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Pro-Poor Tourism: Association With Development Term Paper

… It is noted that pro-poor tourism net benefits to poor communities extend beyond economic benefits, as they cut across environmental, social, and cultural benefits (Spenceley, Habyalimana, Tusabe, & Mariza, 2010). This is because pro-poor tourism in any community or nation facilitates rapid diversification of tourism products (Torres & Janet, 2004). Communities are driven to find tourist interests, an in return tourists demand economic, and cultural, social, and environmental goods from the community (Akyeampong, 2011). Therefore, pro-poor tourism is a flexible and alternative form of creating sustainability, responsibility, and ecological emphasis over the environment, socio-cultural, and economic elements of a community (Torres & Janet, 2004). This is because tourism calls for more sustainable management of natural resources and the environment as well as stimulating the development…. [read more]

Tourism Research Philosophies and Principles Assessment

… In addition, they employed the 'interpretative' paradigm's Quantitative Method by value-laden examination of the hotel guests in an attempt to understand the guests' behaviour and underlying reasons for reusing or failing to reuse guest towels. Through a carefully worded four-page questionnaire, careful selection of cooperative hotels, careful selection of appropriate guests, and well-placed rewards, Mair and Bergin-Seers were able to accumulate nearly more than one would want to know about hotel guests' reuse of towels.

They were able to amass the following demographic results:


Mair and Bergin-Seers also accumulated the following data on the impact of the towel reuse requests:


Mair and Bergin-Seers also divided impact according to which of the four requests each guest received:

(MAIR…. [read more]

Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Multiple Chapters

… The primary concept that is a part of ecotourism is that it entails consciousness and admiration of the Mother Nature and the activities based on it (Fennell, 2001, 2008).

Another concept that is a vital part of ecotourism is pertinent to the regional communal groups like contribution (Ross and Wall, 1999), prospective advantages (Honey, 2008) and authorisation (Scheyvens, 2002). The next concept is related to knowledge (Honey, 2002) and such tourism in which people consider themselves accountable (Fennell and Dowling, 2003). Lastly, ecotourism fosters maintainability (Blamey, 2001; Cole and Sinclair, 2002) and preservation (Wood, 2002).

Although various experts have investigated the definition, influence and shortcomings of ecotourism, comparatively less have discovered the viewpoints and behaviours of players dealing with the supply chain connecting a traveller…. [read more]

Ontology, 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology Definition Assessment

… ¶ … Ontology, 1-3

Epistemology and Methodology

Definition of Positivist Paradigm, 4-6

Interpretive Paradigm and Feminist Paradigm

For the study of tourism to work best and to succeed, it proceeds as all other fields must, namely by research. Research, however, is never homogeneous. It is comprised of various methodologies, ranging from the hard, empirical quantitative type of study, t o the soft, more subjective, qualitative interpretations.

Not only are there different methodologies, but research often, or, rather, invariably, operates against a specific theory and this theory depends on the author's inclinations. Some for instance may be inclined to use a positive theory, whilst other a feminist or grounded theory, or phenomenological approach amongst many others. These are all different perspective -- or ways of looking…. [read more]

Management Philosophies Samsung Group Essay

… Another article by Kamii & Ewing (1996), states that it is impossible for learners to establish high levels of relationships with what they observe unless they incorporate certain levels of knowledge to it. According to Kamii & Ewing (1996), cooperative learning methodology brings great maintenance of material and an increase in the transfer of learning. Jean Piaget insisted that constructivism would advance to other philosophical theories because the ideas are innovative and concepts can change with time.


The article by Ruth-Sahd is about social collectivism. The article bases on concepts of observation in a nursing clinical setting. The article also incorporates personal experiences of nurses. Observation and personal experiences help nurses in learn of effective management practices that will help them in their nursing…. [read more]

Management Philosophy Management's Principal Characteristic Essay

… These management philosophies are different from the management approach proposed by He (2011). He (2011) identifies the Chinese approach based on the Confucian Philosophy, which identifies that the key idea is the achievement of strategic alignment. The philosophy especially identifies the creation of alignment between individual's behavior and organizational strategy. This is different from other management philosophies for He (2011) proposes that teamwork is essential in creating individual drive in the larger organization, which is part of Confucian values. The article identifies that this management philosophy follows Confucian values, which make the heart of management strategies for Chinese companies in the Silicon Valley. The article finds from the analysis of case studies that the alignment of management strategies with Confucian values has led to the…. [read more]

Global Business Cultural Analysis: Singapore Research Paper

… At that time, many among the governing elite were wary that, while 'Westernization' had served Singapore well in its quest of industrialization and economic development, the city-state was also in danger of losing its 'Asian' roots and identity." (p.948 in Yuen, 2006, p.836)

Singapore Policy Matters

Singapore was reported in the Foreign Policy magazine to be "the world's most global country." (Yuen, p.836) Bachtiar (2002) is noted as having stated:

"These days, more than 200,000 Singaporeans work overseas. And many more travel frequently, laying their heads down to sleep in distant lands, gazing at novel views from their windows . . . its people have come to assimilate more global influences. Today's populace likes having a Starbucks around the corner and glittering megamalls. They want…. [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety Research Paper

… In the catering industry, those high-risk situations are readily apparent from historical data and from any time-series data obtained by taking "snapshots" of the industry over time.

In 2001, the OSHC conducted a survey regarding the conditions of kitchen workers in Chinese restaurants (Kuen, 2005). A total of 471 kitchen workers, including chefs, cooks, assistant cooks, grill cooks, dim sum cooks, and material preparation cooks, from 159 different Chinese restaurants participated in the survey (Kuen, 2005). Of the kitchen workers surveyed, 80% were injured on the job and more than 60% took sick leave due to accidents at work (Kuen, 2005). The work-related injuries included cuts, burns, musculoskeletal problems, and stab wound from shrimp or fish (Kuen, 2005). Health problems of kitchen workers were predominantly…. [read more]

Biomedical Ethics Research, Internet Searching Essay

… Why is it acceptable for someone to volunteer to donate his or her organs to a stranger, after all, and not receive payment? However, implicit in laws that bar paid organ selling is the idea that a price cannot be put upon the human body. Furthermore, because organ donation carries the risk of severe medical complications for both the donor and the recipient, the law presumes that only someone altruistic enough to donate an organ for free is likely to have fully evaluated all of the consequences for his or her health. The poor are more likely to have poorer healthcare, stand to lose their livelihood if they cannot work in physically demanding occupations, and have less of an education to understand the complications that…. [read more]

Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society Research Paper

… Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society

The ancient period is the historical era determined by the convention. It includes the studying of the past life activities and events. The modern is the contrary of the ancient. However, it is imperative to realize that for there to be the present, it was a process of development. History shapes the lives, practices and beliefs of people through long periods of influential civilizations

Civilization is characterized by advancements in the system of writing, cities as well as social classes. The inventions of the early civilizations, for example, ancient Greece, china, Mesopotamia and classical Rome have remarkably shaped the current world that we inhabit. Among the labels that define the transitions is "Late Antiquity." This is the period that…. [read more]

Performance Measurement for Small Sized Hotel a Balanced Scorecard Approach Research Proposal

… Balanced Scorecard Method

Performance Measurement for Small-Sized Hotel: a Balanced Scorecard Approach

The balanced scorecard approach to the measurement of company performance is gaining popularity. This approach takes into account financial and non-financial aspects of company performance. This research explores the application of the balanced scorecard approach to a small-sized hotel chain in China. The study uses a case-study approach due to the uniqueness of every situation.. The results of the study demonstrate that although, profit margins are thin, the hotel is stable and set for long-term growth.

Case Analysis

Performance Measurement for Small-sized Hotel: a Balanced Scorecard Approach


The balanced scorecard is quickly becoming one of the most widely used strategic management system in the business community. The brainchild of Drs. Robert Kaplan…. [read more]

Quality Service Management Research Proposal

… Quality Service Management

This case study emphasizes the development of SQM in a small Libyan tourism agency, Libya Safari Tours (LST). With the experience I had working for this company I was able to develop a sense of the company's SQM application, working through the various strengths and weaknesses as they existed to date allowing analysis and recommendations for the company and for service in the region generally. The work begins with a brief introduction to Libya, the emerging tourism industry, and then an analysis of LST according to the 11 points, offered by Yee Tsang & Antony (2001) and the 7 points offered by McCarville ending with the answering of a series of essential questions; What does quality mean in the organisation? What factors…. [read more]

Honor Code of Chinese Warriors Research Paper

… This means that one is both an honorable winner and an honorable loser. (Shaolin Tiger Kung-Fu, 2012)

III. Water Margin Heroes

Water Margin is one of the greatest Chinese novels in history and is a story about a group of heroes who take up for various classes of individuals against the evil. The Warrior's Honor Code guides these individuals in their actions in the novel. Water Margin is based on the outlaw Song Jiang whose name appeared in the biography of Emperor Huizong of Song, which stated as follows:

"The outlaw Song Jiang of Huainan and others attacked the army at Huaiyang, (the Emperor) sent generals to attack and arrest them. They infringed on east of the capital Hebei and entered the boundaries of Chu…. [read more]

Business Communication and Technology Barnes, Cynthia Research Paper

… Business Communication & Technology

Barnes, Cynthia, and Cavaliere, Frank. (2009). To Teach or Not to Teach: The Ethics of Metadata. Education, 129(4), 788-792.

Metadata has been causing problems over the past several years due to the fact that word processing and other well-known and often-used computer software programs become "more receptive to" collaboration (Barnes, 2009, p. 788). That is the viewpoint of this article. What is metadata? It is the personal information about a person, that is contained in computer-generated documents, and is accidentally sent to others, Barnes explains. This is a potentially scary situation, not because some personal information is being transmitted to others, but because computer uses don't realize what is happening. This article reviews the problems associated with metadata, and provides research…. [read more]

War in Afghanistan From Different Theoretical Perspectives Research Paper

… Theoretical Perspectives on the War in Afghanistan

As the sun rose over New York and Washington D.C. On what began as a quite, pristine, lovely early fall, beginning of September morning, the citizens of New York, the nation's capital, the United States and indeed the global community were unaware of the magnitude of horror that would befall not only these two illustrious cities but how these actions would alter the geo-political landscape for years to come. The actions of September 11th, 2001 did more to change the very nature of international relations than any other global event-save for World War II and the dropping of the Atomic Bomb. Although one could argue that September 11th, 2001 influenced the evolution of geo-politics more than either WWII…. [read more]

Economics and the Environment Although Terry L Research Proposal

… Economics and the Environment

Although Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal published their book, Free Market Environmentalism (Revised Edition) in 2001, nearly nine years ago, a great deal of the material is aptly suited and relevant in 2009. Their chapters are extremely well thought out and for the most part balanced between the stewardship of the natural world and the financially viable realities of the American economic system -- and how those two concepts clash or produce cooperation. There are a full 28 pages of footnote references in the back of the book, with very thorough reference information presented. The authors portray real issues and offer seemingly workable solutions, albeit their generalizations are sometimes too sweeping. For example, just about "everyone accepts" that managers…. [read more]

Ginger - Smart Basics Case Study

… While this company has the primary focus of increasing profitability, its marketing unit faces the problem of non-clients into loyal clients, who use their products; this is important because the company seeks to maintain its market share. Emerging markets of Europe and Asia provide strong potential emerging markets for companies such as Gingers, which boast of an assortment of product portfolios. The potential and power of emerging markets can be measured by the fact that these markets contribute approximately 15% of total national revenue. This trend is expected to continue (Kamplikar, 2011).

With the goal to succeed in the industry, the company has adopted the trending mantra of -- think global, act local. This philosophy helps them to compete with local firms, not only due…. [read more]

Social and Cultural Accommodation Essay

… That emphasis is expressly designed to ensure that hotel guests from those regions will appreciate and value the fact that an international company is capable of executing all of the hotel and guest-relation services necessary to comport with the needs of guests from every nation and culture (De Bono, Van Der Heijden, and Jones, 2008; Lampton, 2003).

In the Far East, for example, Ritz-Carlton hotel employees all receive training in the social customs and finer aspects of etiquette that expected within ordinary interactions between hotel staff and guests, precisely because they typically differ so substantially from the typical expectations of Western customers (De Bono, Van Der Heijden, and Jones, 2008). Meanwhile, in the Middle East, Ritz-Carlton facilities must be equipped to respect fundamentally different dietary…. [read more]

Religious Traditions on the Ganges Essay

… As Mishra (2010, 99) points out, pregnant women, people suffering from leprosy and smallpox, people bitten by a snake, animals, children, and holy men are not burned prior to being purified in the river.

If one understands the process as one in which the purification by fire occurs before the salvation by the river's water, then some of these categories, such as the people suffering from leprosy and smallpox, may be considered too impure to be purified by fire (Parry, 2004). However, for some of these categories, such as holy men, it may be the case that they are believed not to require salvation, having already transcended to the other side.

With the children and the pregnant women, the reasoning is quite interesting. It could…. [read more]

Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance Thesis

… ¶ … Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance of Business Relationships with Libyan Companies

The Need for the Research

Expected Contribution to Knowledge

Review of the Chapters

Review of Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Review of Chapter 3 (Research Methodology)

Review of Chapter 4 (Research Findings)

101.5.4 Review of Chapter 5 (Research Discussion)

101.5.5 Review of Chapter 6 (Recommendation & Conclusion)

101.5.6 Review of Reference List

122.1 Why the Business Relationship is Important

132.2 Social Variables in the Development of Business Relationships

142.2.1 Cultural Affinity


202.2.3 Commitment

222.2.4 Experience

252.2.5 Satisfaction

262.2.6 Communication

Stages in the Development of a Business Relationship

322.3.1 Pre-contact

332.3.2. Initial Interaction

352.3.3 Development

352.3.4 Maturity

Research Methodology

373.1 Introduction

373.2 Definition of research methodology

383.3 Research Design

393.4 Research…. [read more]

Branding in Service Markets Dissertation

… Consequently, the message starts to stimulate customers starting to consider making a purchase.

The brand also serves as a substantial financial and political power in the macro-level focus of culture; particularly as it relates to issues and discussion regarding globalization concerns. As noted in the first chapter of the AMP, just as the growing impact of marketing touches most aspects of the consumer's lives, brands and branding have likewise become "an increasingly dominant market economic and commercial ideoscape" (Heding, Knudtzen, & Bjerre, 2009, p. 210).

With organizations like WTO implementing branding in its marketing and management practices, branding will likely remain central to structuring commercial and economic activities -- in large as well as in small countries globally.

Branding Evolution

The process of branding reportedly…. [read more]

Culture in This Briefing New Essay

… They try to have as few rules as possible to govern themselves. The people in these cultures usually tend to be much more pragmatic and are also more tolerant of change (ibid 173-177).

The definition of individualism and collectivism refers to the social frameworks in with which individuals prioritize their individual or group needs. In individualistic societies, the individuals are expected to look after themselves. In collectivist societies, individuals are expected to look out for one another. Organisations protect their employee's interests. However, in individualist societies stress is put upon individual rights and personal achievements. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family members and to choose their own personal affiliations. In contrast, individuals in collectivist societies act predominantly as the…. [read more]

Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.


Understanding the main…. [read more]

International Strategic Management in the Service Sector Term Paper

… International Strategic Management in the Service Sector

International Strategic Management: Hospitality Service

This work will demonstrate the proposition that "success for any business is dependent upon the ability to find a valuable strategic position." Further this work will be applied to a hospitality organization and use this theoretical statement to critically challenge the performance of the organization and will further through a case study apply the principles and processes to explain the critical approach..

Marriott International, Inc. celebrated its 75th birthday in 2002. The leading hospitality company on a worldwide basis is able to trace its heritage to a beer stand operated by J. Williams and Alice S. Marriott. Presently Marriott International has over 2,700 establishments and over 490,560 rooms in the establishments both in…. [read more]

Mobile Marketing the Utility Data Analysis Chapter

… What separates hospitality marketing is that while most industries sell products to customers, hotels sell service, comfort and convenience (Singh, 2011).

Mobile Marketing

The mobile market has revolutionized the way we go about our daily business. From checking our email, doing our banking, getting involved in social media and even operating our automobiles, mobile devices are essentially becoming the world's remote control. But what about businesses, and their use of these mobile devices? Companies from all over the world are coming together to create mobile tools which increase business utility and increase overall business value (Gleanster, 2011). This report covers a few of those utilities and the businesses that have made excellent use of mobile devices to generate value. The hospitality industry is taking full…. [read more]

Legal Environment of Business Term Paper

… Legal Environment of Business

According to research into the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics scandal, the Salt Lake Organization Committee (SLOC) sent members to lobby members of the International Olympics Committee (IOC). Although this lobbying itself is not unethical, the SLOC practice of making strategic gifts to high profile members of the IOC does raise questions of ethics. For example, it is alleged that the SLOC gave IOC members scholarships, free medical care, guns and other luxury gifts, despite IOC rules limiting gifts to $150.00.

The Salt Lake City case provides an excellent example for the difference between lobbying and bribery. Lobbying is the act of trying to influence a government official's understanding and position of a public policy issue through the providing of…. [read more]

Individual Rights for a Nation Term Paper

… According to The Chronicle of Higher Education (2005), "Whether it's a Summers, a Churchill, or a worker cleaning a toilet, everyone should have the right to express any and all opinions. The freedoms of thought and speech should be protected universally, for all people. If we make the rights of free speech and thought dependent on context, and give an administrative body the power to judge in which context the right applies, we're ultimately handing over more power to the state." (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2005)

Freedom of Religion

Freedom of Religion has played a critical role throughout human history. Since the days of Assed, religion has forced humans to migrate to new lands to escape religious persecution and to freely practice their own…. [read more]

Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in 4 Star Hotels in Geneva Term Paper

… ¶ … Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in 4-Star Hotels in Geneva

recognized problem for the hospitality industry is to find a way to keep their loyal customers and earn new once. A lot of hotels create questionnaires to find out if their customers are satisfied during their stay. If the questionnaire score shows a result which is better than good, they will think that the customers are loyal to them and will always return back. Since all hotels are competing for customers, the industry needs to be aware of the competitors, since customers will shop around and stay at the hotel that gives them the best value. It is important to remember that service is something we cannot touch which means intangible. When giving service…. [read more]

Nationalism vs. Globalization in Taiwan Term Paper

… ¶ … press on globalization and its economic impact has focused on the incredible growth of China, Japan and Korea, Taiwan's emergence as a world player almost more dramatic. Once an ostracized island confederation, Taiwan has embraced the power of globalization and allowed itself to become of the growing number of success stories of the East Asian economic region. The question of how globalization emerged within our modern world and specifically within East Asia is a complicated one. It was the result of economic, political, social and cultural circumstances that were all perfectly in tune over the last quarter of a century. The Western conquest of the Asian region through Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other East Asian countries resulted in an influx of foreign capital…. [read more]

Organizational Culture and Sustained Competitive Dissertation

… This study will survey a number of organizations in a variety of industries in an attempt to find consensus in the strategic application of organizational cultural concepts.

This study will not result in a unified definition of culture, competition, or competitive advantage that will apply uniformly to all organizations in every situation. However, it will serve in the development of criteria that organizations can utilize to help determine the characteristics of their own organization and how they can be used to an improve the sustainability of their organization. This research will play an important role in the development of processes for analyzing and developing an organizational culture that maximizes the organization strengths and minimizes its weaknesses. It will examine the state of knowledge in organizations…. [read more]

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