dangerous means of reconnaissance, pursuit and strategic bombing.[footnoteRef:20] Weinberg and Overy both mention World War 1 developments[footnoteRef:21], though Overy's assessment of World War I aircraft is less congratulatory, essentially stating that the beginning of World War II saw inadequate airpower…. [read more]


Government Changes Post-Revolution War Thesis

… Many changes in laws did occur within the federal government that had not been able to gain passage while the Southern States remained in Congress. However, but for the secession, slavery would have lasted longer and internal divisions within society would have increased. An interesting perspective is to imagine "what if?" And have the North perhaps expelling the South or arming slaves and sending advisors to instigate and guide revolts.

The bitterness that accompanied the end of the Civil War differs from the feelings of achievement following the Revolutionary War. While slavery was abolished and a stronger central government emerged, the Civil War can only be viewed as tragic in terms of death and destruction. One would be foolish to ignore the lessons, as Lincoln…. [read more]


Inadvertent War Essay

… Inadvertent War -- Historical Issues and Concerns

The modern history of human warfare illustrates that in addition to the general threat of deliberate warfare, the prospect of human error also adds the risks of war initiated by accident or as the result of unauthorized private action. There is also a risk of inadvertent escalation during wartime. Several times, events in the 20th century resulted prematurely in war that could possibly have been averted; in other instances, attacks during wartime were escalated in response to erroneous perception of enemy intentions. In the 1960s, outright warfare between two Cold War superpowers could have easily been precipitated by accident, unauthorized orders, or misunderstanding. Safeguards exist to mitigate such risks but may not necessarily be capable of eliminating the…. [read more]


Habeas Corpus and the War Research Paper

… Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror

The opinion expressed in this paper is that the George W. Bush Administration exceeded its authority by incarcerating "enemy combatants" at Guantanamo without offering them the right to be specifically charged with a crime. The idea that the Executive Branch can decide when habeas corpus applies and when it doesn't is an anathema to Constitutional guarantees.

History of the Habeas Corpus

University of Virginia history professor Paul Halliday writes that the writ of habeas corpus has served the Anglophone legal cultures for "…more than four centuries," and its purpose is basically to assure that a prisoner will be brought before a judge and not simply thrown into incarceration without specific charges against him (Halliday, 2010, p. 1).

Halliday…. [read more]


Resolving the American War Essay

… A review of the armed forces' current directive in Afghanistan shows that this strategy of insurrection via instruction, despite its utter and complete collapse in Vietnam, is still a fundamental tenet of American foreign policy. At this very moment, tens of thousands of American troops are charged with the unenviable, and some would say impossible, task of teaching the newly formed Afghan army how to properly function as a defensive entity. The recent rash of "friendly fire" incidents, in which Afghan soldiers under the tutelage of American officers have betrayed their instructors, injuring hundreds and killing dozens, echoes the frustration endured by American commanders in Vietnam who were never fully capable of discerning friend from foe.

In his stirring introduction to Halberstam's The Making of…. [read more]


Persian Wars and Peloponnesian Term Paper

… Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War:

Impact on the Greek World

Within seven centuries, [the ancient Greeks] invented for itself, epic, elegy, lyric, tragedy, novel, democratic government, political and economic science, history, geography, philosophy, physics and biology; and made revolutionary advances in architecture, sculpture, painting, music, oratory, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, anatomy, engineering, law and war... A stupendous feat for whose most brilliant state Attica was the size of Hertfordshire, with a free population (including children) of perhaps 160,000.

F.J. Lucas

There is little question that the ancient Greek civilization impacted the political, social, and plysophical landscape of the planet in a way that rivals any other in history. Indeed, the history, as well as the legacy of ancient Greek life and thinking, are perhaps some…. [read more]


Black Soldiers in WWII Term Paper

… None of this information was widely available to the public at the time. The service of black Americans was not considered newsworthy. Although there were prominent figures, notably Eleanor Roosevelt, who attempted to raise social consciousness, blacks were largely viewed as inferior. Their military service was not considered to be of consequence. There was still considerable prejudice in the U.S. Blacks were understandably angry and frustrated. In an interview after the war, Ray Elliott recalled, "We had to think of different ways so that we could keep from being full of rage because we knew that would be counterproductive."

Unlike the white press, the black press discussed racial inequality in the military and demanded that action be taken. Race relations in one city, Dallas, were…. [read more]


WWII World War II Bring Term Paper

… Adter the attack on Pearl Harbor, the idea was embraced by the military, and it was official by 1943. The women underwent very tough training and rough living conditions. It was not until many decades after the war's end that the incredible contributions of these pilots was recognized. Until 1977, the WASP fighers retained civilian status, but they were granted military status then. (Wolf 2005)

While all of the women during the war suffered from hardships, the role of many Asian women during the war must be acknowledged as perhaps bearing the most suffering. "Comfort Women" was the euphemism used for enslaved sex workers kept prisoner by soldiers in countries being occupied by Japan. "Most comfort women were from Korea, with a significant fraction from…. [read more]


Sudan and Its Civil War Term Paper

… Sudan and Its Civil War

Sudan is a country in northern Africa with a population of around 40,000,000 people (Sudan 2). Following its independence from United Kingdom-Egyptian control in 1956, Sudan has experienced the devastation caused by incessant civil war, a crumbling infrastructure and the vagaries of climate that have caused widespread famine and poverty. Indeed, even the discovery of oil in Sudan was turned against the best interests of the people of Sudan to the benefit of a few elite, and the country remains one of the poorest in the world today. Despite these constraints to development, though, there have been some positive signs in recent years that things may be changing for the better in substantive ways, but virtually all observers suggest that…. [read more]


Mississippi River Wars Term Paper

… ¶ … Mississippi River Wars

The South had to defend too large an area with too few men..." (Powles, 2005)

When the average person thinks of the Civil War, what probably comes to mind first is that it was a war over state's rights, and over the issue of slavery. Thinking a bit deeper, the person who hasn't read anything about the war in many years, may recall the bloody battle at Gettysburg and General Sherman's march to the sea - after burning down the city of Atlanta.

But there is so much more to learn about the Civil War, and the battles fought on the Mississippi River are both pertinent to the historical legacy of the war, and certainly very interesting from an historical…. [read more]


Persian Gulf War of 1991 Term Paper

… Powell's presentation was met with mixed reactions from the international community, but the U.S. And Britain soon began efforts to convince countries to support a resolution to give Iraq an ultimatum: disarm or face war. The security council continued to search for peaceful and diplomatic solutions to Iraqi compliance, but U.S. President George W. Bush issued his own ultimatum to Hussein on March 17, 2003: leave Iraq or face war. Hussein was given a forty-eight hour deadline, but before that deadline even passed, he flatly refused to leave, saying he was ready to meet the consequences. War was launched soon after, being called the "War for Iraqi Freedom."

While the Iraqi people do live under a dictatorship, the war is not a war to free…. [read more]


Charlie Wilson's War Term Paper

… Charlie Wilson's War

In the final days of 1979 the Soviet Union sent in the first of thousands of troops to support the newly established communist government of Afghanistan. Officially the mission of these troops was to provide "international aid to the friendly Afghan people and establishing advantageous conditions to prevent possible actions by the governments of neighboring countries against Afghanistan." (Grau 1) While President Jimmy Carter literally reacted with "open mouthed shock" to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Vice President Walter Mondale publicly stated "I cannot understand -- it just baffles me," there was at least one person in the American government who was able to react to this blatant expansionism by the Soviet Union: Congressman Charlie Wilson. (Sperling) Through his position on…. [read more]


War of 1812 a Mere Term Paper

… J. 2006). The incident continued to bubble and expand the fury of American citizens through the end of Jefferson's second term and into Madison's first.

For the new nation, trade had become a crucial aspect of economic growth and the development of an international name. In 1807, "imports, largely from Britain, had run to about 15 million while exports stood at a record 101 million" (Langguth, A.J. 2006). Great Britain though along with France had enacted embargoes which halted and stifled international trade. In addition, the British navy utilized blockades against foreign ships attempting to enter their ports, while simultaneously "violating the rights and peace of our coasts" (History.com. 2011), and the British blockade of American ports particularly in the Atlantic and New England states.…. [read more]


Anglo Chinese War the Historical Discussion Research Paper

… ¶ … Anglo Chinese War

The historical discussion of the First Anglo-Chinese War (frequently referred to as the First Opium War) included a variety of competing perspectives even as the war was still being fought, because either side viewed the war in entirely different contexts.

In largely the same fashion, for years the historiography of the first Anglo-Chinese war developed independently in the East and West, and it was not until relatively recently, when Mao Zedong relaxed restrictions on access to Chinese documents and collaboration between historians, that this historiography has begun to include these differing perspectives, thus allowing a more complete picture of the war, as well as its causes and effects, to emerge. Coinciding with this increased access to Chinese primary documents was…. [read more]


Barbary Wars Frank Lambert Book Review

… " (qtd. In Lambert 175) And because of the hostile actions of the British Navy, "…our trade in the Mediterranean has been swept away by seizures and condemnations…." (Ibid.)

It was not until the conclusion of the War of 1812 that America was able to turn it's attention toward dealing with the menace of the Mediterranean. Years of predations by the Barbary pirates finally came to a head in 1814 when the Dey of Algiers, Hadji Ali, refused to negotiated for the release of captured Americans stating "…my policy and views are to increase, not diminish the number of my American slaves, and not for a million dollars would I release them." (qtd. In Lambert 189) An infuriated American President James Madison was determined to…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.