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Tourette Syndrome the Human Condition Is Precarious Term Paper

… Tourette Syndrome

The human condition is precarious at best and is hence often faced with myriads of psychological or cognitive disorders. Needless to say these disorders make the human condition just a tad more complex, thereby beckoning many questions as to how to decipher the many codes of the mind. Tourette syndrome is one such disorder which despite being rather rampant, can be said to have only recently been recognized as a genuine aberration. Like any cognitive disorder Tourette syndrome has certain genetic causes, basic symptoms or characteristics, adequate treatments and obvious effects on one's life. This report therefore, revolves around all these elements, in an attempt to understand the unpredictable and highly curious disorder.

The Tourette syndrome is named after George Gilles De La…. [read more]

Tourette Syndrome in Children Term Paper


Keep Kids Healthy, LLC. "Tourette Syndrome in Children" Dec. 2000 2002

Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "What is Tourette Syndrome?" 3 Apr 2002.

Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.comallof these medical foundation sites were found through search engine of (

Journal Articles

Kadesjo Bjorn, Gillberg Christopher "Tourette's Disorder: Epidemiology and comorbidity in primary school children." 8 Apr 2002

Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. May 2000. Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp. 548-555

http://jaacp.comthismedical journal article was found through, whichprovided links to the full text or abstract of the article on the journal website)

Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "What is Tourette Syndrome?" 3 Apr 2002.

Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children with Tourette Syndrome "About Tourette Syndrome"…. [read more]

Tourette's Syndrome Case Study

… Tourette Syndrome and the Case of Kenny

Tourette syndrome is a form of disability that has only recently come into the forefront of discussion. However since its symptoms and manifestations have become more widely recognized, more and more cases of Tourettes are being reported every year. According to Wilson (2003) "Until 1972, the condition was considered to be quite rare, with only fifty known recorded cases at that time. Today, the syndrome is identified in as many as one out of 200 children" (p. 105).

While most people think of Tourettes as the spontaneous blurting out of curse words, the disorder is far more complicated than that. In fact only about "one-third of all children with Tourette syndrome also have coprolalia, the involuntary use of…. [read more]

Tourette's Syndrome: How it Affects Term Paper

… The teacher needs to avoid becoming one of them for her own sake and the sake of the school itself. School systems walk a precarious path in their treatment of children, especially those with disabilities.

Another area of awareness and concern for the educator is the effects of different medications on the TS student. Because TS is so varied in its appearance, the treatments are also varied. "Two classes of drug are most widely used to control tics associated with Tourette's syndrome are a2 adrenergic agonists and neuroleptics" (Leckman, 2002). There are also specific drug regimens used to treat the associated hyperkinetic disorders and tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorders, also from Leckman. How does an educator elicit a response from a student who is groggy from medication?…. [read more]

Coprolalia in Society, a Person Essay

… It is part of the biological nature of the illness. "Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is one of the most common neurological movement disorders of childhood onset, present in up to 3% of children. TS is characterized by motor and phonic tics that fluctuate in distribution, severity, and frequency, often exacerbated by anxiety and stress" (Kwak & Jankovic 2012). While we may all swear more frequently when 'stressed out,' "Tics are abrupt, brief, repetitive movements of one or more muscle groups, frequently preceded by an urge to move, stretch, or apply pressure on the affected area until it feels 'just right.' Although tics are classified as involuntary movements, many patients report that tics are voluntary motor responses to involuntary sensations" (Kwak & Jankovic 2012).…. [read more]

Neuropsychiatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Term Paper

… Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that often disrupts academic, social, and vocational activities. The primary feature of this disorder is recurring obsessions and compulsions that interfere with one's life (Nissen, Mikkelsen, & Thomsen, 2005):

is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her…. [read more]

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Essay

… Asthma attacks reportedly result in the deaths of 5,000 individuals each year in the U.S. alone (NRDC, 2005). Those figures have slightly improved, as in 2009 it was reported that nearly 3,500 people died of asthma, which is roughly equal to nine people dying a day from this disease (CDC, 2010). Approximately 1 in every 12 adults has been diagnosed with asthma, while 1 in 11 children is known to have this disease (CDC, 2010).

In terms of health disparities per populations, it is a known fact that individuals living in major metropolises areas are more exposed to bad air quality, and to air pollution which causes asthma. The inner cities of such metropolises are largely populated by historic minority groups -- specifically African-Americans and…. [read more]

Adol Health Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:25] [25: Robert Blum. "Trends in Adolescent Health in the United States -- 2008."]

Of all the environmental, social, and political factors associated with teen health, poverty might be the most important. Poverty is positively correlated with many of the health problems experienced by American adolescents. Blum, for example, found that poverty, life-style, and risk-taking behaviors are influencing the morbidities of youth.[footnoteRef:26] Adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to be insured, and 9.8% of all American teenagers are uninsured.[footnoteRef:27] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 7% of American teenagers have no regular source of health care services such as a primary care physician.[footnoteRef:28] [26: Robert Blum. "Contemporary Threats to Adolescent Health in the United States."] [27: Centers for Disease…. [read more]

Dysfunctional Behavior That Strikes Term Paper

… She was earlier admitted to the College of Costa Mesa Hospital for stabilization of mental illness, medical management and relapse prevention, but she said that she was not coping and that she continued to be severely depressed and lack energy. So she was discharged from the Costa Mesa Hospital and, consequently, admitted to this College Hospital of Cerritos. The patient was anxious, mildly confused, disheveled and crying when her history was taken from her verbal and voluntary report and account.

B. Development History

The patient was the eldest child of a Japanese father and an American mother and the first to be subjected to distinct cultures in upbringing - Eastern and Western. Japanese culture, specifically, emphasizes efficiency and endurance in both sexes and an intolerance…. [read more]

Social Skills in Alternative Education Term Paper


The aims and objectives of this research proposal are focused toward understanding the requirement of social skills specifically for children who are placed in alternative education courses. Certainly, there must exist most specifically within the attentive education environment a requirement that children in these classrooms be capable of tolerance related to the individual differences of other children in this education environment, which is inclusive in nature. This works seeks to make identification of the specific characteristics or social skills required of children in alternative education environments.


The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative nature, which is held by experts and scholars to be appropriate in studying social…. [read more]

Legal Aspects of Health Care Term Paper

… Legal Aspects of Healthcare

In this 650-bed hospital we have a well-functioning staff that serves a region in the northeast section of the state. We provide a surgery department which includes same-day surgery and recovery, an emergency room with a 24/7 trauma unit and special procedures rooms, a heliport for safe and rapid transport of patients to and from distant locations, a state-of-the-art diagnostic imaging unit, including X=ray, mammography, ultrasound, MRI, and CT. We have a fully-accredited clinical lab, diagnostic and treatment cardiology services, physical therapy, a respiratory clinic, cardiopulmonary medicine center, a pediatric treatment clinic and wing, and comprehensive women's services. "Health care delivery has become mind-bogglingly complicated," says Ian Morrison, who is read regularly in the local newspaper, and many agree (Morrison, p.…. [read more]

Learning Disability Report Thesis

… Special Ed

Learning Disabilities Chart

Special Education in Brooke County, WV

At the elementary school level, Brooke County only as several dedicated special needs classroom in four of its primary schools (WV Dept. Of Education 2009). The largest of these is located at the Wellsburg primary school, and this was my place of observation concerning the implementation of special needs education practices and principles in action. Inclusion policies were not implemented especially strongly here; two high-functioning individuals were in the special needs classroom despite their obvious intelligence level. Behavioral and social issues related to their condition (both had autism spectrum disorders) might provide the explanations for this placement, however.

There are two team teachers and an aide in this classroom, allowing for a great deal…. [read more]

Schizophrenia Psychosis and Lifespan Essay

… Some developmental disorders such as Asperger's have strong behavioral components marked by inappropriate behavior due to a lack of social awareness or tact. The behaviors show a disregard for rules of social conduct due to deficiencies in emotional awareness.


The biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components of Schizophrenia and Psychosis, and Lifespan Development are extensive and highly variable. This makes it especially difficult to categorize and classify specific disorders. As disorders display more associative symptoms and mental disorders, categorization is often expanded into a spectrum analysis. This is the case in schizophrenia and psychosis where the Type I and Type II symptoms are grouped together to establish five major diagnostic categories of the disorder: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual. Even these, however do…. [read more]

Children in the U.S Term Paper

… Conclusion - Statistical reality that one in every five children in the U.S. has a learning difficulty, that the socioeconomic factors to it cannot as yet be effectively addressed and that treatments or approaches are still on an individual basis, learning disabilities sound an alarm and require the constant support and attention of families, school, community and the public education system. This surge of incidence of maladjustment in the young is telling society something quite serious, as it indicates the kind of future they face. Learning disabilities and ADHD cannot be treated directly because their causes are indirect. The roots lie deep in the social structure and this takes all the honesty and will of parents, schools, communities and the government. The trend is letting…. [read more]

ADD ADHD and Use of Stimulant Drugs to Treat Children Term Paper

… Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children - Outline

Confusion over definition

Many different terms to mean same thing


Drugs first reaction by Pediatricians

Not enough research completed


Not conclusively known

Genetically transmitted

Imbalance or deficiency in brain chemicals

Use of glucose in brain

NIMH studies

Other Causes

Prenatal development

Birth complications

Later neurological damage


Poor diet

Incomplete digestion of the whey protein

Drug use by mother

Right treatment important

Multimodal approach

Child and parent education


Behavior management techniques

National Institute of Mental Health study



Charges medication used to control behavior







Second-line medications

Schedule II of the U.S. DEA schedule system

Ritalin over-use

Side affects


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

Attention deficit…. [read more]

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Research Annotated Bibliography Thesis

… Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Research

Annotated Bibliography

About OCD." 2006 Obsessive Compulsive Foundation. 20 October, 2008 at

Although I will not be using this site specifically for information in my report, it was helpful in providing information on what was presently taking place in the OCD field. A yearly conference focusing on OCD will be the first thing you will see upon entering this site. There are intensive treatment programs and hoarding information for both adolescent and young adults with OCD. There are also medications that are described for those being treated and research participation with a focus on special interest groups. By examining what OCD really is, this website allows its audience to recognize the difference between obsessions and compulsions. In offering external links…. [read more]

Autism: Diagnosis, Intervention, and Social Adjustment Literature Review

… Autism: Diagnosis, Intervention, And Social Adjustment

This literature review is a comprehensive introduction of autism to people with little or no specialized knowledge. The review, including a clear summary of existing knowledge on the condition, addresses the complexity of autism, assessing practical issues such as diagnosis, intervention, and social adjustment. In addition, it will examine how all research into autism should have the eventual goal of increasing the well-being and career development of those persons affected by the disorder. The results can provide parents, teachers, and clinical trainees with a heightened awareness, and prompt them to a possible reevaluation of the subject, since it neatly synthesizes historic and current findings on autism.


As is the case for all serious illnesses and detrimental conditions, early…. [read more]

Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood Sexual Abuse Term Paper

… Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood Sexual Abuse

The objective of this work is to research and examine childhood sexual abuse and compulsive hoarding. This work will identify the social impediments to the treatment interventions of this population with traumagenic compulsions and will further analyze how cognitive behavioral therapy would overcome these impediments and provide treatment for this disorder.

OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

SLE Stressful Life Events

CSA Childhood Sexual Abuse

PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

CRF Corticotropin Releasing Factor

HPA Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal

ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

NIMH National Institute of Mental Health


The work of Saxena, et al. (2004) entitled: "Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Obsessive-Compulsive Hoarding" states the fact that "Compulsive hoarding and saving symptoms, found in many patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)…. [read more]

Botox &Reg Term Paper

… In their November 18, 1994 Federal Register Notice, the F.D.A. went so far as to "denounce (d) the promotion of such unapproved use as 'an egregious example of promoting a potential toxic biologic for cosmetic uses.'" (Vangelova) Clearly, their tune has changed, as the cosmetic use of Botox® has since been approved by the F.D.A. this year.

Part Three: Botox® - Can anything bad happen?

Obviously, Botox® is a toxin. As pointed out in Part One, the toxin can cause severe sickness and death if not treated. Clinical use of Botox® is safe, however, when the pure form of the toxin is used, and the doses are carefully and knowingly measured. There can be "much confusion over the doses and units of potency" which can…. [read more]

Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD Term Paper

… Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-ADHD is considered to be a general psychiatric problem occurring in childhood and frequently continue into the adulthood. (Szymanski; Zolotor, 114) the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-ADHD if left untreated has the prospective devastations for the child and their relationship with parents, peers, teachers and just about everyone else. (Jenson, 40) the magnitude of occurrence of ADHD is estimated to differ from 2 to 20% however; the incidence of this problem in clinical practice is estimated to differ from 6 to 8%. (Johnson, 75) the ADHD is regarded as a neurophysiologic disorder expressed in terms of behavioral features and related to considerable morbidity in the sphere of social and academic achievement and self-respect. The ADHD is actually associated…. [read more]

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD Term Paper

… Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder

Theories of child development and guidelines for parents are not cast in stone.

They are constantly changing and adapting to new information and new pressures.

There is no "right" way, just as there are no magic incantations that will always painlessly resolve a child's problems."

Lawrence Kutner (20th century) (Columbia, 1996)

Students Like C.J.

Something has to be done. C.J. cannot sit still.... His constant roaming around in the classroom disrupts the other students." Parents of ADHD students like C.J. frequently hear teachers' accounts similar to the one introducing this study. Student's like C.J. traditionally experience problems in school as rules, regulations and routines regularly require they remain seated at their desk, pay attention and focus…. [read more]

ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Term Paper

… Students not only showed improved ability to complete tasks on time, they also exhibited reduced negative behavior. When students recognize that they can succeed at school-related tasks, they develop a better sense of self-

Overview of ADHD worth, feel reassured and are motivated to do better. Such a technique of positive reinforcement could be used to develop positive outcomes.

Bridging from previously taught concepts to new concepts. Students with ADHD, burdened with learning disabilities, need help with processing the material that is being taught. "By providing opportunities for students to look for connections between what they have learned and what they are now studying, students are better able to expand on the ideas that they are learning (Howell, Fox, & Morehead, 1993)."

Providing opportunities for…. [read more]

Amphetamines for the Treatment Term Paper

… Out of the 35 study participants ten of them were also diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and six had a learning disorder.

The children were located at local schools and excluded if they had an IQ less than 80 or if they had a chronic tic disorder such as Tourette's syndrome (Sharp et al., 2001).

Children participated in a research school 5 days per week consisting of formal academic instruction from 9 A.M. To 12:30 P.M. And therapeutic recreation (sports, art therapy, structured social skills sessions) from 1 P.M. To 3 P.M. Behavior management techniques were used extensively within the program, although parent training was not provided (Sharp et al., 2001)."

There was a three-week observation period in which the students were medication free and…. [read more]

Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Substance Abuse Term Paper

… Positive thoughts, higher self-esteem, these two things play a vital role in any recovery. So why shouldn't it work in hypnosis? All this combined may give hypnotherapy enough success to become part of standard treatment for substance abuse and mental disorders.

Hypnosis is and will always be seen as a means to open a door into the subconscious. "Hypnosis often overcomes the boundary between conscious awareness and what has been kept unconscious or sidetracked from someone's awareness" (Krippner, 2005, pp. 99). It offers people a way to gain insight into themselves and their subconscious thought patterns. It also offers hope to some who have no hope. Although it is not a definitively proven method, it has shown some positive results. With continued research and new…. [read more]

How Does Speech Error Betray Thought? Term Paper

… Slips

If it's not one thing it's your mother'

Parapraxis and the Sense of Nonsense

Slips of the tongue, lapsus linguae, parapraxes or fehlleistung are many different ways to say, perhaps, the same thing. During the course of our lives we all certainly have made an error or two in speech. By this we mean not saying what we had originally intended, which has often lead to either humorous, quite embarrassing or even disastrous results. It is these linguistics mishaps that will be addressed in this paper and they will generally be referred to by their more scientific appellation, parapraxis. Generally these parapraxes have been researched within two scientific categories, originally the purview of the branch of science known as linguistics, now also the discipline…. [read more]

Medical Marijuana Use Drugs Term Paper

… In patients with MS, marijuana is primarily used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms, including urge incontinence.16 Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis reportedly use marijuana for analgesia, muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, saliva reduction, appetite stimulation, and sleep induction. Marijuana is also used in the treatment of various movement disorders including dystonia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tics associated with Tourette's syndrome. Marijuana is also used to prevent seizures in patients with epilepsy and is believed to have neuroprotective properties. (Seamon et al., Medical marijuana, 2007)

In people who use marijuana for medical reasons, there are many affects. The marijuana seems to change the effect on the patient depending on the need of the patient. Two patients may be prescribed the same strain marijuana for different reasons/ailments,…. [read more]

ADHD: Diagnose in Adults, Treatments, and Long-Term Research Paper

… ADHD: Diagnose in Adults, Treatments, And Long-Term Effects

What is ADHD?

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder and affects both adults and children. It is an ongoing or 'persistent' inattention pattern and/or a pattern of hyperactivity-impulsivity that has interference on daily life or normal development. People having ADHD might find it difficult to maintain attention and perform executive function ability of the brain, i.e. start an activity, organize and manage the tasks constituting the activity). They also have problems with working memory.

ADHD exists in three ways:



Combined inattentive & hyperactive-impulse (APA, 203).

The condition begins in childhood -- experts say that this particular condition might set in before the child turns twelve. While a majority of the ADHD patients register lower symptoms of…. [read more]

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