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Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy Term Paper

… There would be no clean air, no food to eat and no way for the human condition to exist. "When God willed to give existence to creatures, He willed to ordain and direct them to an end. In the case of inanimate things, this Divine direction is provided for in the nature which God has given to each; in them determinism reigns. Like all the rest of creation, man is destined by God to an end, and receives from Him a direction towards this end. This ordination is of a character in harmony with his free intelligent nature. In virtue of his intelligence and free will, man is master of his conduct." (Fox, "The Catholic Encyclopedia: Online")

As humans with free will, according to Immanuel…. [read more]

Masturbation in Medieval Times Term Paper

… It is in the doctrines of Ambrose and Origen, of Augustine and Jerome, that European sexual morality has its roots.

( Taylor G.)


Beidler P. Rape and Prostitution. Retrieved November 3, 2005.

Blacksmith E. SEX IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Retrieved November 2, 20005. Web site:

Brundage J. (1987) Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. Retrieved November 2, 2005. Web site:

Darby, R. (2004). Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation. Journal of Social History, 38(1), 205+.

Dinshaw, C. (1999). Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Postmodern. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Retrieved November 4, 2005, from Questia database: Web site: d=22858577

Hurteau, P. (1993). Catholic Moral Discourse on Male Sodomy and Masturbation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth…. [read more]

Aristotle's Astronomy Besides Giving Term Paper

… ¶ … Aristotle's Astronomy besides giving a brief overview of Aristotle's life and accomplishments.

Life and Accomplishments

Aristotle (384-322 BCE) is one of the three most famous ancient philosophers whose work have left an indelible mark on the Western Civilization. Aristotle was born in Macedonia where his father was a physician in the royal court. He went to study in Plato's Academy at the age of 17 where he stayed for 20 years and was Plato's most distinguished pupil. After Plato died in 347 BC, he moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, and married the ruler (Hermias)'s adopted daughter. After Hermias' was captured and killed by the Persians a few years later, Aristotle was invited by the King of Macedonia to his court.…. [read more]

Music a Survey of Culture and Classical Research Paper

… Music

A Survey of Culture and Classical Music from Bach and Brahms to Ives and Schoenberg

When Henry Simon complained in 1946 of a friend (and others) who believed Mozart's Don Giovanni to be a tragedy, it was telling for two reasons: 1) Mozart's 1787 opera was no tragedy -- but a light comedy, an opera buffa according to the composer; a dramma giocoso (jolly play) according to the librettist; 2) by mid-twentieth century something had happened in the Western World to make what was once seen as light now seem heavy -- and that something had much to do with cultural attitudes and their representation in music (Simon 3). This paper will analyze the shift in classical music from Bach (18th c. German) and…. [read more]

Dante, Sophocles, Gilgamesh Essay

… " (Ciardi 125)

The references to "honors" here made by Brunetto predict that "both sides" will "hunger" for Dante: the hunger of yearning involved in wanting to quest further is palpable in all three of these texts. But it is the wisdom of this desire to "go too far" which is questioned in each example: knowledge has left Brunetto as damned as the questing Ulysses in Dante's epic, Gilgamesh departs Utnapishtim dissatisfied, and Oedipus himself will only attain perfect knowledge through total blindness. In each case, overreaching seems identical to tragic hubris, and man's never-ending search for novelty comes under strong moral scrutiny to be rejected as unwise. The search for wisdom, Sophocles no less than Dante or the anonymous author of the Gilgamesh epic…. [read more]

Descartes Argues That the Mind Essay

… Summary

Dualism, in the form of philosophers such as Descartes, Aristotle and Plato came forth with convincing arguments for separation between mind and body, but, at the end of the day, neuroscience supports physicalize -- that body is reduced to mind and mind reduced to body -- with both being inextricably linked.

Descartes, and similar dualists, nonetheless, had convincing arguments to support their claims. Body and mind do seem to be separate entities, and, even though, the two are shown to be linked, we still cannot explain how and why the body, an insensate element, feels pain, nor where this qualia / consciousness of mind that is ultimately brain that is ultimately material (or physical) essence comes from.

Not all matters of science can be…. [read more]

Conception of Project Management Book Report

… ¶ … conception of project management is actually the summation of the preceding centuries' worth of work and development within this area. Although this discipline was not termed as such until the 1900's, it has slowly evolved much like any other process utilized throughout the course of time and which includes "building processes" which "have led to the development of project management" and, the basics of which "can be traced back to these periods of time" (Yuen 383) that are discussed within this current study. These time periods encompass the medieval period in Europe and in the Near East, and were stratified to include the Byzantine Empire, Islamic Golden Age, the Crusades, the Carolingian Renaissance, the Romanesque Period as well as the Gothic Period, which…. [read more]

Why Was John Dee Such an Enigmatic Figure in Western Europe? Research Paper

… ¶ … John Dee such an enigmatic figure in Western Europe?

The character of 16th century mathematician and philosopher John Dee presents an intriguing conjunction of science, magic, and imperial patronage seemingly hand-crafted for his time. In order to fully understand the range of Dee's influence on both Elizabethan imperialism and the advance of the sciences, it will be necessary to examine some of the key events of his life as well as the philosophy he formulated through years of mathematical and magical thinking. Although Dee's particular blend of the scientific and spiritual may at first glance appear to be almost anachronistic even in his own time, in truth Dee demonstrates the confluence of seemingly disparate historical and cultural forces that initiated an expansion of…. [read more]

Ecofeminism: In Search of Universal Remedies Thesis

… Ecofeminism: In Search of Universal Remedies for Women & Nature

"Women just see that there can be no liberation for them and no solution to the ecological crisis within a society whose fundamental model of relationship continues to be one of domination. [Women] must unite the demands of [their] movement with those of the ecological movement to envision a radical reshaping of the basic socio-economic relations and the underlying values of this society…"

(Mellor, 1997, p. 297).

Ecofeminism cannot be seen as a single theory or strategy espoused by any specific organization or movement. Ecofeminism can in fact be viewed as a choir with many voices contributing a diversity of pitch, range, sharps and flats and indeed harmony in some cases as well. This paper…. [read more]

Psychic Reading in the Professional Practice of Metaphysics Thesis

… Psychic Reading in the Professional Practice of Metaphysics

A psychic reading refers to the process where one person attempts to gain information and insight about another person through tapping into the metaphysical realm. The metaphysical realm is the area of perception that occurs outside of that which can be perceived using the traditional five senses of taste, touch, sight, hearing, and smell. It uses what has been referred to as the "sixth sense" which is able to perceive a world that is hidden from the other five senses. The purpose of a psychic reading is to help the seeker to gain some insight into a current situation, or perhaps their life path in general, that will allow them to make decisions. Sometimes a psychic reading…. [read more]

Universals in Medieval Philosophy Essay

… ¶ … Universals in medieval philosophy

How do we know something is always, universally true and applicable to every single situation in an unerring and absolute manner? This is one of the oldest problems in philosophy, known as the problem of the 'universals.' In medieval philosophy, this formulation was specifically configured by Boethius to posit the apparent paradox that nothing can be 'universal' because it is never isolated from other parts of things that affect its nature. In other words, everything exists only 'in context.' According to Boethius, a universal has to conform to several particulars. It must exist "in its entirety, and not only in part," that is, as a self-contained substance, "simultaneously, and not in a temporal succession," in other words, it should…. [read more]

Margaret L. King Women of the Renaissance Term Paper

… ¶ … Women of the Renaissance

Margaret L. King's book, Women of the Renaissance, published in 1991, by the University of Chicago Press proves to be an informative source for looking into the lives of women and the roles they played during this era. King covers the various roles of women from 1350 to 1650 in western Europe with "glances elsewhere" (King xiii). King is careful to examine the differences between the classes of women, noting that the "fourteenth-century nun and the seventeenth-century savante have more in common than a merchant's wife and a children's nurse" (xiii). The material covered is rich in detail covering women's roles in he family, the church, and in the elite class. By structuring the book this way, King covers…. [read more]

Aristotle's Rhetoric Term Paper

… Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory

When Socrates' was put to death in his own city, after failing to adequately argue for his life in court, Plato became very skeptical about the power of argumentation to uphold that which was good. Through-out history people have surely been having arguments, and through-out history they have either succeeded in them or resigned the entire messy affair. Plato leaned towards the later view. His pupil, Aristotle, however, took the opposite track. "He promises to do his philosophical work in a place from which Plato and Parmenides had spent their careers contriving an exit. He insists that he will find his truth inside what we say, see, and believe..." (Haskins, 2004, 3) Aristotle is likely not the first philosopher to argue from…. [read more]

Civil Disobedience: Mahatmas Gandhi and Martin Luther Term Paper

… ¶ … Civil Disobedience:

mahatmas gandhi & MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.

As two of the greatest political/social leaders of the 20th century, Mahatmas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. stand as global symbols for the power of civil disobedience and through their unfailing and courageous actions, the world became a much better place in which to live and demonstrated that one individual can indeed make an enormous difference in society. Both of these men were political leaders of high caliber and were greatly admired and imitated by those who either knew them personally or were part of their social milieu. They also altered the very foundations of their individual countries through civil disobedience with Gandhi initiating and leading the movement to force Great Britain to…. [read more]

Rhetorical Stance Doctor Martin Luther Term Paper

… This is why I feel that using religious analogies and considerable amounts of pathos allow King to avoid the pedant's stance.

King also keeps his audience's concerns and objections in mind throughout "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." In fact, the prime purpose of King's letter is to refute the accusations and concerns of the clergymen to which he speaks. To accomplish his purpose, King goes through some of the points that clergymen made one by one, in a highly organized fashion. For instance, he notes, "One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken .in Birmingham is untimely." Establishing direct rapport with his audience, King also uses a conciliatory tone that avoids the pedant's stance.…. [read more]

Domestic Homicide in South Carolina Term Paper

… How can there be any consensus about either truth or justice - or the relationship between the two - in a place like El Salvador?

The answer to this depends almost entirely upon one's own beliefs about the nature of governance and of human rights. If one were fortunate to believe in the divine right of monarchs, then one argues that it is the monarch alone or the modern equivalent, the military dictator - guided by God - who has both the wisdom and the power to institute laws. Those on the progressive left end of the political spectrum argue that only the most democratic institutions possess the wisdom and the right to make decisions for the group as a whole. But as good as…. [read more]

Create My Own Personality Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … personality theory has the same fundamental structure as Freud's, but with strong general modifications. I see the human person as much more inherently directed to and inclined towards his metaphysical, or spiritual, nature than (and departing from the grips of) his animal nature. The id represents everything sensate in his person and in his world: the instincts that must perpetuate his physical life in order to work out that higher life form for which he is destined and where, in the fast-coming future, his physical nature will be perfected and merge with his immortal metaphysical soul. While in this world, his ego forms out of his external and internal environment and his reactions towards them -- as behaviorists like Bandura hold -- but…. [read more]

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