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Confucianism in East Asian Essay

… In China Japan and Korea the state organized education systems in order to transmit knowledge that was based on neo-Confucian orthodoxy as well as the subsequent recruitment of government services of those that had mastered neo-Confucian classics. Confucians held the belief that there was a body of absolute truths that combined principles alongside cosmological laws and this body of knowledge was understood and written down by Confucian sages. This scholastic belief within a body of truths gave energy to a direction towards mastering classical writing as well as standard interpretations.

Filial piety, Humaneness

Attributes of Confucianism such as filial piety and patriarchal authority are identifiable broadly within characteristics of Confucian political and social relations that are sustained within extended family like termed as network institutionalism.…. [read more]


Tradition Related to East Asian Political Thought Research Paper

… ¶ … tradition of East Asian political thought

Introduction to Confucianism

Confucius, one of the tallest cultural and religious figures of ancient China is credited with originating a way of life that soon took cultural hue of what is since known as Confucianism. The origins of this soci-cultural-legal-religious body of thought can be traced back to the Spring-autumn of a year that lied somewhere in the 770 BC-476 BC period. This philosophy found wide acceptance throughout ancient China through the efforts and support of eminent Philosophers like Mengzhi and Han emperor Wu (Yang, 2014).

This thought that was originally only a social requirement of the times was soon embraced by the masses and was accepted as a legal code of conduct, too. The philosophy reached…. [read more]


East Meets West: Oriental Influence on Western Dissertation

… East Meets West: Oriental Influence on Western Fashion

Clothing is rarely recognized as a political force, yet fashion and design may be one of the most internationally regarded forms of trade, communication, and influence among countries worldwide. Perhaps more than any other form of shared knowledge, fashion permeates the boundaries of nations to influence the styles of people everywhere. According to an official defitnion, "fashion consists of a current (constantly changing) trend, favoured for frivolous rather than practical, logical, or intellectual reasons." (Kobres et al.) However accurate this statement may be in some ways, it does not at all encompass the vast array of cultural and social implications that a mere mention of the word "fashion" will entail. "So pervasive has the role of the…. [read more]


Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Footbinding Emerged Essay

… Footbinding

The Chinese idea of footbinding emerged during the 10th century and lasted for approximately one millennium, until 1911. Young girls were generally targeted with the purpose of imposing this custom on them and their social class or background in general were unimportant for the Chinese community. What is even more surprising is that their relatives participated in this process without feeling that they were doing something wrong. Footbinding typically began when girls were between the ages of 4 and 7 and had them turn all of their toes (except for the big toe, as this one was left unaltered with the purpose of making it possible for the girls to maintain balance) against the bottom of the foot. The process was very painful (it…. [read more]


Asian Literature Post Modern Literature Often Calls Term Paper

… Asian Literature

Post modern literature often calls to mind the conflicts of modernization and the cultural changes that ensue. Traditional cultures are often demonstratively changed by the process of revolution and in the eastern cultures there are countless examples of the cultural changes that have occurred over just two or three generations. As a result much of the literature of the ensuing generations depicts the inherent difficulties of change through character analysis of events, and particularly with regard to major life changing events, such as the death of members of the older generations. Within Post Modern Asian Literature there are consistent themes of the difficulty of progress, these themes are usually expressed as direct conflict between the young and the old. Within the short stories,…. [read more]


Future Wars of the Middle East Will Result Over Water Shortages Term Paper

… Water in the Middle East

Governments around the world have a primary concern over water availability and the Middle East and North Africa are no exception. The thesis evaluates the possibility of future wars throughout the Middle East and North Africa due to water scarcity and limited water resources presently being experienced in that region.

The paper starts by revealing the gravity of the situation by showing the present statistics surrounding the problem of water scarcity throughout the world. Thereafter, the paper highlights the importance of water in the national economy. From then on, the paper briefly discusses the present situation of water scarcity in the Middle East by noting down the present available resources of water in the Middle East. Lastly, the paper briefly…. [read more]


Middle East Has the Presence Essay

… If the Assad regime falls, however, civil war could well begin again, leading to a partition of the country. For the time being, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf monarchies have been least affected by the revolutions, and it is by no means certain that regime change there would result in governments any more tolerant of minority groups.

Contrary to its current situation, Islamic civilization in the golden age of the Ottomans experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements, and the result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements. At the height of its power and glory, the Ottoman Empire controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa, with borders as far east…. [read more]


Post-Cold War Era, Far Term Paper

… ¶ … post-cold war era, far from making the "end of history" and the triumph of the western ideal, will be characterized by increased global fragmentation and the "clash of civilizations" based on ethical, cultural and religious distinctions. Cultural identity has replaced any shared ideology that had existed as the dominant global perspective in world affairs. To a great degree nationalism, be it exclusive or inclusive of cultural minorities has become the driving force behind many world decisions and the many lessons of diversity, taught over the last 50 plus years have congealed into the pride of ideological difference that is created by the borders of ones nation and the culture of the people within it. The catch twenty-two of diversity has become fragmented ideologies…. [read more]


Western Civilization Has Been Developing Term Paper

… Therefore, their reinforcement could be perceived as an allegory for the strong being meant to help the weak.

The fact that the name of the story is Krishna and Arjuna indicates that the central idea is not based on the remote contrast between water and fire, but on the great friendship and effective teamwork comprised of the two eponymous characters. The association may also further suggest that two polarities who work in harmony are destined to achieve a favorable result. Hence, I believe that the message intended is to acknowledge and harness the opposing aspects of our lives, in order to achieve balance and make progress on our individual spiritual paths.

Concentration is a short Buddhist story. A young archery champion challenges a skilful and…. [read more]


International Business Environment of India Spread Research Paper

… International

Business Environment of India

Spread over three million square kilometers and located entirely in the northern hemisphere, India is the seventh country in the world in terms of geographical size. India's neighbors are Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east, Bhutan, China and Nepal in the north, Pakistan in the west and Sri Lanka in the south (Doing in Business in India, n.d.).

When entrepreneurs put together a business plan and try to get off the ground, the first obstacle that they often face are the actions required to incorporate and register the new firm before they can legally do business. Economies fluctuate greatly in how they control the entry of new businesses. In some the process is straightforward and affordable. In others the actions…. [read more]


Vinoba Vhabe Vinoba Bhave Thesis

… The constructive work agencies established under the supervision of Gandhi united to form Sarva Seva Sangh. This society was meant for the Service of All. Sarva Seva Sangh became the central part of Sarvodaya Movement and the main organization that worked for broad social change along Gandhian lines (Shepard, 1987, p. 13). In due course, the membership of Sarva Seva Sangh reached around 7,000 which made the organization the country's largest nonpolitical and non-church private organization. People started to see Vinoba as probable heir to Gandhi. However, he didn't want himself to be a leader. His preference was to spend a quiet time in his ashram where he could experience total self-sufficiency along with his close followers (Shepard, 1987, p. 14).

Bhoodan (Land-Gift) Movement

With…. [read more]


Sleeping Giant Awakens China Research Paper

… Sleeping Giant Awakens

China, known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a rural, pre-industrial society to an economic and political powerhouse in just a few decades. Since 1949, through the Great Patriotic Revolution led by Mao Tse-Tung, China has literally moved from a feudal economic system to one of the world's fastest growing economies in the global environment. How did China accomplish this herculean task? What were the political and social consequences of such rapid movement? How is China now poised to become what some see as the "next global super-power"? Finally, how does traditional Chinese culture translate into modern geopolitical thought, allowing China both a link to its past and a propellant to the future?

China is a huge nation that has…. [read more]


Impact of Imperialism on the Middle East Term Paper

… Imperialism in the Middle East

The Impact of Imperialism in the Middle East

Imperialism and Decolonization:

A Case Study of Egypt and Iraq

In this paper, a discussion will be offered on the consequences of Western imperialism, notably British, that not only impacted on the immediate aftermath of their comportment in previously colonized areas, but also contributed in forming their prospective social, economic and political future, through examining imperialism in Egypt and Iraq. The powerlessness of the Egyptian and Iraqi authorities can be linked to the socio-economic modifications the British enforced and their disinclination to assume a choice to the Western construct of power.

It can be said that historically speaking, the Middle East has not been considered to be charitable to the power of…. [read more]


Sun Tsu Art of War Term Paper

… All the greatest rulers and generals in history sought ways to achieve their goals without fighting battles, and the best generals knew how to win without fighting at all. A military commander should also be a model of duty, diligence, loyalty and propriety rather than corrupt and self-seeking and no army would ever really find success in the long-term without a commander who embodied these virtues. His cultural and philosophical assumptions held that the general was the father of his men and their model, just as the king was the head of the entire extended family of his subjects. If the leaders lacked virtue then the state was doomed in any case, and would be conquered or overthrown. Sun Tzu's mental world was authoritarian and…. [read more]


Calligraphy in Two Different Cultures Essay

… Whereas, even the illuminated manuscripts, as accomplished as works of art as they are, remain in the realm of manuscripts with illustration to support complete and embellish the content of their texts. That does not mean that the western culture did not become aware of the value of the handwriting from the point-of-view of the "scribe." Graphology, although not considered a science, it was born as a result of the research undertaken by those who studied human behavior and psychology. In this regard, it surpasses the esthetic purposes and its initial meaning of artistic impression.

Li Jikai considers that the works of modern Chinese writers is actually a reflection of the intermingling of their thoughts and the visual expression of the words they use to…. [read more]


Oppression of the Chechen People by the Russian Government Term Paper

… Oppression of the Chechen People by the Russian Government

Russian Oppression of the Chechen People

The purpose of this work is to research the interactions and wars in between Russia and Chechnya as well as the oppression perpetrated against and upon the Chechen people and to show that the Chechen people are a nation that loves peace and equality as well as valuing their cultural heritage and not at all the war-mongering nation that Russia would have the world to believe.

The Russian rule of the Chechen people has seemingly brought the people of Chechnya to their knees however one must question the true validity of Russian rule in a land where a people have never accepted that rule but continued to war against the…. [read more]


Neo-Liberalistic Legal Concepts on Nations Literature Review

… 1 (2002).] [26: Anita Chan, and Jonathan Unger, "A Chinese State Enterprise Under the Reforms: What Model of Capitalism?," The China Journal 62 (2009).] [27: Ross Cranston, "Theorizing Transnational Commercial Law," Texas International Law Journal 42, no. 3 (2007).]

Impact of Neo-Liberalism

The neo-liberalist philosophy described above is sometimes one of political expediency, but it makes government, and the laws that are enacted, more responsible[footnoteRef:28]. In his article about "The Dark Side of International Business"[footnoteRef:29], Madan Batra wrote that; [28: Andrew Kipnis, "Neoliberalism Reified: Suzhi Discourse and Tropes of Neoliberalism in the People's Republic of China," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 13, no. 2 (2007).] [29: Madan M. Batra, "The Dark Side of International Business," Competition Forum 5, no. 1 (2007).]

"The dark side…. [read more]


Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq Literature Review

… Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq

Private investment in developing countries

An overview on early Empirical studies

In 1980s, the developing countries encountered some increment in their development behaviours with debt crisis, which affected the formation of capital. Concurrently, the affected countries were transforming from the post-era to a structural reform efforts. In mid 1980s, the developing countries adopted the reform programs within the new paradigms (Serven&Salimano, 1993) & (Jaspersen, Aylward&Sumlinski, 1970). Consequently, this led to the formation of environmental private sector that highly relied on the existing market. The formation and implementation of the new policies affected the availability of response to the private investments. The debt crisis lowered the private investments within the developing countries and this disheartened them. The…. [read more]


Women and Islam the Western Perception Term Paper

… Women and Islam

The Western perception of Islam is of a religion that is especially restrictive of women. Christianity has had its own more restrictive policies toward women in the past, but the West believes it has evolved to a more equitable view of the rights of women and of equality of the sexes. Islam is seen as living in the past and as failing to modernize, while Islam sees its restrictions as socially constructive and as elevating women rather than keeping them down. Such differences in perception are based on historical differences and also on the way the West has changed and now expects others to do the same without necessarily making the case in a way that appeals to Islam. There are some…. [read more]


Price-Reduction of Long Haul Fixed-Line Telecommunication Service Research Proposal

… Price-Reduction of Long Haul Fixed-Line Telecommunication Service and Infrastructure in the Middle East

The expansion of telecommunications via fixed-line networks depicts a significant contemporary, credible concern, not only in the Middle East, but also in other parts of the world as interactions with the Middle East regularly occur in and outside its borders. During the thesis, the researcher argued that enhanced negotiations, deeper cultural understanding, and infrastructure expansion could contribute to reducing prices for fixed-line long haul telecommunications service procurements in the Middle East/Southwest Asia (UAE, Bahrain, Iraq, and Afghanistan).

In the mixed-method case study, the researcher explored fixed-line long haul telecommunications service procurements in the Middle East; using various data collection procedures over a sustained period of time to collect detailed information. For the…. [read more]


Arab Spring: Jordan the Middle Research Paper

… S. And other Western nations have reaped from their relationship with certain MENA nations is the fact that they have been able to attain a small amount of supposed safety from relationships that they have fostered and from intelligence sources. Both economics and safety appear to be in jeopardy though.

Safety

There is a network of countries, called the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), formed in 1981 (Blanche "Club") which has recently sought to gather together a number of allies that can work to thwart the aims of organizations such as the Muslim Brotherhood. The GCC has tried to get Jordan to join because the country is seen as one of the more stable forces in the region, and it has a long reputation as a…. [read more]


Conflict Resolution in the Middle Term Paper

… The pro-Israel camp has its own lobbies, organizations, think tanks, magazines, support groups, Internet user groups, etc. that strives hard to establish that the Arabs are wrong and they are right. The Israelis pose to be more outstanding in morality than the Arabs. Similarly the lobbies, organizations, think tanks, magazines, support groups, Internet user groups, etc. existing in the side of pro-Arab camps strives hard to establish that the Israelis are wrong and they are right. They also announce in similar fashion that they are morally more upstanding in comparison to the Israelis. Both of the groups are accusing each other labeling allegation that the other is morally deficient, the other is not acting nicely and because of the other that they are not arriving…. [read more]


Sufism and Politics Research Proposal

… ¶ … interconnection between Sufism and political rulers during the period ranging from the Almoravid dynasty (year 1040) until the colonial period (1912-1956). To this end, this paper provides a review of the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop an analysis concerning how Sufism became politicized in Morocco and an examination of the activist or rebellious Sufism who railed against the political state as well as acquiescent Sufists who cooperated and were used by the state. In addition, a discussion concerning the causes that lead Sufism to be co-opted by the state and how it was accomplished, and those that pushed the Sufis to be oppose the state is provided, together with an assessment of how these events transpired. A discussion concerning several specific Sufi…. [read more]


Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism Relevant Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict

Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of ethnic conflict? What are the main points Perlmutter highlights about nationalism and ethnic conflict? Which emotions does Moisi identify with specific regions of the world in his clash of emotions analysis?

There are mainly two forms of nationalism that states throughout the world have adopted. The first is civic nationalism that refers to viewing all citizens of a state as members of one nation. The United States is a prime example of a country that exhibits civic nationalism. The second is ethnic nationalism that is based on ethnicity. An example of a country exhibiting ethnic nationalism would be Turkey where the state has identified ethnic Kurds as Turks for the last eighty years, and this…. [read more]


Leadership Comparison Term Paper

… Political Science

Comparison of Leadership Styles and Philosophies

Politics and social history are dominated by the views of those who shape movements and events. These views include not only the basic assumptions of leaders in regard to ideas of human and civil rights, religious values and beliefs, and thoughts on right conduct and appropriate moral behavior, but also the attitudes of those leaders toward how such goals should be attained.

Some leaders espouse only the most peaceful of paths, while others advocate violence. For still others, the pragmatic offers the only solution - they hold in contempt those who cling to high ideals at all costs. Leadership can be gained in numerous ways. It is earned and it is inherited. It is acknowledged only after…. [read more]


Maori Culture Primary Mode Essay

… A lot of New Zealand land was under sale in London, without considering the health of Maori not still having their tribal land.

Raeburn Lange, (1999) analyze that even though most of Maori on the northern east coast regularly interacted with 'Pakeha' and adopted the ways of 'Pakeka'. This was from the teaching of missionary schools, they became Christians and learnt how to read bible. Most of the inland Maori, who had not rapidly adjusted to the changes that have been caused by 'Paheka' turned to be never connected with their land and hence identity. She explains that much emphasis was being put by Maori on the supernatural and such allowed their all action. This was their religion.

Sickness and healing

Sicknesses was considered to…. [read more]


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing Thesis

… But just as China (Beijing consensus)'s economic and military power does not yet match that of the United States, China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power still has a long way to go as demonstrated by a Chicago Council on Global Affairs poll. China (Beijing consensus) does not have cultural industries like Hollywood, and its universities are not yet the equal of the United States. It lacks the many non-governmental organizations that generate much of U.S. soft power. Politically, China (Beijing consensus) suffers from corruption, inequality, and a lack of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. While that may make the "Beijing consensus" attractive in authoritarian and semi-authoritarian developing countries, it undercuts China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power in the West. Although China (Beijing consensus)'s new…. [read more]


ASEAN the Study Term Paper

… A majority of the ASEAN initiative ideas surface from the sectoral associations as an outcome of combined recognition, talks, negotiations, and development conventions. In certain instances, novel, rising precedence needing instant performances can also be converted into a new project.

The endeavor of ASEAN was to augment the competitive advantage as a manufacturing centre slated for the global marketplace. A vital stride in this path is the globalization of business in the area by abolishing the interregional tax and non-tax blockades. The outcome of globalization renders the production businesses of ASEAN to be more productive and more competitive in the international market. Concurrently, consumers are positive to buy products from other competent manufacturers in the ASEAN fold, therefore increasing conduction of business among the ASEAN…. [read more]


Democratic Transition in Asia Essay

… In the Triangular Model of Social Movement Analysis (TRIM), Koichi Hasegawa theorized that the secretive and centralized control of Japan by ministers, bureaucrats, the Liberal Democratic Party and giant corporations left very little space for protest movements and NGOs to influence policy compared to the U.S. And other Western democracies (Broadbent and Brockman, p. 17). Tatsuo Arima described how the rise of fascism in Japan in the 1920s and 1930s was influenced by common intellectual currents of the time. Like Germany, it was ruled by elites who laid claim to "scientific and technical modernity but anti-modern values characterized by the 19th Century nostalgia for medieval history and feudal order" (Schmiegelow 1997, p. 30).

China's economy is still growing at 9% per year in spite of…. [read more]


Entrepreneurial Leadership Styles a Comparative Study of Sweden and China International Business Term Paper

… Entrepreneurial Leadership Styles - Comparative Study of Sweden and China

In recent years, researchers have contributed different causes as responsible for the success of a country's economic system, and as a result, differing models for economic growth suggest multiple possible paths for success. Two countries of notable global success, attributable to each of its' entrepreneurial leadership skills, are Sweden and China. The world is changing fast, and China is now an important part of the global economy. However, cooperation in Europe is growing closer and broader. Sweden is a small nation with a history of major success on the global market, success that has been attributable to the Swedish business sector's strong position and skilled company leaders. This paper will offer a comparative study of…. [read more]

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