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Thomas Kuhn -1996) Essay

… We can certainly liken this to bursts of creativity and knowledge that require a set of valleys in order to peak. If evolution, and thus scientific knowledge were to be gradual and continuous there would be no period of stability for species to adapt, or in the case of scientific knowledge, for the scientific community to have the time and opportunity to study current, replicate experimentation, or even glean the opportunity to read and discuss new advances through journals and conferences -- academic inquiry.

Further, Kuhn's theory both stands up and optimizes the idea of modernization theory, which is a historical and cultural hypothesis that tells us the modernization of human culture changes our way of life through knowledge and communication. In lesser developed countries…. [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Book the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Term Paper

… Thomas Kuhn's Philosophy Of Science

Before one can get into an evaluation of the merits of Kuhn's concept of scientific revolutions, one must first understand the basic assumptions underlying Kuhn's theories. According to Kuhn, there are certain assumptions that one must make about the scientific community and that the scientific community must make. First, the scientific community works with a set of accepted beliefs. Second, the idea of normal science depends upon the assumption that the scientific community understands the world. Therefore, science is aimed at proving this understanding of the world, which can result in the suppression of new ideas and a bias in research aimed at proving believed truths. However, when certain accepted beliefs are shown to be false, there is a shift…. [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Book the Structure of Scientific Revolutions 3rd Edition Term Paper

… Thomas Kuhn's book - the structure of scientific revolutions 3rd edition

Thomas Kuhn's very influential book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, proposes a model or a pattern for the evolution of science throughout the ages. Kuhn makes use of specific concepts and of a careful structuring of the book in thirteen chapters that treat, in turn, of the basic aspects of the progress of science in time.

First of all, Kuhn (1996) introduces the notion of "normal science," that is, according to him, the science that bases its research on previous research which is recognized as valid by a scientific community. (p.10) It is the structure of normal science is what the book proposes to investigate. Furthermore, Kuhn (1996) argues that the most salient aspect…. [read more]

Thomas Kuhn Term Paper

… Thomas Kuhn's The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions And Its Influence On Postmodern Art

The intention of this paper is not to present an in-depth discussion of the complex debate and intricate arguments, and dissent surrounding Thomas Kuhn's famous work the Structure of Scientific Revolutions, but rather to trace the connections between the theory of scientific paradigm creation and shift, and the development of modern and postmodern thinking in the arts. This particularly refers to Kuhn's influence on post-structural philosophy and language theory.

It should be stated at the outset that there can be no attempt to suggest that Kuhn intended his work to act as a conduit for post modern theory. In fact many theorists such as Bernstein and others clearly refute the idea that…. [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions Thesis

… ¶ … Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Comments from the Internet

Scientific development, and with it technological innovations, has been among one of the most powerful forces driving social and cultural progress since the beginning of recorded history, and indeed since prehistoric times. As the human understanding of the way in which the world works changes and progresses, it necessarily leads to new understandings to old problems, changes to perspectives brought to bear on a variety of issues, and -- perhaps most importantly -- new tools of observation that in turn create new understandings, pushing the cycle of scientific discovery ever (or at least usually) forward.

Science's role as described above has been basically understood for millennia, across many different and disparate cultures and…. [read more]

Education Reform a Paradigm Shift Research Paper

… Kozol (1991) quotes the former U.S. Commissioner of Education as saying;

"A caste society violates the style of American democracy…the nation in effect does not have a truly public school system in a large part of its communities: it has permitted what is in effect a private school system to develop under public auspices…Equality of educational opportunity throughout the nation continues today to be more a myth than a reality" (97/98).

This statement seems very harsh, and it was stated almost 50 years ago now. Kozol saw this as an indication that even people at the highest reaches did not believe in the reality of education reform, no matter what they wanted in reality.

People are well-meaning, for the most part, but they are also…. [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions Research Proposal

… Thomas Kuhn's Theory Of Scientific Revolutions

Thomas Kuhn's philosophy of scientific revolutions has become a natural part of today's scientific jargon. Although many are familiar with its basic tenets, many do not realize that they are part of the formal theory proposed by Thomas Kuhn. Unlike theorists before him, he did not believe that scientific progress occurred in a linear fashion, but that it undergoes period "revolutions" where changes in thought occur. This research will support the thesis that Kuhn's theory is valid and that it explains recent developments in the fields of genetics and bioengineering.

Basic Tenets of the Theory

The central focus of the field of science is on solving the problems that surround us. In some cases, it is to explain why…. [read more]

Kuhn's Concept of the Paradigm Term Paper

… Kuhn's Concept Of The Paradigm

Austin, Michael (2007). Analysis as Model: Thomas Kuhn's Paradigm Shift in the Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Austin takes a very interesting approach to Kuhn's writing, in that he offers the insight that Kuhn's philosophy is not only applicable to the sciences, but also to Kuhn and his theories themselves. Indeed, the simple brilliance of this insight is that, not only has Kuhn revolutionized the way in which various fields of scientific history is viewed, but has also himself proven the concept. The site does not contain links to the original page, but this can be found by removing the extensions of the URL. Indeed, the site itself appears to indicate that it will be dedicated entirely to Kuhn, his…. [read more]

Copernican Revolution Has a Pivotal Term Paper

… These two fields have never found going in harmony (Brooke ppn 8-12).

Thomas Kuhn

In 1962 Thomas Kuhn, in his book, the structure of scientific revolutions, projected a radical model of scientific progress throughout ages. He mainly addressed the question of presence of science as a source of finding the truth about nature. He tried to explain that there is also another possibility of scientific development, which can be the drive to solve the puzzles put forward by nature when every time one untangled piece leads to more bewildered labyrinth. Progress of science takes place after refuting once convincingly held proposition and replacing it another brand new idea which is open to be challenged anytime in future. According to Kuhn's model new knowledge swap places…. [read more]

Kuhn's Paradigm Shift Term Paper

… Kuhn's Paradigm Shift - an Annotated Bibliography

Analysis as Model: Thomas Kuhn's Paradigm Shift in the Structure of Scientific

Retrieved Sept. 22, 2007 at

While the author of this paper is not mentioned, the site is succinct and well structured and provides an intelligent summary of Kuhn's theories and the issue of paradigm shift. The site not only provides a carefully thought out analysis of the reasons for the radical change in scientific theory that Kuhn's paradigm represents, but also enters into a fairly comprehensive overview of the theory and its relationship to the development of the philosophy and evolution of scientific thought.

The Webpage is not verified by date or author but only by association with the institution. However the article is comparable…. [read more]

Kuhn's Concept of the Paradigm Must Be Critical Research Proposal

… Kuhn's Concept Of The Paradigm, Must Be Critical

Annotated Bibliography

Axelrod, R.H., October 2001, a New Paradigm for Change, Innovative Leader, Vol. 10, No. 10, last accessed on September 15, 2009 -- Richard Axelrod is the president of the Axelrod Group, an organization specialized in offering change consultancy to companies in transition or in need for any other change management assistance. His expertise in the field has materialized in an ability to write a highly noteworthy book entitled Terms of Engagement: Changing the Way We Change Organizations (Berrett-Koehler, 2000). The article cited in this report is a reproduction of several excerpts from the book. The main limitation is that it does not detail on the actual paradigm shift as forwarded and applicable according to…. [read more]

According to Thomas Kuhn How Does Science Normally Progress Essay

… ¶ … Thomas Kuhn, how does science normally progress?

Thomas Kuhn was one of the most notable scientists of the 20th century. The most famous scientific piece of literature he produced is entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This work provides Kuhn's seminal viewpoint on the way that science progresses. It is not limited to one particular science, but rather attempts to produce a methodology for how the scientific field as a whole -- and all of its various components -- evolve. In this work and others Kuhn advanced the notion that science progresses in a series of shifts, which are inherently dependent on a consensus of opinions and the input of a larger community.

Kuhn believed that scientific knowledge was not confined to progression…. [read more]

Kuhn Describe What Kuhn Really Meant A-Level Outline Answer

… Kuhn

Describe what Kuhn really meant by the following:

Paradigm- Instead of solely proceeding in a linearly and continuously, they result in a change of the perception of scientific reality (Kuhn, 13-15).

Normal science-Scientists attempt to enlarge the central paradigm by "puzzle-solving" and thought experiments guided by a paradigm. During a period of normal science, lack of paradigmatic conformity to is seen not as refuting a paradigm. Rather, due to the mistake of the researcher, Popper's falsifiability criterion (ibid, 52-53).

C Anomaly-Criteria that do not fit into the accepted paradigms. As anomalous results pile up, a science reaches a crisis. At this point, a new paradigm takes the old results and synthesizes them along with the anomalous results into one accepted framework known as revolutionary…. [read more]

Philosophy Kuhn's Rationale Essay

… The more troubling comparison, however, is to coercion.[footnoteRef:5] [5: J. Rouse. 'Kuhn's Philosophy of Science Practice.' Division I Faculty Publications. Paper 18, , 2002 . ]

Other authors agree with Kuhn and can see the rationale of his argument for the irrational nature of science and the irrationality part of the nature of scientific revolutions. Rouse recognizes as Kuhn did that shifts in paradigms can be spontaneous and immediate, like an epiphany or clear and complete recollection of a recent dream. What Kuhn and other authors understand when they recognize the irrationality of science is the nature of group dynamics, group behaviors, and group perceptions. Kuhn's final section in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is the Post Script, where in he spends considerable time discussing…. [read more]

Enlightenment and Scientific Method Robert Essay

… Gutenberg's invention is widely credited with permitting the split within Christian churches in Europe that would occur a half century later with Martin Luther's complaints against the Roman Catholic church. By the onset of the Reformation, though, science was hardly an integrated force, and in the case of the Copernican world system, it was condemned by Catholics for contradicting Aristotle (and thus St. Thomas Aquinas) and by Lutherans for denying the literal Biblical account of Joshua stopping the sun in its diurnal course. Moreover, the Copernican and Keplerian reform still existed in a context when chemistry was still indistinguishable from medieval alchemy, and in which witchcraft was regularly practiced: Kepler's own mother was a professional witch, and was arrested for it, while Kepler himself drew…. [read more]

Philosophy of Science Scientific Theories Term Paper

… Science also challenges these convictions.

Some might also argue that scientific perspectives govern how we experience reality and thus make science without social acceptance impossible to be realistic. Science could not develop if new paradigms of the world that challenge existing social beliefs and acceptance were not proposed (Strauss, 2003). If paradigms did not question the realities as defined by society, "science would stagnate" (Strauss, 2003). Each member of the community is informed by tradition, and standards of ideas are typically handed down from generation to generation (Polyani, 1964, 52). Yet these very traditions need be challenged.


The Philosophy of Science according to Curd traditionally seeks to find rational conclusion and justification for activity, and allow for reconstruction of scientific theory logically (Curd, 1998).…. [read more]

Philosophy of Science Kuhn Essay

… Philosophy of Science

Kuhn does not consider himself to be a relativist. Relativism has to do with our beliefs as individuals and the value and importance we place on those beliefs. Kuhn has many different beliefs regarding science. He did not believe that scientist should abandon one method of research for another. Kuhn believed that once a scientific paradigm was established, it should not be challenged or tested. His reply to the charge that he is not a relativist is clearly inadequate. He argues that the truth of a paradigm is impossible to find. He acknowledges that some scientist have been able to improve upon a particular paradigm, but that these improvements do nothing to bring us closer to the truth of the original paradigm.…. [read more]

Scientific Explanation Essay

… Once philosophers started to see scientific knowledge as the only real knowledge, and Frege's new logic - which promised to become the new scientific language - became more widely known, there were few remaining philosophical tasks; foremost was to describe precisely what science is, what scientists do, and what the underlying logic of science is. The project went as follows: enumerate the various scientific tasks, and then ascertain that there is a clear "conceptual analysis" of each one. What are the tasks of science? Among the things that scientists, qua scientists, do are make predictions, discover laws of nature, formulate theories, assert probabilities, propose hypotheses, set taxonomies, and offer explanations.

Similar questions can be asked of the term "explanation." Offering a scientific explanation of a…. [read more]

Kuhn James Pierce Popper Descartes Al-Ghazali Essay

… Philosophy of Truth

One of the most intriguing and long-standing debates in philosophy is exactly what is worthy of philosophical consideration and debate, and what should be dismissed as futile and meaningless sophistry. For skeptics of both the rational and empirical schools, true and certain knowledge (in the traditional senses of these words) can never really be attained, and metaphysical pursuits that attempt to determine the amount and/or level of certainty available through human thought are largely pointless. Positivists lie at the other extreme, believing that certain truths can be considered absolute and that other conjectures built from these truths can also be established with certainty. There are many philosophers and a wide panoply of philosophical views on the nature and achievability of truth that…. [read more]

Annotated Bibliography for Thomas Pynchon Annotated Bibliography

… He notes that the way the heroine examines a painting and attempts to come up with its meaning ("shall I project a world?") is the way in which the novel itself asks to be read.

Palmeri, Frank. "Neither Literally nor as a Metaphor: Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 and the Structure of Scientific Revolution." English Literary History 54.4 (Winter 1987): 979-99. Web.

Palmeri's essay discusses the scientific material and ideas that Pynchon uses within his novel. He starts with a discussion of Thomas Kuhn's important book about the history of science, entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn describes scientific knowledge as causing a "paradigm shift" in which an old way of viewing things becomes invalid, but a new way of viewing them has…. [read more]

Sociology History of Business Science Research Proposal

… Delimitations

Today, modern business systems help an increasingly globalized world function in seamless ways. In fact, English is rapidly becoming the lingua franca of the business world and transnational borders and cross-cultural factors no longer operate as major barriers to commerce. Further, a wide range of financial instruments exist such as letters of credit and bills of lading whose purpose and operation are readily understood by businesspeople from New York to New Delhi. Business correspondence too has a fairly standardized format that businesspeople all over the world both use and understand and all of these features have helped create a modern business system that is both efficient and effective in achieving the movement of goods and services around the world. All of these business systems,…. [read more]

HIV and AIDS Term Paper


What PURPOSE does CONTINUED theorizing and research about HIV and AIDS serve according to Robert Root Bernstein?

When Robert Root Bernstein first wrote his book Rethinking AIDS in 1993, long before the existence of the life-prolonging current 'cocktail' of retroviral drugs, a diagnosis of AIDS or HIV-positive status was widely considered a death sentence in the scientific and medical community. Despite this common cultural perception, however, Bernstein noted that many HIV positive persons continued to remain healthy, despite their infected status. They were regarded as medical curiosities more than representative case studies. Bernstein thinks that such an attitude demonstrates the narrow-minded attitude about AIDS and the HIV virus within the medical community. The early assumption that AIDS and HIV were inexorably intertwined lead to…. [read more]

Empiricism According to Some Social Scientists Term Paper

… Empiricism

According to some social scientists, empiricism is the only truly scientific basis for social science research. This assertion is made with the purpose of understanding that empiricism does not rely on reason as its guiding principle but instead relies upon direct observation of phenomena as it occurs in nature. Some argue that the natural sciences and the social sciences are distinctly different, in content and therefore require differing scientific theories to develop realistic concepts to explain phenomena, while others argue that the natural laws, can be applied to both the social and natural worlds, and therefore such discovery cannot be eliminated as "unscientific."

One of the foundational members of the empiricist school of though was Hume, who argued that one cannot derive cause and…. [read more]

Karl Popper's Proposed Solution Admission Essay

… The theory must also be an advance upon current theories. Then, the theory is corroborated with evidence. But all theories are ultimately not 'proven' to be true, rather they are only 'proven' to be false. "If the new predictions are borne out, then the new theory is corroborated (and the old one falsified), and is adopted as a working hypothesis" (Thornton 2009).

Popper's definition of science continues to be controversial, particularly amongst experts in areas considered by Popper to be 'non-science.' As far as Popper was concerned, only disciplines such as the natural sciences of physics and chemistry are true sciences, given that their propositions are falsifiable. In contrast, the propositions of much of psychology, including Freudian psychoanalysis are not science but at best "a…. [read more]

Ontology, 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology Definition Assessment

… ¶ … Ontology, 1-3

Epistemology and Methodology

Definition of Positivist Paradigm, 4-6

Interpretive Paradigm and Feminist Paradigm

For the study of tourism to work best and to succeed, it proceeds as all other fields must, namely by research. Research, however, is never homogeneous. It is comprised of various methodologies, ranging from the hard, empirical quantitative type of study, t o the soft, more subjective, qualitative interpretations.

Not only are there different methodologies, but research often, or, rather, invariably, operates against a specific theory and this theory depends on the author's inclinations. Some for instance may be inclined to use a positive theory, whilst other a feminist or grounded theory, or phenomenological approach amongst many others. These are all different perspective -- or ways of looking…. [read more]

American Culture Essay

… The word 'ritual' usually refers to an act, versus an intellectual and internal-driven belief system. The word ritual reflects "the communal celebration of social solidarity" and the "creation and enhancement of such solidarity as ritual's main purpose" (The definition of ritual, n.d, Anth 311). Rituals are often involved the communal worship of the sacred but there can be secular rituals as well. A good example of this is constituted in the taking of a communal meal. On one hand, the most obvious example of such a meal might be defined as that of the Catholic Mass, in which the actions are infused with a transcendent significance beyond that of the actions' material purpose.

The Catholic Mass is a symbolic meal, not a real meal, but…. [read more]

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning) Assessment

… ¶ … Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning)

How does a paradigm differ from a theory? Include information from Kuhn regarding a paradigm so that you demonstrate your understanding of Kuhn regarding a paradigm.

In his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970), Thomas Kuhn first used the term "paradigm" to describe the process that takes place on science when one major research paradigm is replaced by a newer one. According to Dobel, "For Kuhn, a paradigm is both an intellectual and a sociological construct. It provides a framework of basic assumptions about the nature of knowledge, rules of evidence and inference, and maps and directions for what constitutes important and vital problems" (2001, p. 166). While theories remain unconfirmed, it was Kuhn's perspective that paradigms provide…. [read more]

Technology, Society and Politics Term Paper

… Through Sziland's character, Rhodes was also able to point out how proponents of science and technology can make a conscious choice to use technology to improve human life, and not to destroy it. Evidently, Rhodes made a stand against self-interest use of technology, as opposed to Khun, who had generally categorized scientific revolution as an event beneficial to humankind, because it brings us closer to the "truth" about human life, existence, and even purpose on earth.

Christensen's "The Innovator's Dilemma" centered on discussing the effect that technology has over a society's economy. Focusing on the economic performance and movement in the computer business industry -- a sector dominated by established and entrant computer firms -- Christensen found out that technological innovation depended on existing applications…. [read more]

Values and Practices Term Paper

… ¶ … values and practices that comprises of the mode of perceiving the reality for the group that is involved with them more particularly in an intellectual study. Etymologically, the concept of paradigm originated first in English literature during the 15th Century to mean an illustration or pattern and it still have such meaning presently. During all these 400 years paradigm has seen its application to the patterns of modulations those are applied to arrange the verbs, nouns and other parts of speech of a language into categories that are more easily comprehended. Ever since 1960s, paradigm is applied in the sphere of science when Nobel Laureate David Baltimore used the concept to indicate a theoretical framework while emphasizing the works of his two colleagues…. [read more]

Functionalism in Sociology the History Term Paper

… In terms of the need for stability the analogy between society and an organism therefore aimed at a situation of homeostasis where " ... social systems work to maintain equilibrium and to return to it after external shocks disturb the balance among social institutions. "(FUNCTIONALISM)

This state of order and social equilibrium is achieved through the socialization process. This means that in order for an institution to function correctly the members of the society must be socialized into or internalize the various norms and values of the institution. This also leads to another significant functionalist concept which is the consensus value that socialization creates. Consensus value is the agreement of the individuals as to the values of the society. "Functionalist analyses often focus on the…. [read more]

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