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Transcription Is a Process Term Paper

… The termination complex consists of terminal RNA and mRNA that associate with polypeptide chains that had hydrolyzed

Question 4 There are 64 codons total. Why do you suppose some amino acids have only one or two codons while others have more? What is the wobble?

Genetic redundancy is a condition in which an individual suffers from a condition where a certain biochemical function cannot work as it is impaired by one or two genes. This condition makes the amino acids have only one or more codons. There are 4 bases and 21 amino acids. Four to the power of one gives one, 4 to the power of 2 gives 16, 4 to the power of three gives 64. The situation cannot work with the two…. [read more]

Mitochondrial Diseases a Gene Essay

… This explains why there went any inflammatory response to the infection. Since the body's genes itself made the disease, there was no host response present. (Norrby 2011)

The misfolded proteins once made should be destroyed by the detective machinery inside the cell, however when these proteins increase in number, the cell cannot work out its investigative functions anymore. Protein misfolding can either occur spontaneously or by a mutation in the gene. Sickle cell anemia is a disorder that is inherited and leads to the improper folding of the proteins that make up hemoglobin. (Botelho & Lupi, 2008)

The amyloid diseases consist of Parkinson's, Alzheimer, type II and other cutaneous or systemic amyloidosis. The diseases that are caused because of the prions are not considered amyloid…. [read more]

Expression Profiling of a Novel Term Paper

… Nucleic Acids Research, 39, D225-D229. Published online November 24, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Mortensen, R.M. And Kingston, R.E. (2009). Selection of transfected mammalian cells. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 9.5). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Rosenfeld, J., Capdevielle, J., Guillemot, J.C., and Ferrara, P. (1992). In-gel digestion of proteins for internal sequence analysis after one- or two- dimensional gel electrophoresis. Analytical Biochemistry, 203, 173-179.

Smith, S.L. (2008). Basic confocal microscopy. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 14.11). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6,…. [read more]

Homophobic Behavior Examines a Phenomenon Term Paper

… Following the focus group two persons would be identified for in-depth interviews.

The next step involves aggregating the videotapes, audio tapes and transcriptions of the interviews. The transcribing process takes a lot of time and it is labor intensive. It is anticipated that the document that will be produced may exceed 75 pages of data. This document will become the source of the data that is to be analyzed. To assist in the analysis of the data summaries will be prepared for the audiotapes. The summaries contain quotations that assist in describing the nature of the phenomenon.

The data analysis approach that will be used is content analysis. Following the review of the transcribed data there will be a process firstly of line by line…. [read more]

Silicosis Is a Possibly Deadly, Permanent Term Paper

… Silicosis is a possibly deadly, permanent, fibrotic illness of the lungs that could establish succeeding to the inhalation of big quantities of silica dust gradually. In a lot of situations, silicosis just establishes succeeding to significant occupational exposures. The condition has long latency duration and might scientifically provide as an acute, increased, or persistent illness. The pathophysiology of persistent silicosis includes persistent inflammation occurring as an outcome of the build-up of different inflammatory mediators and fibrogenic elements. Under the influence of these aspects, lung silicoproteinosis establishes as soon as the eosinophilic proteinaceous product gathers in the lung alveolar areas. The degree of condition development appears to hinge on the ratio of silica deposition in the lungs, along with the overall quantity of crystalline silica in…. [read more]

Algorithm Is a Computable Essay

… A technical example of dynamic programming is the following retrieved from the Stockholm Bioinformatics Center, SBC: it uses the classical Needleman-Wunsch-Sellers algorithm to demonstrate how a dynamic-programming algorithm can work.

k is the length of the gap, copen the gap-open penalty constant, and clength the gap-length penalty constant:

W (k) = copen + clength * k

The formula describing the Needleman-Wunsch-Sellers method is recursive, and for the position (i, j) is as follows, where'd is value of element (i, j) in the matrix and subst is the substitution matrix:

Di, j = max {

Di - 1, j - 1 + subst (Ai, Bj)

Di - 1, j - k + W (k) (where k = 1, ..., j - 1)

Di - k, j…. [read more]

Erm There Have Been a Great Thesis

… ¶ … ERM

There have been a great many changes in the healthcare industry in the past two decades, largely due to the globalization of the workforce and changing demographic patterns, and technological advances. It was interesting to think about the vast changes occuring in and to look at the ways in which technology, privacy laws, and stakeholder expectations have changed. The industry changed in terms of a reliance on hospital-based care to more emergency clinics, outpatient and nursing home services, and managed care. More hosptitals merged, and many doctor's have banded together to form larger, more cost-effective, speciality groups. One of the largest and most obvious changes has been in cost of healthcare. In 1990 the avereage cost of care per person was $2,800,…. [read more]

Exist Between Alcoholism Term Paper

… g., Merikangas & Gelernter, 1990). A large-scale twin study of women suggests that the substantial co-morbidity between major depression and alcoholism is also a result of genetic factors that contribute to both disorders (Kendler, Heath, Neale, Kessler, & Eaves, 1993).

Aside from showing a shared variance between depression and alcoholism, studies also have shown a possible causal link in the relation between the two to account for part of that variance....Overall, then, findings show that alcohol abuse and dependence on alcohol can be major predisposing factors to depression.

Tomer (2001), on the other hand, suggests that while alcoholism is certainly not rational (i.e. goes against the best interests of the actor in many cases) this does not mean that it is not learned behavior.

There…. [read more]

Cellular Protein Synthesis Essay

… 2. The basic metabolic rate determines the body's rate of energy expenditure. The body's mass and surface area contribute to this rate's determination. The amount of energy a body produces is the resultant of a metabolic rate. So, the more a person exercises or simply expresses energy will effect this rate. It is important to note that food is stored energy and the interplay between food and exercise determines the metabolic rate.



Vitamins can become toxic to a body under certain circumstances. These conditions include when too much of the vitamin is consumed by the body. This occurs when these vitamins are not sufficiently dissolved whether it be in fat or water.

2. The body can successfully synthesize vitamin D with sunlight in…. [read more]

EMR Essay

… The second assumption that is embedded in this is that there will be cost savings that accrue from efficiency and liability. On the former, the figure is a rough estimate based on being able to transmit information more quickly, which would allow the organization to admit more patients in the course of a year. In addition, more patients might be attracted to the facility on the basis of it having modern information technology. The liability benefit is an estimate that would need to be confirmed by the insurance company. Only 1.7% of doctors per year face a judgment in a malpractice case, so it is unlikely that in a given year there will even be a judgment. Furthermore, there are no studies that outline specifically…. [read more]

Micrornas (Mirnas) Belong to a Newly-Appreciated Research Paper

… MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a newly-appreciated and diverse class of small, regulatory, 21-25 nucleotide RNAs (Ke and al). They are endogenous, exist across many species from bacteria to mammals, and perform various regulatory functions related to physiology and development (He and Hannon). Defects in miRNA processing at the embryonic level in mammals are often lethal (Pasquinelli, Hunter and Bracht).


The first miRNAs, lin-4 and its opposing phenotype lin-14, were discovered in 1993 through a mutagenesis screening involving post-embryonic development in the roundworm C. Elegans (He and Hannon). C. Elegans go through four larval stages; mutations in lin-4 affect regulatory timing and cause certain "cell-division patterns" from the first larval stage to repeat in later stages (He and Hannon). This operation takes place as a…. [read more]

concise Analysis of Understanding Method Essay

… Case studies go beyond the surface information and can reveal not just the how of a given phenomenon, but also the why (Zinal, 2007).


While case studies have several advantages, the approach also suffers from various limitations. The approach has received several criticisms from proponents of other approaches. First, the approach has been said to be less rigor. Often times a researcher can be sloppy and allow biased points-of-view to affect their findings or conclusions. Second, the approach is scanty when it comes to providing the grounds for scientific generalizations given the fact that the subjects under study are always small in number and is not always statistically sufficient to inform a generalization or a projection. This makes the method to be criticized as…. [read more]

Upgrading a Coffee Shop Term Paper

… Upgrading a Coffee Shop

Upgrading the Broadway Cafe Coffee Shop

Having operated in much the same manner since 1952, the Broadway Cafe is due for a marketing, process and technologically oriented makeover. Beginning with marketing, the Cafe relies primarily on word-of-mouth, which has been proven over decades of research to be one of the most successful strategies there are for gaining customers. The perception of customers is also the reality of any business (McKenna, 1995) and the Broadway Cafe must upgrade its marketing and brand to stay in step with the times and deliver experiences it customers prefer. The quaint aspects of their business, form taking orders by hand to managing their supply chains manually, needs to give way to automated order management and more…. [read more]

Biology as a Cross-Interdisciplinary Study Term Paper

… Biology as a cross-interdisciplinary study is very broad in scope. It covers the entirety of human history as well as the study of all life on the planet Earth. As a result, it covers a very wide array of academic fields that each as many of its own independent disciplines. In understanding the study of biology, one must look at the plethora of sources of information that is both available and abundant in the study of biology. Biology as a scientific discipline can be seen in both scientific and populist terms, both sources are very important in the understanding of this discipline. The following paper will focus on what and how resources within biology are actually used. We will assess their validity based upon their…. [read more]

Philosophies Embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa Identity Crisis or a Great Philosopher Essay

… Pessoa

"The Philosophies embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa. Identity Crisis or a great Philosopher?"


The Philosophies embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa. Identity Crisis or a great Philosopher?

The Philosophies embodied in the Heteronyms of Fernando Pessoa. Identity Crisis or a great Philosopher?

Introduction of Fernando Pessoa; his Life, Work and Background

Fernando Pessoa (1888 -- 1935) was a poet who wrote using various "heteronyms" or literary alter egos. However, as will be discussed, these were not alter egos in the conventional sense but were in fact separate entities that the writer claimed existed and informed his existential and artistic experience. This becomes clear from the fact that "Pessoa devoted his life to conferring substance to each alter ego, giving each…. [read more]

Employee Motivation in a Pcba Contract Manufacturing Dissertation

… Employee motivation in a PCBA contract manufacturing industry -- an example of Plexus

Today many organizations are going through change due to globalization and ever changing technology. Organizations have to cope with these changes by broadening their networks, introducing new systems at work place, hiring new staff or other many such type of changes. These changes influence workplace atmospheres as well as existing employees and they feel it difficult to cope with the changes. Current paper is a case study of Plexus Company a part of the PCB contract company. Plexus organization went through change as its widened its network and as a result workplace atmosphere was affected. The researcher explored the change affect in the company at operational level by exploring the factors of…. [read more]

Alzheimer's 7 Ways to Save a Brain by Underwood a 2005 Summer Research Proposal

… ¶ … ground breaking and innovative instances of research that claim to help patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The article begins by claiming that an 85-year-old woman, Elizabeth Harvey, who began suffering from the dementia related to Alzheimer's disease has been given an experimental treatment, which has resulted in a retardation of the progression of the disease. This retardation is marked by the fact that there is no cognitive impairment even two years after the symptoms of Alzheimer's first appeared.

The author summarizes the results of seven studies in single paragraphs. There is also an implicit dig at the Federal Drug Association (FDA), which if often criticized for dragging its feet in certifying novel, innovative and (potentially) risky treatment modalities which could be life saving.…. [read more]

Alopecia Areata Is a Systemic Term Paper

… Thus it is inferred that reduced microcirculation in the affected tissues of the scalp may induce alopecia. [Rossi]

Treatment for Alopecia (Cortisones and Anti-inflammatory and Immumotherapy drugs)

As yet, there is no complete cure for alopecia and hence all treatment rests in efficient management of the disease. There are many different types of pharmacological medications asides surgical procedures such as scalp reduction, scalp grafting, etc. While some drugs are effective as antiandrogenic agents others work by altering biological response mechanisms. Estrogen, progesterone and finasteride (Propecia)-5 alpha-reductase inhibitor are some examples of antiandrogen drugs and these are particularly suited for treating women. In men though, their use is very limited because of the potential for feminization. Cortisone injections directly into the scalp are used extensively…. [read more]

Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their decisions. Participants will include both males and females who were designated as students with disabilities at Ridgeville High School (pseudonym for a Virginia high school) and who dropped out between their third and fourth years of high school, during the 2009 to 2012 academic school years. All participants will be between the ages of 18 and 21. The proposed research design is a phenomenological study to be conducted through the use of semi-structured interviews, journaling, and observation of the sample population, with the aim of…. [read more]

WMD? Outcomes and Implications Capstone Project

… ti = Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) software

Coded Data From Observations & Interviews

Researcher Role Is To Interpret Coded Data

Themes Emerge From the Data

Data Analysis Results in Rich Accounts

Qualitative Data Analysis Methodology

Case study research results in rich, thick descriptions of the experiences & perceptions of participants

A software program is used to identify patterns in the textual data

ATLAS.ti = Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) software

A $99 student version is available that is as powerful as the more expensive institutional packages

Coded Data From Observations & Interviews

Software assigns codes to the data based on a framework developed by the researcher

Patterns are generated by the software

Data can easily be retrieved by the software for review by the researcher

Researcher…. [read more]

Belonging International Students and Web Research Proposal


This work reports a study in which 24 international students were interviewed in a research initiative that seeks to understand how international students adjust to the host culture and specifically how use of the Internet or Web assist them with this integration process. This work conducts an extensive review of literature in this area of study and examines the theoretical framework of what it means to 'belong' to a country or location. Research questions asked in this study are those of: (1) What role does Internet technology (Web 2.0) play in the international student's development and maintenance of a sense of belonging in a new home country? (2) What role does length of residence play in the international student's…. [read more]

Histones Term Paper

… Secondly, Belotserkovskaya, Reinberg, and colleagues report that FACT is capable of promoting transcription dependent nucleosomes alterations, and that this factor also facilitates assembly of histone proteins into nucleosomes in vitro even in the absence of RNAPII. So these results are consistent with the idea that FACT enables chromatin structure to be disrupted and then reestablished during transcription. This model is lastly supported by work from Saunders, Lis, and co-workers showing that FACT is associated with actively transcribed RNAPII genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes, and that its kinetics of association and site of action are consistent with its involvement in transcript elongation through chromatin. RNAPII has the intrinsic ability to disassemble nucleosomes during transcription.

In combination, all of these studies suggest that the apparently impossible technique…. [read more]

DNA the Structure and Nature Term Paper

… Translation allows for the production of proteins in ribosomes according to the genetic code within the DNA molecule. In other words, the blueprint for life encoded in the DNA helix provides the chemical information necessary to produce a seemingly infinite variety of biological forms based on, among other factors, the synthesis of proteins according to the original genetic code.

It is our knowledge of how DNA operates within living organisms to produce the endless variety of life that we see around us that is crucial to the way in which we consider and interact with biological processes. By grasping the chemical processes that lead to replication, transcription, translation, and protein synthesis within cells, we have gained a beginning of the understanding to intervene in these…. [read more]

Bayesian Methods for Data Analysis in Transcription Networks Term Paper

… ¶ … Bayesian method refers to methods on probability and statistics particularly those related to the degree of belief interpretation of probability as opposed to frequency interpretation. In Bayesian statistics, a probability is assigned to a statement, whereas under frequency conditions the hypothesis is tested without this probability. Bayesian method, or probability, may be seen as an extension of logic that involves dealing with uncertain situations and statements. To evaluate the probability of a hypothesis, the Bayesian statistician specifies some prior probability, updates the condition of the statement according to current data and then applies standard calculations and formulaes to assess probability of its occurrence and accuracy.

In general, Bayesian methods are characterized by the following concepts:

The use of hierarchical models (a topic in…. [read more]

Stem Cell Differentiation Essay

… The ability to renew them is an attribution of unipotency meaning the cells can only reverse a one-cell type (Clark, 2003).

However, it is not always possible to reverse the adult stem cells back to the undifferentiated stem cells. This occurs because of the nature of the adult stem cells, which relates to unipotency. The formation of the adult stem cells normally results from the processes occurring on the undifferentiated cells meaning the reverse of the processes would help in the conversion (Clark, 2003). The undifferentiated cells readily exist among the differentiated cells that are found in the tissues that have the capability of renewing and differentiating themselves. The presence of the stem cells in the body helps in repair and renew of the damaged…. [read more]

Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most ATP? Thesis

… ¶ … aerobic respiration produces the most ATP? Describe how this process works including where the entering molecules came from, the cellular location and how the ATP is produced.

Although some ATP nucleotide is produced via substrate-level phosphorylation, the majority of ATP generated during aerobic respiration comes from oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondrion. The process of oxidative phosphorylation is driven by ATP synthase through utilization of energy in the form of proton motive force. The electrochemical gradient of proton motive force is generated through the electron transport chain, wherein electron donors, such as NADH, facilitate the transfer of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This proton gradient then crosses back through the membrane, where its energy is utilized by the ATP synthase enzyme to phosphorylate…. [read more]

Cell Metabolism Define Metabolism, Anabolism Essay

… The process takes place is the RNA polymerase in eukaryotic organism. The mRNA is made up of expressed and non-expressed regions called exons and introns. The genetic information is transferred to the ribosome and used to make the required protein from the amino acids. Translation can be defined simply as translating information from the nucleotide language to the amino acids in the formation of the proteins needed in the normal functioning of the human body (Engel, 2009).

Translation refers to the process where the mRNA transported to the cytoplasm is translated ensure that the right order of amino acids produces the right proteins. The translation process requires many enzymes. Ribosomal RNA combine with proteins to form the ribosome, the ribosome can accept one tRNA and…. [read more]

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Thesis

… Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem cell studies are on the very cutting edge of biological advancement and research. These undifferentiated cells have the potential to become any cell in the body, from a simple part of a hair follicle to a complex neuron. Because research into this area is so new, there are still many scientific and ethical dilemmas surrounding stem cell research, especially research that involves human embryonic stem cells. These are the cells that have caused so much media and political attention over the past decade; the moral and ethical debates surrounding their uses are often heated and always too complex and controversial to allow for the emergence of a clear conclusion.

The issue comes from the fact that embryos are often destroyed…. [read more]

Nf-Kb Akirin Term Paper

… NF-kB: Akirin

NF-kB Akirin: A "Novel Nuclear Factor"

Statement of Topic Significance

Genetic engineering and experimentation hold enormous promise for eradicating many of the diseases that currently plague mankind, and researchers may even be able extend the human lifespan to unprecedented levels in the future. More importantly, perhaps, ongoing research into the human innate immune systems also suggests that such increased lifespans will be healthier and devoid of many of the physical and cognitive problems that currently go hand in hand with the aging process. In the tradition of "standing on the shoulders of giants," scientists today continue to expanding the ever-growing body of knowledge using newly discovered methods and tools that promise to yield these important research outcomes and one such tool has been…. [read more]

Music Education or Cross Platform Development Term Paper

… Music Education or Cross Platform Development

Pitch is commonly mistaken for being a term which is analogous to frequency; however, pitch is actually based on perception. Pitch is the human perception of the frequency of a musical note. (Heresiarch 2005) While pitch is related to the frequency, or physical rate of vibration in a sound wave, it is distinctly different.

The current standardized relationship between pitch and frequency is that the note a above middle C. sounds like a 440 Hz tone. In a musical context, the exact frequency of a note is far less important than its relationship to other notes. Numerous systems exist for defining the relationship between notes in a scale, usually involving a fixed frequency ratio between successive notes. The chromatic…. [read more]

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