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Tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004 Research Proposal

… Tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

The tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean on the 26th of December 2004 caused more than two-hundred thousand deaths and extensive economic and physical damage - including environmental damage to the countries in the region. The Tsunami was triggered by an underground seismic event that displaced ocean water and created a massive wave that inundated the coastal regions of the area.

There has been a long history of tsunamis in the region as well as in other areas of the world. The 2004 tsunami was the most devastating and destructive in recent history. One of the aspects that stand out in this event is that the number of deaths in the region has…. [read more]

Tsunami Relief and Reconstruction Term Paper

… In addition, large areas - approximately 300 kilometres of coastal land area have been degraded or lost (Asian pp).

Three major industrial sites are confirmed to be damaged, Pertamina, an oil depot in Krueng/Banda Aceh, Pertamina, oil depot in Meulaboh, and Semen Andalas Indonesia, a cement factory in Banda Aceh, resulting in possible contamination, including negative effects to human health and the environment, remain a matter of serious concern (Asian pp).

In January 2005, more than 13,000 members of the American military were serving the victims of the Asian tsunami. And though many governments, charities and individuals from around the world have rallied to help, the American military is the relief operation's backbone, especially in Indonesia (Spaeth pp). Region wide, the Pentagon has dispatched an…. [read more]

Tsunami in Indonesia Term Paper

… Tsunami in Indonesia


Tsunami is an ocean wave formed by an underwater earthquake, landslide or volcanic explosion. These waves may attain huge magnitude and have adequate energy to move across whole oceans. (Definitions of Tsunami on the Web) Tsunamis are created by any uproar like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteorite impact that quickly shifts a large quantity of water. But the most general reason is an underwater earthquake. An earthquake, which is very small to form a tsunami by itself, may activate an underwater landslide quite able of forming a tsunami. Tsunamis are formed when the sea floor suddenly distorts and perpendicularly moves the overlying water. These huge vertical actions of the earth's layer can take place at plate boundaries. Subduction earthquakes are…. [read more]

Natural Disaster Tsunami Term Paper

… Natural Disaster


There are a number of tsunami occurrences that has been recorded around the world. Each time a tsunami occurs, a great wave of devastation and destruction is found in the affected areas.

Below is the listing of the highly noted and most damaging tsunami that has occurred around the world. It should be noted that the latest record in here is in Sumatra (2004) where 230000 people died. This information does not involve the amount of money, and properties that were also swept away by the big waves of tsunami.

National Geophysical Data Center

However, when taking into consideration the non-damaging vs. The damaging tsunami occurrences, statistics revealed that still, the number of non-damaging tsunami outperformed the number of damaging tsunami.

Source:…. [read more]

Tsunami Warning System the December Term Paper

… Works Cited

'About The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: United States Department of Commerce. 25 June 2004. Online at <>.

Atwater, Brian F., Cisternas V. Marco, Bourgeois, Joanne, Dudley, Walter C., Hendley, James W. II, and Stauffer, Peter H. "Surviving a Tsunami -- Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan." 1999. United States Geological Survey Circular 1187. Version 1.0. Online at <>.

'Gaps plague Indian Ocean tsunami warning system." Associated Press. 23 June 2005. Online at <>.

'Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System Launched." 30 June 2005. Press Release: United Nations reproduced on Scoop. Online at <>.

Leow, Joanne. "No tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean and affected countries." 27 Dec 2004. Channel News Asia. Online…. [read more]

International Disaster: The Indian Ocean Research Paper

… While organization such as Direct Relief performed many social services and helped rebuild entire villages, as well as ensure proper sanitation procedures in various countries affected by the disaster, many state, again, that this has not been enough. According to one website, "The disaster relief that was offered just did not seem to be what others would have expected them to contribute in correspondence to the tsunami relief that the nations that were affected by the disaster had needed. The disaster relief that was offered was believed to not offer the amount of resources that they could have in order to help with the recovery. It has even been said by several sources that the United Nations did not exactly favor the disaster relief that…. [read more]

Mangrove Restoration of the Indian River Lagoon in the Face of Global Climate Change Term Paper

… Indian River Lagoon Mangrove Restoration

Global Climate Change and Mangrove Restoration of the Indian River Lagoon

Mangrove forests form an important part of the Florida coastal ecosystem. The Indian River Lagoon is an important global resource, as this area is the only place in North America where tropical waters meet temperate waters. Mangrove forests protect coastal areas in the event of storm surges. Rising ocean waters are expected to increase the number and intensity of coastal storms in Florida (WWF, 2005). In addition to the ecological benefits, the Indian River Lagoon is important to the economy of the lagoon counties.

Currently, the mangrove forests in the Indian River Lagoon are disappearing at anywhere from 44% to over 80% of 1940s and 1950s levels, as determined…. [read more]

Tsunamis Term Paper

… Tsunamis can be regarded as one of the most powerful representations of nature's force, considering the damage they generate and the fact that they are typically provoked by earthquakes. Frank I. Gonzalez's article on the subject provides readers with a through account, which is rather easy to it, obviously meant to address the masses. In spite of the fact that Gonzales addresses the matter from a general point-of-view, he nonetheless manages to put across elements that have his readers understand Tsunamis from the perspective of the victim and of the researcher.

Although they can also be triggered by other factors, tsunamis are most commonly set off by underwater seismic activity. Water is pushed upward by a subduction process caused when a tectonic plate moves under…. [read more]

Physical Geology the 'Indian Ocean Tsunami Thesis

… Physical Geology

The 'Indian Ocean tsunami' which happened on December 26, 2004 was one of the worst natural disasters to have taken place in recent times. This disaster which ravaged the coastlines of the Indian Ocean resulted in a staggering number of victims, both dead and missing. Indonesia, which was the worst affected, recorded around 160,000 victims followed by Sri Lanka, India and Thailand with 35,000, 16,000 and 8,300 victims respectively. (Shiki; Yamazaki, 14); (Satake) Other regions which bore the brunt of this great tsunami include Myanmar, the Maldives, Seychelles, Kenya and Somalia.

The primary reason for this great tsunami was an earthquake which happened at 00:58:53 GMT at 07:58:53 local time measuring 9.3 on the Richter scale whose epicenter was under the seabed off…. [read more]

Deadliest Tsunami the Indian Ocean Essay

… Sri-Lanka also suffered the wrath of the tsunami with naval base being submerged and train with 1,600 people onboard being derailed from the course leaving only 300 people alive, this was due to a wave that travelled 2 kilometers inland. A total of 50,000 people died in the aftermath of the tsunami.

The remaining areas were minimally affected with some areas recording as low number of deaths as one person like in Kenya or no death at all like in Australia. In such areas, minimal destruction of property took place, some just having the anchored boats destroyed or slight flooding in the beach hotels.

The Hokkaido (1993) tsunami was way lesser in scale and destruction as compared to the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. The…. [read more]

Development and Disasters Essay

… Tsunami 2004

In the morning of December 26, 2004, the Indian Ocean plate was subducted by the Burma plate, unleashing an earthquake underneath of the Indian Ocean that has been estimated at 9.2, the third most-intense earthquake ever recorded (, 2014). As a result of this earthquake, tsunamis were created, and they struck the Indian Ocean coastline of Asia. The tsunamis hit the countries of India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand the hardest. These nations are all heavily-populated regions, with many people living near the ocean. As a consequence the death toll and infrastructure destruction were incredible, with the total death toll estimated around 230,000 people (, 2014). Most of the dead were on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, where an estimated 167,000 were killed…. [read more]

Psychological Distress in a Natural Literature Review

… By the values established in the GHQ, 64% of those interviewed who had been flooded out -- and were evaluated six months later -- had a score of 4 or more, which is taken to mean there was significant psychological distress (that is juxtaposed with 25% that showed significant psychological distress at the time of the event). In addition, one-quarter of the 983 people interviewed experienced "deterioration" in their health since the flooding (Tunstall, 368).

The question posed to those that were flooded: "As the result of the flood, did you personally experience intense fear, helplessness or horror?" More than two-fifths of those who answered that question (using the GHQ) reflected that the flood was a "possible source" of PTSD (Tunstall, 370). That said, only…. [read more]

Workplace Continuity and Contingency Planning Thesis

… Business

Workplace Continuity and Contingency Planning

According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the earthquake that generated the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 is thought to have released the energy of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs. Huge forces that had been building up deep in the Earth for hundreds of years were released suddenly on December 26, shaking the ground violently. They unleashed a series of killer waves that sped across the Indian Ocean at the speed of a jet airliner. By the end of the day more than 150,000 people were dead or missing and millions more were homeless in 11 countries (the Deadliest Tsunami in History, 2005).

The epicenter of the 9.0 magnitude quake was located under the Indian Ocean near the west coast…. [read more]

Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature Research Paper

… Coral reefs on the beaches and on the shallow floor of the ocean are shattered posing a threat to the planktons that use them as sources of shelter and food. Oil spillage has also had continued effects in the fauna and flora undersea. The oil well drilled to the sea floor cause leakages from which many environmental bodies have been trying to deal with but with no avail. Some beaches along the Indian Ocean coastlines also suffer flooding and beach erosions (Ramalanjaona, 2011, pg 2).

The economies of Japan, Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia among others are still suffering economy loss due to derailment of some industries and tourism that are dependent of the coast. Japan, that collects a lot of revenue from fishing suffered…. [read more]

Earthquakes the Major Essay

… Mass Media Role: The news media is always called upon to report the news about the earthquake, but also media outlets report what people should do, where they should go for shelter or help, and how serious the damage was from the quake.

Conclusion: There are many scientific research studies underway to try and determine when a big earthquake may hit a given area, but so far scientists still do not know how to predict earthquakes. Meanwhile, some earthquakes have enormous power, enough to launch tsunamis that can wipe out whole cities, as we have seen in Japan, and can cause great damage to structures as sensitive as nuclear plants. The actual science of how earthquakes happen is well-known, but the ability to predict when…. [read more]

Crowdsourcing Techniques in Call Centers Dissertation

… [EXCERPT] . . . promising phenomenon that lends itself to call centers' ability to improve their own and their other business units' efficiency is the employment of crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed problem-solving and production model already in use by for-profit organizations such as Threadless, iStockphoto, and InnoCentive. Speculation in Weblogs and wisdom of crowds theory assumes a diverse crowd engaged in crowdsourcing labor. Crowdsourcing is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. Furthermore, and as crowdsourcing is in some ways similar to open-source software production, prior research suggests that individuals in the crowd likely participate in crowdsourcing…. [read more]

Hamlet Renaissance Ideals in Shakespeare Term Paper

… Hamlet

Renaissance Ideals in Shakespeare's Hamlet

Shakespeare is referred to as a Renaissance writer, specifically an Elizabethan poet and playwright. Through his many works he displays the Renaissance thought and concerns, and Hamlet is no exception. Through Hamlet's contemplation of death, his character is solidly connected to the ideals of the Renaissance.

The Renaissance is considered a period of rebirth for culture and learning. It is traditionally identified at the period of European history that closes the Middle Ages, spanning from the 14th to the mid-17th centuries. Considered the beginning of the modern world, the Renaissance period experienced a rebirth of ancient Greek philosophies, and a renewed interest in classical art forms and sensitivities. Many artists began to explore and expand the work done in…. [read more]

Executive Security in Southeast Asia Essay

… ¶ … supervisor for an elite executive protection team. The organization that is being protected is planning a one-week trip to Thailand. As part of the planning process for that trip, the author of this response will offer a total of six threats that can or might present themselves while the team is in Thailand. The author will offer a detailed summary of the nature of the threat, the severity potential of the threat, the probability of the threat coming to pass, the potential costs of life/property, the response that will be given to the threat as well as the time/duration, asset requirements, cost estimate and political/cultural implications of any response that might become necessary.

Risk One

Nature of Threat

The first threat that will…. [read more]

Company How to Create Job Opportunities Income Investment in Marysville and Triangle Development Group Essay

… Tourism

Marketing a town to spur job creation and income investment is different in many ways from marketing to consumers or even B-2-B. Kotler et al. (1993) outlined the four basic target markets for places marketing. The most relevant of these for Marysville given the objectives above, is business and industry. This target market has substantial freedom of movement with regards to its capital, so the town is competing against virtually all other towns and regions in the world. The marketing, therefore, must be highly targeted and highly effective. Moreover, in order to stand out in a global marketplace, Marysville must differentiate itself in a number of ways, from the investment climate that it presents to the nature and quality of the destination itself (Buhalis,…. [read more]

Leadership of the United States Term Paper

… In 2003, 83% of the people of Indonesia, the largest Muslim country in the world, held negative views of the United States (Brand, 2005). However, some report that the Indonesian press has softened its criticism since the U.S. response to their Tsunami disaster. As Rizal Mallarangeng, Director of the Freedom Institute, said on NCR, "The [U.S.] Marines on the shores of Aceh, unthinkable before the tsunami, but now we see it and we have to be grateful for it, because all they are doing -- something that has to be done, must be done." (Brand, 2005) This may be significant since in the past Indonesia has been highly critical of U.S. actions in both Afghanistan and Iraq (Gecker, 2005). However, even here there was a…. [read more]

Law Enforcements Role in Emergency Management Term Paper

… Law Enforcement

The Role of Law Enforcement in Emergency Management Situations

Without question, emergency management situations -- such as the September 11th terrorist attacks, the devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina, or more typical emergencies like building fires -- will require law enforcement agencies to take an active role in restoring order and maintaining normalcy. Of course, this does not even take into account the significant role that law enforcement agencies will play in preventing these kinds of disasters in the first place, when at all possible. But developing a clear understanding of the appropriate role and scope of law enforcement's involvement in an emergency management situation can be difficult at best. Conflicts of interest between other agencies -- such as emergency medical services or firefighters…. [read more]

World Poor Thesis

… ¶ … aloud or in writing, making the reflective report exercise a valuable addition to the learning process. This reflective report recounts the events that took place during the research process for the study, "Identifying Marketing Opportunities to Combat Global Poverty," including a recollection of individual experiences, the personal feeling and learning that were experienced, as well as the group dynamics and learning that were derived from the experience. A review of lessons learned that can be used in future projects is followed by a summary of the reflective report entries in the conclusion.

Recollection of Experiences

Perhaps the overriding perception that emerged during the earliest phases of the research process concerned the extent of the problem of global poverty and how it affected the…. [read more]

Decreasing Nuclear Energy Qualitative Analysis Thesis

… Similarly, many would-be nuclear powers have had trouble getting their reactors built such as Bangladesh, Belarus, Jordan, Lithuania, Poland, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam among them (Schneider et al., 2013). In the established nuclear power countries, there is a lack of investment in adding new capacity (World Energy Resources, 2013). Where there is new construction, it is to replace aging facilities (Schneider et al., 2013).

Given the decline in the development of nuclear power reactors, the world continues to rely on conventional sources of energy to meet the current global energy needs. This continual reliance has exacerbated the problem of the global climate change (Schneider et al., 2013). Consequently, environmentalists, policymakers, and governments have continued to search for a sustainable source of power…. [read more]

Disaster Response Lit Review Technological Transformation Literature Review

… Disaster Response Lit Review

Technological Transformation and their Impact on Disaster Responses

Mobile Technology Use in Disaster Response

Information and Communication Technology in Disaster Response

The Power of Social Media in disaster response and Management

Early Warning Systems and Disaster Response

Role of Early Warning Systems in Disaster Response

David Robson (2010) defines disaster management and response to disaster as the decisions and the measures that are taken to prevent and minimize the casualties in a disaster situation by early warning and restoration of order, providing immediate relief and rehabilitation after the occurrence of the disaster.

This is often the first response that takes place after a disaster strikes. However for researchers like D.A. McEntire (2007), the response to disaster need not only be after…. [read more]

Disaster Management Research Paper

… The World Institute for Disaster and Risk Management is enthusiastic on supporting the efforts of preventing natural disasters. This is possible through stringent policymaking processes ensuring that all nations are informed appropriately on the sustainability of their intervention plans and disaster recovery options. Some of the critical areas that can be addressed when developing the prevention strategies in disaster management include but not limited to responsible institution, land-use planning, alternative economic activities as well as the technical steps needed (DRM Library, 2012).

An integrated approach towards risk management demands that different institutions and stakeholders are involved in policy development. Moreover, results and expectations from every sector should be put into perspective. A multidimensional representation of the disaster recovery process is presented when all the different…. [read more]

Media if 911 Essay

… d.).

As CNN points out in its "Top Ten Stories of 2004" article, the debate over gay marriage in the United States was flaming during 2004 but it never really took fire in the news due to the other major world events such as the war in Iraq, the questionability of Bush's leadership, the failure of the Democrats to position a valid candidate to oppose Bush, and ultimately, the tsunami. The media's main topics of discussion centered squarely on terrorism -- on the Bush war, on the validity of that war vis-a-vis the 9/11 commission as well as public opinion, and the fears gripping the American public related to terrorism. Terrorist attacks in Spain escalated global fears that the terrorists were winning; even Chechen rebels…. [read more]

Earthquakes Have Come to Attract Essay

… Earthquakes have come to attract more and more attention in the recent years as the world was affected by seismic waves like the one in the Indian Ocean in 2004, the one in Haiti in 2010, and the one in Japan in 2011.

Studies and causes for which earthquakes happen

Effects triggered by earthquakes

Measures needed to be taken in the event of an earthquake

Earthquakes as they happen and examples

Studying the ocean floor is one of the most effective methods of understanding earthquakes. Even with the fact that there are several millions of earthquakes every year, only about one hundred provoke significant damage. Most earthquakes are caused by the moving of plate margins and by volcanic eruptions. The energy that these two processes…. [read more]

Richard Hughes: A High Wind Term Paper

… Messinger, drowns. Just about the time Tony is about to die in Brazil, he is rescued by a strange and very eccentric recluse named "Mr. Todd"; this recluse, who has apparently lived in the jungle (away from society) for 60 years, loves to have the works of Charles Dickens read to him, and this becomes Tony's life.

There are indications that this story was Waugh's way of condemning British society, that the trusting Tony reflects the "old" British society, who takes his wife's word that she is up to only honorable things, and the affair Brenda has with Beaver is the "new" British society, a lying, cheating society capable of infidelity and cruelty. This "new" British society was also capable of cold-hearted behavior, such as…. [read more]

Education in Third World Countries Term Paper

… Education in Third World Countries

Education has been recognized as a basic human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nation's General Assembly in 1948. Since then, numerous other international conventions and declarations have reasserted the importance of this right. Achieving universal education and ensuring that "all boys and girls complete a full course of primary education" is one of UN's 8 Millennium Development Goals agreed to in 2000 by all the world's countries and the world's leading development institutions. Although some progress has been made in increasing the level of education in most countries, a number of third world countries have fallen behind in their effort and are unlikely to achieve the goal by the target date of 2015.…. [read more]

Social Psychology of Hate Groups Essay

… Writing in 1998 in "Coming Out in the Age of the Internet: Identity 'Demarginalization' Through Virtual Group Participation," they were able to note the way in which gays had adopted the Internet early and strongly to establish a virtual community -- but chose as their point of comparison to marginalized sexual identities the virtual community-building efforts of those with marginalized ideological identities, including hate groups and even anti-gay hate groups. Bargh and McKenna are simply looking for appropriate points of comparison, and so they are willing to consider conspiracy theorists, "area 51" and alien cover-up enthusiasts, as well as "groups on the topic of White supremacy, citizen militias, and the cultural group skinheads" (Bargh and McKenna) "Coming Out" 690). As such, Bargh and McKenna offer…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.