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Title IX and Its Impact on Male Sports Within Collegiate Athletics Research Paper

… Title IX and its Impact on Male Sports within Collegiate Athletics

The topic of Title IX laws and the way it has an effect on intercollegiate athletics really interests a lot of people, especially if they have a strong background in sports. Title IX is what is considered to be a small part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law No. 92-318, 86 Stat. 235 (June 23, 1972), codified at 20 U.S.C. units 1681 through 1688, U.S. lawmaking likewise acknowledged its main writer's name as the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act (Yiamouyiannis, 2003). It makes the point that No person in the United States will, on the foundation of sex, be omitted from contribution in, be deprived of the welfares of, or…. [read more]

Gender Equity in Education Term Paper

… Moreover, the authors state (p. 14) that because of the "loss of academic achievement," girls suffer: eating disorders; sexual harassment; pregnancy; problems with self-esteem; "economic penalties...after graduation."

In Chapter Three, authors again hammer the theme that girls are ignored in the classroom, and they write that when the raising of the hand rule is "swept aside" by teachers (p. 43), and it comes down to shouting for attention, "boys call out eight times more often than girls." Why? Because "teachers respond" to boys, whereas when girls call out, "Suddenly the teacher remembers the rule about raising your hand before you talk." (Certainly, from this writer's experience in the classroom, the authors' assertions seem exaggerated. But, on the other hand, the book was published in 1994,…. [read more]

Title IX and Gender Equity Term Paper

… Title IX Gender Bias

Abstract This research paper examines the compliance, 30 years later, with the provisions of Title IX as it concerns eliminating gender bias in all school programs, public and private institutions that receive federal funding, including the school lunch program. The research goes to the heart of the provision, looking to understand why non-compliance with the Act is still a problem today.

Title IX and Gender Equity

Under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, amended by the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988, it is prohibited to discriminate against any student or an employee on the basis of sex in any school program in a school, public or private, that receives federal financial assistance, including school lunch programs, which most…. [read more]

Title IX: Negative Effect on Men's College Athletics Essay

… ¶ … Boost for Women's Athletics but a Bane for Men's Athletics?

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." -- Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Although there is no doubt that when first enacted into federal law in 1972 (as part of the Educational Amendments of 1972), Title IX was viewed as a long-overdue boost for women's sports in colleges and universities. For many years, university men's sports -- in particular football and basketball, which bring in millions of dollars for big time Division I schools -- were the only game in…. [read more]

Race and Gender in Sports Influence of Family Dynamics and Getting a College Education Term Paper

… Sports, Race, And Gender


Sports, race, gender and sociology

Sports, race, gender and sociology

"The 10,000-hour rule has become a cliche. This is the idea, first espoused by K. Anders Ericsson, a psychologist at Florida State University, that it takes about 10,000 hours of practice before any individual can become an expert. The corollary of this rule is that…differences in talent reflect differences in the amount and style of practice, and not differences in innate ability…The differences between expert performers and normal adults are not immutable, that is, due to genetically prescribed talent. Instead, these differences reflect a life-long period of deliberate effort to improve performance" (Lehrer 2010). However, in regards to sports, particularly in regards to minority performance in sports, immutable characteristics like…. [read more]

Struggle for Gender Equality Term Paper

… Gender equality has been an issue for many years, and it is only recently that a lot of progress has been made in many different areas of life. One place that progress has not as readily been seen is the area of college sports programs. Recent articles on the issue hint that the women who coach these college teams make much less than the coaches of the male teams, and much of the money that goes to scholarships at these schools is turned over to the male athletes, leaving the female athletes out of the mix. Many schools spend 2 to 3 times more on their male athletic programs than on their female athletic programs (Fish, D1). There are reasons behind this in many colleges,…. [read more]

Gender and Society Sexism Term Paper

… Additionally, men's sports are traditionally considered in a "more superior manner" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999).

Tuggle (1996, 1997) reports that ESPN's "SportCenter" and even CNN devote much less than "five percent of their coverage to women's sports" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). Of the coverage that women are offered, team sports are often ignored in favor of individual events such as golf and tennis (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). Women's sports are often portrayed in the media as "less important than men's athletic competition" (Tuggle, 1997:19). This only emphasizes the idea that male sports are more supreme and competitive in nature. The lack of coverage of women competitors also suggests that women's sports are less important and less aggressive than male competition.

A study of NCAA Division…. [read more]

Barriers Female Educators Experience Term Paper

… Ortman, an Associate Professor of Human Development and Psychology at Mount Vernon College, specializes in gender roles in the workplace, and extends her studies to examine the spectrum of the effects of gender and "feminist pedagogy." (13.) While Ortman provides the scholarly foundation for the studies, Klein brings great analytical skills for both program and statistical analysis. A Senior Researcher at the Office of Educational Research and Improvement at the U.S. Department of Education, her sources are direct and viable. Together, they provide a coherent exegesis of Title Ix and the way it pertains to education attainment and the career environment in academics. Despite the progress made in recent years to level the playing field between men and women in academia, they call for a…. [read more]

Plays of British Dramatist, Pam Gems Dissertation

… Edith once engages two marines she meets in a pub in a menage a trois; it is possible, that the bartender formed the fourth of this group. There is no indication that Edith is particularly gifted in the art of making love. She just makes her self available as a willing sexual partner. Except with Marcel Cedran, the married boxer, Edith manages to dissociate physical pleasure from any emotional foundations. With Marcel, Edith is truly in love. But this union is not to be. Anecdotes abound, that Edith's jealous sister informs Marcel's wife of her husband's "philandering." Edith's sexual proclivities and escapades are not a manifestation of her femaleness. Her sexual nature transcends gender. It is a flaw in most superstars. In Edith's case, particularly,…. [read more]

Cultural Differences in Ethical Decision-Making Essay

… Moral Decision Making

The work of Gupta (2010) reports a study that sought to use the Multidimensional Ethics Scale for measure of the moral decision making of managers in the country of India and states that the "empirical research on ethical decision is based on the identification and measurement of variables based on ethical theories. The theoretical constructs need to be carefully defined and the methods by which these are measured are to be validated." (p.4) It is reported that the majority of earlier studies on business ethics "were based on presenting subjects with vignettes and asking them to state on a bipolar scale the extent to which they are ethical." (Gupta, 2010, p.5) With the progression of business research, the development of a scale…. [read more]

Origins, History of the IMF Term Paper

… SRF: Supplemental Reserve Facility loans are to be repaid within a year and a half, and there is a substantial surcharge of 3-5 percentage points.

CCL: This is under the same repayment criteria as SRF, but the surcharge is less (1.5 to 3.5 percentage points).

CFF: This type of loan was designed to help a country experiencing a very sudden "shortfall" in export earnings (caused by world commodity fluctuations), and the financial terms match those of the SBA (except CCF loans have no surcharge).

In the event of a nation suffering a natural disaster like an earthquake, flood, typhoon, or other calamities, or for a country just emerging from war, the IMF provides "Emergency Assistance" loans. They are subject to the basic rate of charge,…. [read more]

College Sports and Recreational Activities Article Critique

… The study was conducted during the spring session of 1996. Although the original sample size was 2,000, after attrition was accounted for the final sample size for usable data in the study was 406 responses. This sample size and the random nature of the sample were adequate enough to produce results that could be considered to be reliable.

The specific question presented by the researcher was phrased as follows: "Do you feel that a new or improved Student Wellness & Recreation Center should be a priority for Kent State University?" The answer required to the question was a dichotomous yes or no. This question was placed in a protocol along with other questions involving issues pertaining to recreation in the college environment. These other questions…. [read more]

Ways to Improve Ethical Behavior of Those in a Public Office or Organization Term Paper

… ¶ … Improve Ethical Behavior of Those in a Public Office or Organization

Ethical Behavior

Improving organizational ethical behavior:

Over the years, organizational ethics has come to be acknowledged as a key ingredient for which companies are given better market valuation and respect. However, until recently, only a handful of companies regarded ethics to be valid theme for enterprise planning and strategic thinking. The apex management of majority of enterprises devoted bulk of their time developing their organizational and functional strategic plans, their growth strategies, as also their brand strategies. In this quest for profits and enhancing market share, ethics and regulatory compliance took a backseat which was the lookout of the legal department. This has changed, and organizations are painfully cautious that in the…. [read more]

Women's Sports Women's Participation Term Paper

… "The controversy is whether the end justifies the means, and that's the battleground where this is being fought."

Miami State University's sports program is large, with 22 varsity teams; however, its revenue sources are limited (Suggs, 1999). Even though it has 11 women's teams, the university has not even come close to meeting proportionality standards. Women make up 55% of Miami's undergraduate student body but only 45% of campus athletes. To meet "substantial proportionality" mandates, at least 50% of athletes must be women. Thus, the school is faced with dropping certain men's sports teams to make room for new women's teams.

However, a representative from the Office for Civil Rights insists that institutions like Miami have options besides proportionality. "The beauty of Title IX is…. [read more]

Social Change Through Women's Sports Term Paper

… .. enhance people's ability and skills to communicate."

That may sound a bit idealistic, given the human suffering and ethnic rivalries in Africa -- rivalries which have led to genocide, and the savage slaughter of millions of innocents in Rwanda and elsewhere -- but, as was stated earlier in this paper, no existing political institution has laid out a better plan for social change. Idealism -- in particular, using women's leadership through sports -- just might make a huge difference in the long run, and possibly, in the short run as well.

Main Body of Paper

Title IX: What women can accomplish in sports if given empowerment opportunities

One of the topics on the agenda for the Kennesaw State University -- which is held in…. [read more]

Should Girls Play Baseball Research Proposal

… Girls Playing Baseball

The research undertaken in this particular paper attends to the aspect whether girls should be allowed to play baseball as opposed to softball. In fact, this issue has been there for quite a while. The main issue is that women ought to be given the same opportunities as men. My position in this particular issue stands in support of women. In my own opinion, I believe women ought to be given rights, liberties and opportunities in a similar way as men are given. However, it is imperative for them to have a complete understanding of the consequences such actions entail, and ought to be ready and prepared to follow through with such actions. There is a great deal of literature that discusses…. [read more]

Inequality of Women in Our Society Term Paper

… Equality

Women and Equality

Women enjoy an unprecedented equality that includes equal pay rights, anti-sex discrimination legislation, benefits, and more. At first glance, it seems that women are finally treated as equal citizens. However, this is not necessarily the case. Sex discrimination is still predominant in today's society, as girls and women struggle in their homes, jobs and personal growth due to inequalities in education, work and domestic violence.

Sex discrimination is best defined as any behavior that is directed at an individual because of gender, or the behavior of one's spouse that subjects the individual to different treatment that interferes with one's well-being and personal growth. One of the most obvious forms of sex discrimination is seen in the workplace, although discriminations also exist…. [read more]

Policy Making at Csu, Monterey Bay California Term Paper

… Policy Making at Csu, Monterey Bay

California State University, Monterey Bay is situated on the Monterey Peninsula, in Seaside, California. It is a part of the CSU system. At CSUMB, the stress and focus is towards multi-cultural diversity and learning, in contrast to the approach of the more traditional higher education centers in the U.S. It was founded on September 25, 1994. CSUMB boasts a rich and diverse mix of ethnicities and cultures. A characteristic which makes CSUMB different from many other educational institutions is their focus on the post-studies phase of a student's life. It is called an outcome-based approach, where students are prepared for the rigors of professional life, by making them go through a comprehensive curriculum. The students are required to contribute…. [read more]

Role of Women in Judaism, Christianity Research Proposal

… ¶ … Role of Women in Judaism, Christianity and Islam

There is a general agreement among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam that God created both man and woman however, the agreement ends there as there is a disagreement regarding the precise order that man and woman were created in that Christianity blames Eve for the fall and ultimate banishment from the Garden of Eden due to having disobeyed God however, in Islam both Adam and Eve are equally to blame and equally punished by God.


The work of Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem entitled: "Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth and Reality" states that the image of Eve "as temptress in the Bible has resulted in an extremely negative…. [read more]

Progymnasmata Legislation on Era Term Paper

… The discrimination in salaries translates to the growing incidences of poverty among older women. Statistics now show that some 75% of the nation's elderly poor are women. Older women have, on average, merely half the income of older men. This problem is further worsened by the fact that women are only half as likely as men to receive a pension. Those who do receive a pension generally receive much less than their male counterparts.

Social Security offers little help to a great variety of older women. The current social security system was designed according to 1940 gender roles. As a result, divorced women and wives who are considered as dependents receive much lower Social Security payments.

These factors all underscore the need for the Constitutional…. [read more]

Brown vs. Board of Education Term Paper

… The Supreme Court declared that education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. It prepares our children for later professional training and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. The court also declared that it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. But the vagueness of the phrase combined with continued bigotry slowed the process, in some cases to a standstill.

With the segregation of public schools declared unconstitutional, segregationists across the South sprang into action to prevent the implementation of public school integration. Some states began to pass state laws to uphold segregation, which then had to be challenged in court by the…. [read more]

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