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Training Programme for Female Athlete Research Paper

… ¶ … Training Programme for Female Athlete

Date/Time: ____ Name:

Strength/flexibility exercises test Rubric (5%)

The instructor (NOT student) will choose 5 strength/flexibility exercises from the student's Written Report that the student states his athlete will use over the 3-month hypothetical training period. The Instructor will ask the student to perform the exercises in turn and name the muscle(s) being stretched or strengthened. This is NOT a physically demanding test (only 1 repetition is performed).



Strength/flexibility exercise 1

Conducted exercise correctly

Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched

Strength/flexibility exercise 2

Conducted exercise correctly


Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched


Strength/flexibility exercise 3

Conducted exercise correctly


Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched


Strength/flexibility exercise 4

Conducted exercise correctly


Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched


Strength/flexibility exercise…. [read more]

Athletes and Steroids Historical Issue Essay

… Steroids help in treatment of appetite related conditions. The treatments of these conditions require proper diagnosis, followed by right treatment from a qualified doctor who gives the right prescription (Magdalinski, 2008). Those need to use steroids for non-medical cases use dubious means to acquire them. Some countries banned the use of steroids, and therefore the black market helps to penetrate them to individuals. Their peers and friends introduce teens to steroids usage. Unscrupulous businesspersons promote steroids trade by recruiting agents who help to promote their use. Some athlete coaches entice their trainee in to steroids use and help them acquire the drugs. Steroids business involves an extraordinarily wide network that offers powerful mechanisms in the promotion of their use.

Steroids have extremely adverse effects to…. [read more]

Athletes Review Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace Research Paper

… Athletes Review: Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace

The human foot has an extremely complex structure of bones, joints and muscles. Meadows (2006) points out, "The human foot has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. With such a complex structure, a lot can go wrong. While some foot problems are inherited, many occur because of years of wear and tear."

In addition, Meadows points out a number of signs and symptoms that can lead to foot injury. These signs include:

"Excessively dry skin,

Thickened or discolored nails,


Redness, and Unusual sensations (Meadows, 2006)."

Foot injury is significant and cannot be overlooked. Even the initial signs should not be treated lightly. However, research has shown that most doctors overlook feet…. [read more]

Leadership Training for Youth Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… The study findings indicate that the context best suited to the development of initiative is structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations. These context create opportunity for youths to experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation and deep attention. Adolescents participating in effective organizations were found to acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative. (PsycINFO Database Record

Larson, R., Hansen, D., and Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42, 849-863.

The authors studied the different types of experiences that youth encounter according to their participation in community-based and extracurricular activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders took a computerized survey about their organized…. [read more]

Athlete Concerning Intimidation, Eligibility Case Study

… He had to heighten his draft prospect for he had no intentions of going a head in his education which was even known by the coaches. The staffs arranged for Rudy his classes which evident violation of ethical values and he is never been held responsible for his action even after obtaining (DUI) falsely. These were not enough he went and advertise himself in college without considering the other team mates. At the games in the field he gain superstars type calls from referees which was malicious and he was physical in his type of play which was not being permitted to do so.

It is very important that our children are given teaching while they are still in elementary leagues to cub out chances…. [read more]

Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Term Paper

… My player's ages range from 14 -- 18 years of age. I have emphasized over and over again to them the importance of being physically conditioned for the upcoming season in order to compete with the better teams in the league. I have explained to the players that over my past 25 years involvement with the game of soccer that the better team doesn't always win, but that the team that "wants it" the most and has the most desire will sometimes pull out a game they "shouldn't have won."

The way I incorporated the conditioning program was to have the players participate over the summer months in an aerobic and anaerobic training program that was put together by the coaching staff. I gave the…. [read more]

High School Sports Impact on Student Academics Thesis

… But the NCAA reserves the right to overrule principals' decisions. The NCAA's modest response followed meetings with national education groups, including AASA. The Minnesota Association of School Administrators has submitted to AASA for consideration a resolution that states it is not the NCAA's role to dictate course content to high schools.

The U.S. Department of Justice also has challenged the NCAA for automatically rejecting courses involving special education services. Some students who had attained acceptable college entrance test scores despite their disability were not allowed to participate as freshmen because they had taken high school courses involving special education assistance. The NCAA argued in several court cases that it does not have to follow the Americans with Disabilities Act. After months of…. [read more]

Gender on Concussion Reporting Annotated Bibliography

… Each of the participants had competed in either a high school sport or a college team. The participants were required to indicate their perceived stress intensity and their typical coping response after experiencing two stressors that they perceived as most intense. The results were analyzed via multivariate analysis.


There were differences by race and gender. Caucasians experienced higher stress intensity more often than did African-Americans, while Hispanics did not significantly differ from either group. Caucasians were more likely to use an approach-behavior coping style. Women's self-report indicated a higher stress intensity for coach related sources of acute stress. Women used approach-behavioral and avoidance-cognitive groups more than men.


Both race and gender impact how athletes experience stress, as well as impacting coping styles.

Relevance…. [read more]

Dietary Supplement for Athletes Research Paper

… 2007). On average, the International Society of Sports Nutrition reported that body composition athletes supplementing with creatine gain twice as much lean muscle mass than those taking a placebo (Butford et al. 2007).

But not all studies have confirmed this notion. In another small study by Beck (2007) fifty-one men were assigned a creatine drink while others were given a placebo. Neither group showed marked improvement on two 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Tests for determination of peak power (PP) and mean power (MP), percent body fat (%fat) and fat-free mass (FFM), and on tests of external resistance strength and muscular endurance over a ten-week period. However, none of these men were trained athletes, which may indicate that some natural ability to build body mass must be…. [read more]

Use of Steroids in Athletes Term Paper

… Steroids Among Athletes

Steroids are a class of prescribed drugs, used to treat abnormally low amounts of testosterone, body wasting in the case of AIDS and other disease conditions involving loss of body mass (National Institute of Drug Abuse 2006). Anabolic steroids contain hormones or hormone-like substances, used to boost strength and muscle growth (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence 1998). Steroids were first developed in Europe in the 30s to treat undernourished patients. They were also used for healing after surgery. Weightlifters began using them for competitions in the 50s in order to enhance their performance. The popularity and use of steroids thus spread among athletes throughout the world. Today, at least one in 15 male high school seniors in the U.S. Or half a…. [read more]

Omega-3 Fat Intake and Athlete Term Paper

… The bottom line here is that for athletes that engage in very intensive activities and competitions the effect of possible muscle damage can be at least partially mitigated through the use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements.

Another research article in a peer-reviewed publication (Journal of Sports Science and Medicine) points to the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid in elite female soccer players. Jose Guzman and colleagues set out to see whether omega-3 fatty acids will improve "neuromotor function" -- and using 24 world class female soccer players from Spain's Super League they did indeed verify that omega-3 supplements can improve neuromotor functions (Guzman, et al., 2011). The authors point out that most of the previous research involving omega-3 has focused on decreasing or "delaying fatigue"…. [read more]

Establishment of Blood Screening Protocols Literature Review

… " (Fallon, ) However, more recent evidence is stated by Fallon to call this conclusion into question as Hinton et al. In reports a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, that investigated the effect of iron supplementation in 42 iron-depleted nonanemic women. Findings of the study state that five male athletes were identified in which "screening abnormalities were associated with illness or other factors that explained the abnormalities." ( ) In three cases it is reported that hematological screening did not contribute clinically useful data as the abnormalities would have been expected based on the history and examination." In the other two it is reported that "the case of the asymptomatic slowly developing iron deficiency and of the football player who refused follow-up, hematological and iron-related screening uncovered…. [read more]

Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy Capstone Project

… The intended audience is primarily individuals responsible for coach training programs. Yet, the data was collected from the athletes, and apparently no data was collected from coaches with regard to their own perceptions or observations about their use of coaching strategies. Particularly of note is the absence of self-assessment by coaches of any differentiated treatment or interactions based on the gender or ages of the young athletes. Analysis of the relation between coaching styles and gender was not identified as an important variable in the initial approach to the study. The age range of the participants is wide, and calls to question whether different strategies might have different impact on the youth athletes depending on their age, as well as their gender. Moreover, this study…. [read more]

Title IX: Negative Effect on Men's College Athletics Essay

… ¶ … Boost for Women's Athletics but a Bane for Men's Athletics?

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." -- Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Although there is no doubt that when first enacted into federal law in 1972 (as part of the Educational Amendments of 1972), Title IX was viewed as a long-overdue boost for women's sports in colleges and universities. For many years, university men's sports -- in particular football and basketball, which bring in millions of dollars for big time Division I schools -- were the only game in…. [read more]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Annotated Bibliography

… Arnold, T., & Shelbourne, K. (2000). A perioperative rehabilitation program for anterior cruciate ligament surgery. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28, 1-16

Rehabilitation is crucial for postoperative knee injury. Describing their somewhat innovative preoperative program that had been conducted at their clinic during the last 10 years, the researchers detailed the 4-phase structure that they used to restore patients to activity quickly and safely and to reduce post-operative swelling. Methods included mental preparation for cure, aggressive swelling reduction, hyperextension exercise, and gait training, and program started instantly after injury occurred. Post-operative goals were to control swelling whilst endeavoring to attain full kneecap motion. The program's goals were to shift to sport-specific exercises once quadriceps-strengthening goals had been accomplished.

Bandi, M., & Volpi, P. (2006). Comparative evaluation…. [read more]

Dark Age and the Archaic Term Paper

… Spartan males were raised to be warriors and Spartan females were raised to be subservient and serve Spartan males. Examining the system, it is clear that Spartan women suffered from systemic political gender discrimination, but it is equally clear that the rigid gender roles deprived Spartan males of many of the aspects of life generally considered critical for happiness and good mental health. In fact, the Spartan ideal for manliness was one of physical perfection, so that imperfect male infants were left to die or placed into slavery. This is one way where Spartan males were placed to a much higher standard than Spartan females. Males were also deprived of significant maternal contact and comfort; they were raised by wet-nurses and they were not shown…. [read more]

Ankle Injury Term Paper

… Ankle injuries - Athletes



Lateral Inversion Sprain

Medial Eversion Sprain

Syndesmosis Sprain

Achilles Tendon Rupture

Other Ankle Injury Classifications



One of the most common types of injuries occurring during sports events is that of ankle injuries. The ankle is susceptible to injury in practically every sport that exists. "There is a broad spectrum of intra- and extra-articular pathologies that may result in chronic pain and loss of function after an ankle sprain in an athlete. Multiple concurrent intra- and extra-articular pathologies are common. The complex anatomy in the ankle and foot may result in overlap of the clinical features of these various conditions. Contemporary imaging modalities facilitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate and timely management. This review focuses on the particular mechanisms…. [read more]

Dance Injury Prevention and Overall Level Term Paper

… Dance

Injury prevention and overall level of health and fitness often play a back seat role for dancers. In the effort to perfect their art, dancers focus on specific types of movements, techniques, and exercises over others. Specifically, exercises that can improve bone integrity, increase muscular strength, improve general aerobic fitness, and improve muscular endurance can help dancers avoid injuries. Injuries in dancers are common, affecting ballet dancers at least once per year (Twitchett, et al., 2010). For professional dancers, injury can upset careers; for all dancers, injuries can lead to poor health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to review literature on how to optimize the health and fitness of dancers.

The causes of injury are diverse, and depend on the type of dance, the…. [read more]

Nurse Training in Cardiac Procedures the Effects Term Paper

… Nurse Training in Cardiac Procedures

The effects of pre-operative nursing teaching on the stress/anxiety level of patients who will undergo heart surgeries and percutaneous interventions

Patients undergoing any heart-related procedure could expect to experience a certain amount of stress. Stresses go beyond the physical stresses associated with the procedure. Emotional responses before, during, and after the procedure have an impact on the ability of the patient to cope. Additional stress has an effect on the ability of the patient to recover and their willingness to make life changes to accommodate their condition. Stress has a negative impact on the lives of patients and families of patients who have undergone invasive heart-related interventions. This research will examine the effectiveness of nurse training on reducing the stress…. [read more]

Motivation and Confidence in Sports Thesis

… 51). As it were, the association that exists between sport confidence and performance should be an important issue for psychologists in sports to analyze. Actually, sport confidence can be a varying and temporary variant. The inconsistency in sport confidence that exists in duration of time is influenced in basic by the sources of the confidence. (Weinberg & Gould, 1999, p.24).

Researchers can make an effort to realize how the sources of sport confidence would make an impact on the athlete's performance, level of confidence, cognition, emotion and behaviors. They may also carefully analyze the confidence that is derived from sources by realizing the interaction of the social background, organizational cultures, and the nuances of the athlete. Sport competition is a basic atmosphere…. [read more]

Athletic Scholarships Providing Term Paper

… I do not know if this is envy or not, but the high-level coaches have worked hard to earn their salaries and recognition, just like any other highly paid television figure. Non-athletic professionals have made proposals stating their prejudicesses against athletes. A couple of years ago, "a 28 member commission of current and former university presidents, other university officials, and private citizens, produced a report recommending shorter playing seasons, removing commercial logos from uniforms, requiring that at least half of the players on the team must graduate to be eligible of championships" (n a, December 2001). When discrimination or childishness like this take place on a professional level, it becomes mandatory for school athletic programs to do their own fundraising, because scholarship programs are effected.…. [read more]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament, or ACL Research Paper

… ¶ … anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of four ligaments that connect the bones of the knee joint providing roughly 90% of the knee's stability (Health Information Publications, 2011). The ACL is one of the most important of the four ligaments and is often injured during athletic activities although it causes of ACL injury can be from non-athletic activities (Health Information Publications, 2011).

In order to better understand the ACL functions, injury causes, prevention of further or future injury, and the techniques used in surgically repairing a torn ACL, a brief discussion of the anatomy of the knee is both helpful and useful. The knee is a hinge joint and is the meeting place for the femur, tibia, and patella (Netter, 2011). Cartilage…. [read more]

Proteins Term Paper

… Repair and recovery is also an important use of protein for strength-training athletes. "Though strength-training athletes often consume large amounts of protein in hopes of building more muscle mass, the actual requirements for this tissue building are relatively small. Protein consumed in excess of actual requirements will not be used to build more muscle, but rather will be converted and used as energy or stored as fat." (Ryan 71-72). So, for adult athletes the RDA can vary between 1 to 2 grams per kilogram of body mass per day.

To better analyze what appropriate levels of protein consumption are for athletes, rather than sedentary individuals, it is important to identify specifically what factors most strongly influence these protein requirements. "Because nitrogen balance may be affected…. [read more]

Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership Term Paper

… This research aims to clarify the relationship between coaches and athletes, shorten the expectation of athletes and the difference between the ideal and real leadership of coaches.

Chelladurai's researching method was adapted by Dr. Cheng and had been composed as a book named "The leadership of sport coaches." According to Cheng, the behavior, attitude and value standard of a leader has a major influence on athletes' imitating behavior (Ryan). The reason that a coach can influence athletes is the job of coach is complex, as the coach must react quickly when faced with different problems. Generally speaking, coaches' training and teaching methods greatly influence the emotion management of athletes


Basically, in order to improve the skills of athletes and target excellent performance, the Multidimensional…. [read more]

High School Sports Recruitment the Dream Term Paper

… ¶ … High School Sports Recruitment

The dream of any competitive athlete, young or old, is to be recruited with the hopes of working professionally. Lure of fame and fortune is particularly poignant in adolescence, especially because of the celebrity status of professional athletes in all sports, from basketball to football to baseball to hockey. However, young athletes in high school are especially at risk for the disillusionment that comes with the territory of sports recruitment. Countless agencies currently offer their for-pay services for high school students promising fame, glory and big bucks for their participation. Such organizations sometimes cheat parents and students into buying pipe dreams. Often, such services are simply resume-building services that offer little in the way of true professional guidance. Reputable…. [read more]

Sports Science and Sports Medicine Term Paper

… (Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003)

When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick, 2003) These routines are also followed by many professional and college teams, NCAA Division I women's college soccer players, Norway handball teams, all with significantly improved ACL injury statistics. (Patrick, 2003)

Another area that has developed increasingly in sports science is exercise physiology. It is specifically the study of how people respond to acute and chronic exposure to physical stress in a variety of environmental…. [read more]

Manage the Effects of Pressure Essay

… Visual imagery has also been demonstrated to improve an athlete's self-confidence and increase skill when combined with real practice (Vadocz, Hall, & Moritz, 1997). Cognitive restructuring can be important as it allows athletes to develop more positive explanations of the physical and cognitive activation they experience pertaining to competition and therefore reduce performance anxiety. One method is to de-emphasize the importance of competitions to decrease anxiety (Hardy et al., 1996). Goal setting is another aspect of cognitive restructuring. It is important to set goals that are realistic and progressive in order to manage the athlete's state anxiety (Jones, Swain, & Cale, 1990). Athletes that have high trait anxiety may often set unrealistic goals or have unrealistic expectations about winning, losing, and performance (Hardy et al.,…. [read more]

Positive Effects of Extracurricular Activity on Academic Research Proposal

… Positive Effects of Extracurricular Activity on Academic Achievement in District of Columbia High Schools

"A good education ought to help people to become both more receptive to and more discriminating about the world: seeing, feeling, and understanding more...."

Laurent a. Daloz (20th century)

On Academic Achievement

The Alliance for Excellent Education (2008) reports that when students do not follow through with obtaining a good education and graduating from high school, they cost society money. In fact, the Alliance points out, students who drop out of school in Washington, D.C. cost the District of Columbia area millions in lost wages: "If the nearly 2,000 high school dropouts from the Class of 2008 had earned their diplomas instead of dropping out, the District of Columbia's economy would…. [read more]

Sports Ethics Term Paper

… Sports Ethics

Winning isn't everything, it's the only thing" was the famous motto of the legendary football coach Vince Lombardi, which seems to have been taken to heart by the American society of late. It has put into the back-ground, the "old fashioned" advice for good sportsmanship that extolled the virtues of playing the game in the right spirit while downplaying the importance of winning and losing. The widespread use of steroids by high-profile athletes for boosting their performance, therefore, does not come as a surprise in a culture that puts such a high premium on "winning at all costs." But is there a pattern in the use of steroids? Is it being used across the board or are certain groups by sex, class or…. [read more]

Heat Pill Body Temperature Monitoring Term Paper

… Heat Pill: Body Temperature Monitoring

The 'Heat Pill' has made possible calculating core body temperature in a non-laboratory environment on a realtime basis. For assessing hyperthermia on the field, the 'heat pill' offers the best technological means and thus the most useful life saving screening method for the Trainers. The 'Heat Pill' could possibly eliminate heat stroke, which is currently the third leading cause of death among athletes in America. There is no question of doubt that the 'Heat Pill' will serve as a life saving technological advancement for athletes around the world.

Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are a major concern for athletes around the world. Particularly for people living in hotter climatic regions, heat illness presents a dangerous situation. Prolonged exposure to heat…. [read more]

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