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Thomas Aquinas and God Essay

… For example, it takes some faith to grope around a room in the dark. The person trusts that the furniture has not moved and that there are no hidden disasters. Yet ultimately, it is reason that informs most thought in the tangible, transient universe. Likewise, the realm of God is best understood with faith but there are times reason can be used to grope around the spiritual darkness that is doubt and uncertainty. Aquinas's logic is remarkably solid, even though there are core assumptions about the universe that are not fully reconcilable with reason in an absolute way. The ways of knowing God are internally valid, even if they are not infallible arguments. God is not, for example, a necessary prime mover. The universe could…. [read more]


Aquinas' View of the Body and Senses Term Paper

… Aquinas' View of the Body and the Information Derived Through the Senses

Thomas Aquinas believed that everything that was truthful came from God. Divine help was required for true knowledge, but that humans are capable of knowing many things that do not require God's help. This was due to the fact that "truth" as defined by Aquinas related to the universal and mystical truths of the supernatural (Copleston, 1991). This was not the same thing as "knowledge," which could involve those kinds of truths or could involve other types of intellectual information. Because the body was fallible and not of God, information derived through the senses could not always be trusted. This information did not come from God, but from the body of man, and…. [read more]


St. Thomas Aquinas and Four Marks of the Church Term Paper

… Thomas Aquinas

Within the writings and the thinking of Thomas Aquinas - with reference to the four Medieval senses of Scripture (moral, literal, allegorical and anagogical or mystical interpretation) - there is an abundance of original and worthy ideas that have more than stood the test of time. This paper explores and reviews Aquinas' theories and philosophies and presents relationships between the four senses. The papers attempts to answer the question, do the four senses prepare the way for the Reformation?

Ernest Rhys edited the book Everyman's Library, circa 1939, which contains selected writings from Aquinas. Rhys suggests in his Preface that while other philosophers have made "great contributions" to the "stock of human wisdom," Aquinas - "with a quiet originality" - gathered up...the wisdom…. [read more]


Free Will: Comparing Aquinas Term Paper

… (ST: II: 6:3) This of course fairly explains how, for example, rape is different than consensual sex because in a rape the woman is physically incapable of preventing the actions her body is forced to make.

In fact, the Bible recognizes this. In Deuteronomy 22:26-27, the text speaks of rape outside the city walls thus: "unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death: for as when a man riseth against his neighbor, and slayeth him, even so is this matter: For he found her in the field, and the betrothed damsel cried, and there was none to save her." So Aquinas explains that even if the physical body is forced to do something or physically prevented…. [read more]


Aquinas and His Five Ways Term Paper

… Would it not also be fair to say that by this proof because there is evil in this world and God created all things and all virtues that God is the most perfect example of evil.

That which is said to be greatest in any kind causes everything of that kind,/as for example fire, which is the hottest thing, is the cause of all hot things, as it says in the same book./Therefore there is something that is the cause of the existence and the goodness and of all perfections in everything: and this, we say, is God. (Martin 171-172)

Lastly, and somewhat simplistically I must add the example of fire within the text as the source of all that is hot has clearly been…. [read more]


Aquinas' 4th Proof Essay

… Thomas Aquinas and the Gradation of Things

Thomas Aquinas and the Gradation to be Found in Things

This paper addresses the fourth proof of the existence of God given by Thomas Aquinas and discuss the efficiency of Aquinas' style. It will answer the question of criticism of Aquinas' proof and will also give a modern-day situation, to which the fourth proof may be applied, while surveying the larger theme of faith in relation to reason.

Thomas Aquinas set out five proofs for the existence of God, called the quinque viae -- or five ways, in the Summa Theologica. The fourth way in which the existence of God is proven employs the use of gradations found in nature. Aquinas' style and technique is very effective --…. [read more]


Aquinas Augustine Aquinas vs Term Paper

… Aquinas Augustine

Aquinas vs. Augustine on the Responsibilities of the State and the Responsibilities of the Ruler

The Hebrew Scriptures were produced from the traditions of the ancient Israeli people. These scriptures fused moral, along with political injunctions as to how the state should create a just as well as a holy society, and defined the responsibilities of the leaders in relation to the people, as well as defined the citizen's relationship to the state. Christianity, which derived from Judaism, was spawned during a different political and historical point in Israeli history. The relationship of the state to the citizens proved more evasive to the authors of these scriptures. The Christian scriptures focus on the duties of the individual, and less upon the relationship of…. [read more]


Aquinas and the Jews Term Paper

… AQUINAS

THOMAS AQUINAS and the JEWS

Thomas Aquinas was now an established theologian but this conclusion has been the result of extensive work in which he was sometimes categorized as a philosopher and at others as specially a Christian philosopher. But close study of scholarly works on Thomas Aquinas including those produced by Gilson, Chenu, Weisheipl, Pesch, Torrell, and others reveal that Aquinas has never been anything other than a philosopher. As Ulrich Kuhn explains, "One misunderstands Thomas from the ground up if one tries to describe him as a philosopher who, in an ancillary way, also tried his hand at revealed theology."(1) Aquinas thus has a lasting influence on theology and no one appears to have had a more profound impact of Christian theology…. [read more]


Aquinas, Averroes, Al-Kirmani on God Term Paper

… Aquinas and Islam

Thomas Aquinas offered the classic medieval Christian summation of belief in God, and more particularly offered the "five ways" to prove the existence of God. There are, of course, substantial overlaps between Aquinas and classical Islamic philosophy and theology: Aquinas was compelled to read and take seriously Averroes, for a start. But there is also the common inheritance of classical Greece -- Aquinas has in common with the classical Islamic philosophers a reliance on Aristotle's writings as a basic rational and scientific view of the world. Indeed the purpose of Aquinas' Summa Theologica was to reach a harmonious synthesis between Aristotle's scientific worldview and the Christian theology that had been expounded by the early Church fathers. I propose to examine two of…. [read more]


Philosophy and the Existence of God Does Term Paper

… Aquinas and Kant

Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant were born nearly half a millennium apart and, on the surface, both their styles of argumentation and their general approaches to philosophy appear equally distanced from each other. However, both doubtlessly aimed their reasoning at establishing some level of fundamental truth. Kant's metaphysics was a legitimate attempt at developing a kind of ultimate science that would guarantee the truth of our knowledge. "Kant put forward what he called 'critical philosophy.' This undertook a profound analysis of epistemology -- a study of the very basis on which our knowledge rests. According to Kant, we make certain judgments that are indispensable to all knowledge." Similarly, Aquinas attempted to assert that some of mankind's most centrally held beliefs can be…. [read more]


Existence of God and Religion Term Paper

… Religion

Anselm, Aquinas, and Hume (Word Count: 1185)

The central argument made by Anselm in his Proslogion is that the ability to conceptualize the existence of God is sufficient to prove God's existence. In his Summa Theologica (written in response to Anselm), Thomas Aquinas also endeavors to prove God's existence. This paper compares the two canonical religious authors, placing them in dialogue with each other (addressing whether they are mutually compatible) and with David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.

Although Anselm's theory is considered to be less scientifically grounded than that of Thomas Aquinas, it is important to acknowledge that Anselm's beliefs were still borne out of an early skepticism toward whether God existed, as well as a need to attempt to prove his existence.…. [read more]


Saint Thomas Aquinas Essay

… But a glance at the actual text of Aquinas' Summa Theologica shows the way his philosophical argumentation and system-building proceed: Aquinas asks a question, then introduces philosophical objections, then resolves the dispute with reference to scripture but also to syllogistic logic, empirical evidence, and common sense. Aquinas proves both by Aristotelian logic but also by scriptural reference that "the fool has said in his heart that there is no God" that it cannot be asserted that God's existence is self-evident ("Summa" Question 2 Article 1). This willingness to combine dogma with clear and obvious logic seems to derive from Aquinas' dual focus as a Dominican on learning and preaching to ordinary persons: the system of Christian doctrine should therefore be justifiable both in terms of…. [read more]


Plato, Thomas Aquinas and Jeremy Term Paper

… My own personal philosophy incorporates much of Thomas Aquinas's concept of a virtuous life. Whether or not one is Catholic like Thomas, I believe that in order for society to run as a smooth organism, individuals must choose to lead virtuous lives.

Though moral choices will always be in gray areas, I believe that people should be able to codify standards of moral behavior, as reflected in our laws. Many of our current laws reflect such moral dilemmas and compromises. For example, laws against murder reflect our society's belief in what Thomas Aquinas would call a "divine" law and are therefore considered just.

However, a person may kill in certain circumstances - during war, to execute a criminal or in self-defense. This reflects a recognition…. [read more]


Existence of God for Years Essay

… Existence of God for years has been the most debated topic. Many philosophers, scientists and theologians have presented their views about the existence of God and provided proofs to validate their theories and beliefs in this regard (Existence of God, 2004). Without the evidences all arguments and theories shall be rendered useless due to lack of generalization. It would be more of a subjective argument, pertaining to one's own concepts and beliefs, rather than an objective one. Knowledge about the God's existence according to epistemology differs from a mere belief about it, by justifications and verifiable evidences that help in the identification of truth and reality. However, if no conclusions can be derived from scientific or non-scientific approaches and no proofs or evidences are found…. [read more]


Sacraments a Dialogue With God Essay

… 3) And God's grace is necessary for the erasure of sin and the acceptance of redemption.

Man is a flawed creature, not only is man infected by original sin, but is tempted and succumbs to sin in his daily life. Mankind is continually sinning against God, and thus is in need of a way to re-establish their relationship with God, therefore, God has given humans a way to gain his grace and receive redemption. God sent his only son to earth to suffer and die for the sins of humanity, and by accepting Christ, a person comes into God's grace. But simply believing that Christ is the messiah and the redeemer of mankind is not enough for man. Humans are corporeal creatures, people live in…. [read more]


Aquinas People Had Always Been Fascinated Thesis

… Aquinas

People had always been fascinated and intrigued by philosophy, as it referred to practically all human values and it had been based only on rationality. The world has given birth to several notable philosophers and Saint Thomas Aquinas has been one of them. His theories are unique in their character for the fact that they discuss the connection between religion and philosophy.

Most classical philosophers had been pagan, and they did not accept the existence of God for the fact that such a divine character could not exist from a philosophical point-of-view. Aquinas, on the other hand, had been a committed Christian, and, unlike the majority of religious people from the time, he did not reject Greek philosophy.

Aquinas is recognized today as being…. [read more]


Thomas Aquinas and Martin Luther King Essay

… Thomas Aquinas & Martin Luther King

Natural law and human laws are instruments that provide order and justice. Implemented by government and formulated by authorities based on the common good of the community and guided by the will of God. A law may be just or unjust. This paper explores the notions of St. Thomas Aquinas and Luther King on the perspective that links natural law and human law with what is considered as just.

Aquinas contends that natural law prescribes good to be done, evil to be avoided, man to be sociable, covenants to be honored, the truth of God be known and offense not committed. Natural law is wisdom of God and divine reason directing the universe to its end. Natural law is…. [read more]


Is There a God? Thesis

… ¶ … God Exist?

The question of whether or not God (or gods) exist is probably as old as the concept of divinity itself. The different ways of answering this question, however, developed over different periods of time. The three main ways of looking at this question are through revealed theology, natural theology, and the philosophy of religion. The first of these theories is the simplest to explain and understand, and possibly the oldest, making it a good place to start.

Of the three theories mentioned above, revealed theology is the most closely aligned with pure faith.

The basic tenet of revealed theology is that the existence of God can be proven only through special revelations such as the Bible and the Koran. Faith in…. [read more]


Aquinas' Ethics Essay

… Aquinas's Ethics

Aquinas' Ethics

There is much information to be gleaned regarding Thomas Aquinas' conception of ethics in the reading of Rebecca Konyndyk De Young's book entitled Aquinas's Ethics, which is a collage of his ethical observations and philosophy from several of his writings. One of the main ideas for regarding ethics that the reader learn about Aquinas is that he actually advocates a practical purpose for his ethics, which is more than just mere hypothetical thought. Instead, Aquinas believed that the true point of ethics was to directly influence human behavior and present a course of action that, to a certain degree, mandates just what sort of behavior is acceptable and what sort of behavior is not.

Additionally, it was interesting to see the…. [read more]


God's Existence Arguments for God's Sake Term Paper

… God's Existence

Arguments for God's Sake

Traditionally there have been four main arguments for the existence of God, the ontological argument, the teleological argument, the cosmological argument, and, of course, the moral argument. Each has certain unique properties, but all tend to bow to the principle that God exists because there is a need for Him to. Each argument, whether suppositional or deductive, posits God as the only logical foundation of what would otherwise be a void in the order of the universe.

The Ontological Argument: This argument is solely based on pure reason and logical argument. One of the firsts to ponder this was St. Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury during the eleventh century CE (McIntyre) as well as many other theologians and philosophers…. [read more]


Aquinas and Descartes the Discourse Term Paper

… The classical argument for dualism is made by Rene Descartes ... In his Meditations (first published in 1641). Descartes was writing during the very first stirrings of what was later to become the Enlightenment. Natural (experimental) science was beginning to emerge and was differentiating itself from magical and religious ideas. Descartes (though a religious man) wanted to contribute to this. He was aware that his thought, and that of his contemporaries, was hindered by prejudice. He wanted to eliminate this prejudice and establish certain foundations for knowledge. (The Argument for Mind/Body Dualism)

He embarked on his method of radical doubt and denied everything that was not without absolute certainty. This also included perceptions about the world and body. The method of doubt also extended to…. [read more]


Existence of God the Philosophical Essay

… It may be argued that if an all-good God designed the world, he surely would not have allowed evil. The problem of evil is generally regarded as the most important argument against theism. (Mavrodes, 1995)

The argument from morality, like the cosmological argument, is really a family of arguments (Hick, 26-27). First, there is the argument from the existence of objective moral laws to a divine lawgiver. Second, there is the argument from the existence of objective moral laws to a transcendental Ground of Values. Third, there is the argument from the fact of human conscience to a divine "voice of conscience." Finally, there is the argument from the acceptance of moral obligation to the postulation of a transcendental Ground of Values. Religion and morality…. [read more]


Plotinus, Augustine, Aquinas the School Essay

… In Augustine's writings, he bounded the idea of wisdom and provided the link between God's inner essence and the essence of human life.

St. Thomas Aquinas takes to the Neoplatonist ideas as well, further expanding and clarifying the works provided by both Plotinus and St. Augustine. Aquinas believed in the "Divina Potentia," the "power of God" (Schall, 1997). He believed that God's existence was "neither obvious nor unprovable," though he gave five reasons for his existence: God is simple, God is perfect, God is infinite, God is immutable, and God is one. "God has an internal life that seems itself social or containing within it an otherness" (Schall, 1997). As far as the creation of nature and humankind went, Aquinas believed -- just like Augustine…. [read more]


Omnipotence and the Existence of God Essay

… Aquinas on Omnipotence

One of the most common objections which arises in regards to the question of the omnipotence of God is why God does not manifest his power to prevent evil from occurring. The Medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas redefines the concept of omnipotence in more precise terms: omnipotence is not a synonym for goodness, merely for the power to do all things. In short, God has the power to do all things, including to create the world and to create humanity. The fact that God does not prevent human beings from doing evil and allows them to exercise free will may lie in the fact that there is no power to prevent all evil. The fact that an omnipotent God allows certain things…. [read more]


Journey into Buddhism - Thomas Merton Research Paper



Aldous Huxley's Ends and Means, Merton showed an interest in Asian religions. When he was a student at Columbia University, Merton sought out a Hindu monk named Brahmachari for some counsel. The monk advised Merton to follow his Christian tradition to find what he was most deeply looking for.

Thomas Merton liked Mahatma Gandhi. He wrote how Gandhi, despite being a Hindu, found refuge in the Biblical Sermon on the Mount. Merton began seriously exploring Buddhism as a religion in the early 1950s. He had a specific interest in Zen Buddhism. He believed there were several similarities between the Desert Fathers and Zen. For instance, he noted that the Desert Fathers, like Zen Roshis, desired followers to lose themselves to transcend their…. [read more]


Machiavelli John Calvin and Thomas Term Paper

… John Calvin, Thomas More & Niccolo Machiavelli

The Degree of Separation and Limits to Power of the Church and the State: Insights from John Calvin, Thomas More, and Niccolo Machiavelli

Religion has served an important function to human society for many civilizations and generations: it acts as a "social glue" that binds people together and unites them under one belief and set of values. While Marx also claimed that religion is a dysfunction in the society, in that it creates the illusion of the maintenance of the status quo, it cannot be denied that religion is an imperative feature of every society or culture because of its ability to create communities among people of diversity.

Moreover, people see their respective religions as "arbiters" wherein it…. [read more]


God's Existence and the Existence of Evil Essay

… This respective force apparently uses morality as a tool to differentiate between individuals and as a means to determine who should be provided with privileges and who should not (Herman 1993, p. 237). Taking this into account, it would be safe to say that the idea of karma is a better alternative to Christian arguments for the existence of God because it does not actually attempt to provide a definite explanation of a divine power. Even with this, the fact that it categorizes particular things as good and others as evil contributes to making it less general. This makes it seem that it is a concept characteristic to humans rather than an objective concept.

Although it is set in a Christian context, "The Book of…. [read more]


Existence of God the Debate Essay

… Existence of God

The debate regarding the existence of God has been around for many years. Over time, scientists, theologians as well as philosophers have all fronted arguments either in support or disregard of the existence of God. In this text, I form a position on God's existence based on the arguments fronted in the suggested readings. Later on in the text, I will examine the problem of evil.

Does God Exist?

The number of arguments advanced in an attempt to prove that God does exist are as many as those disputing the existence of a Supreme Being. Mostly, arguments against the existence of God point out at alleged contradictions when it comes to the belief in God. Some arguments in this category also point…. [read more]


Bible: Nature vs. God Term Paper

… Bible: Nature vs. God

There has always been much controversy regarding the concept of God and His relationship with science. Theology has practically been created as a means to have the world gain a better understanding of God without having to focus on absurd theories that can even be refuted by a child. The masses are inclined to believe that religion and science are opposite to each-other as while one puts across unconfirmed theories, the other's main goal is to only take established theories for granted. Theologians have the task of forming a bridge between religion and science, one of their main points of interest being to explain nature through God, as they claim that God cannot be explained through nature.

The world of science…. [read more]


Warren Buffet, Reason and God Essay

… Warren Buffet, Reason and God

Certainly, Warren Buffet is an atheist. One can see this from a fellow atheist, Austin Cline who is proud of Buffet's type of charity. He brings down a quote from Roger Lowenstein's biography of Buffet when he quotes '" He did not subscribe to his family's religion. Even at a young age he was too mathematical, too logical, to make the leap of faith. He adopted his father's ethical underpinnings, but not his belief in an unseen divinity (Cline 2006)."

Further on, Cline notes that Buffet "isn't giving it to any religious foundations and he isn't even giving to secular groups, like the United Way (ibid)." In other words, he sought out charities like the Gates Foundation to promote causes…. [read more]

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