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Theory Development Nature and Use Essay

… The question of utility and the value that the theory adds is the next question to be addressed by the authors. In addressing the criteria for a theoretical contribution, the authors spend considerable time asking the question,"what us is this knowledge?" They ask how the theory contributes to the field or how it can be used.

Corley and Gioia explore at length, many different theorists on the topic of theory development. The authors did not rely on empirical research findings, as the topic did not lend itself to such methods. The purpose of the article was to explore present theory and the process of theory generation. They do not support their work through empirical research findings, or formal data collection techniques. Rather they develop their…. [read more]


Sociology Thorstein Veblen's the Theory Term Paper

… .. The means of communication and the mobility of the population now expose the individual to the observation of many persons who have no other means of judging of his reputability than the display of goods..." (Veblen, 1902). Furthermore, the proliferation of communication technology results to a fast-pace society, due to the fast-paced character of people's society in the modern society. Indeed, communication technology, as Veblen stated, paved the way for a 'global village' to occur, where social interactions become easier, accessible, and faster, creating a new society with a new culture.

Bibliography

Coser, L. (1977). Introduction to Sociology. New York: Harcourt-Brace.

Veblen, T. (1902). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. Available at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/VEBLEN/chap04.html.. [read more]


Interior Design and Theories "Architects Term Paper

… Another design style had erupted during the era as a reaction to the Neo-Classical Style known as Picturesque, and it emphasized on formality, proportion, order and Exactitude.

Neo-Classic architecture and design identified with Western Heritage, Luxury, Eliteness and Sophistication that seeks not to replicate. An example of Neo-Classic architecture and design would be the Schermerhorn Symphony Centre. Other examples are the Newton Memorial, Bibliotheque Nationale, Metropol Church, Hotel Alexandre, all located in Paris and built by Etienne-Loius Boullee. The interior of the White House is has Neo-Classic setting. (Kulahcioglu)

Neoclassical architecture has a few characteristics in common despite the emphasis placed upon the uniqueness of each structure. It involves decisive detailing, careful proportions, skillful use of light sources, and balanced ornamentation amongst many others. Notable…. [read more]


Theory Critique of Jean Research Paper

… A deeper spiritual connection promotes healing and provides comfort to a patient's inner feelings (Watson, 2009).

Caring Moment

Caring moment as a phenomenon comes about when a nurse and the patient meet. The union of the two promotes human caring. The phenomenon broadly features personal experiences, personal perceptions, environmental conditions and understanding of personal meanings, in relation to the present, historical or hypothesized future. The caregiver should authenticate their presence of being in the moment of caring with patients. The caregiver must also be aware of his consciousness that is crucial for healing. Both parties make choices based on the relationships thereby becoming part of one's history through influence. Caring becomes transpersonal when one allows a spiritual interaction. Nurses using these phenomena promotes healing and…. [read more]


Institutions and International Relations Question Term Paper

… Institutions and International Relations Question Set

How do institutions help states to overcome the barriers to cooperation? You answer should draw most heavily from Sterling-Folker's essay, although Ikenberry provides important insights, too.

In her essay on the barriers to cooperation that limit effective communication between state actors within the international arena, Jennifer Sterling-Folker posits that three primary types of barriers to cooperation exist in the realm of international relations: Domestic, Structural, and Cognitive. According to Sterling-Folker, the domestic political climate within a pair of seemingly willing allies may preclude them from engaging in productive diplomatic negotiations, such as when impending national elections cause national policymaking to refocus on internal affairs. Structural barriers include the lack of common ground between communist and capitalist economies, and the…. [read more]


Two Interior Schemes in Relation to Thorstein Veblen's Theory of Conspicuous Consumption Essay

… Conspicuous Consumption: Design and Purpose

We all know the importance of showing others the best side we have; we do it for the sake of reputation, for our own benefit as well as for the benefit of others. We make sure before we go out that we shower twice, put on our best clothes, dab on good scents, and display jewelry that isn't exactly cheap. We make our riches conspicuous, even if we don't have much of them, and in so doing we become statistical data for Thorstein Veblen's The Theory of the Leisure Class,

a classical economic text devoted to tracing the roots of "conspicuous consumption" of the rich -- for Veblen wrote in the Gilded Age, the age of robber barons, Rockefellers, and…. [read more]


Consumption, Society and Culture Cultural Essay

… When you observe the behaviour of a social club of consumers, you will find them obsessed with searching appeasement and joys in materialistic things that are attractive. Their irritation and alienation from social circle further pushes them to consumption (Foucault, 1984).

If you look at the TV commercials and advertisement, you will find the hidden message that if you want that particular happiness, you can get it with this product or service. In the best possible soft words, commercials are a handy tool for capitalist mindset to capture a non-political and less active mind even in its pastime (Foucault, 1984).

In his book "Culture Industry Reconsidered," Adorno describes the phenomenon as 'people can't be held responsible for measuring the culture, the philosophy of the culture…. [read more]


Consumption Many Critical Scholars Essay

… However, capitalist owners, who contribute nothing accept illusion, are the only ones to profit.

Cultural anthropological approaches to consumption take a more personalized viewpoint. For instance, Warde (1994) notes the critical approach to consumption fostered by Marx and does not denounce it; however, Warde focuses on the social psychological aspect of consumption and its relation to the self-concept and that notion that people choose their identities. He describes Beck's, Giddens', and Bauman's ideas and concludes consumption matters because it is a form of expressing or finding self-identity as it creates a reflexive self (people becoming agents of their own identity mediated through consumerism), constructs a person's self-narrative, or acts as a form of self identification. However, because consumption as a form of self- identification it…. [read more]


Theory Free Market Fairness Essay

… Free Market Fairness would provide more economic freedom and work to balance social injustices in countries with excessive amounts of sweatshop labor and other forms of exploitative labor. The effects of economic inequality and unfair wealth distribution are not only economic in nature; they are also social:

"It's not just wealth. In 2007, U.S. income inequality hit its highest mark since just ahead of the Great Depression in 1929. And that was before the current recession brought joblessness and financial peril to scores of Americans, most of whom are on the wrong side of the wealth divide. According to the CIA's World Factbook, the United States now ranks 39th in the world when it comes to income inequality. What that means is that only 38…. [read more]


Theory Letter to a Young Nursing Student Research Proposal

… Theory

Letter to a young nursing student: Palliative care and nursing theory

To a young nursing student:

One of the most difficult issues for a nurse is confronting a patient with a terminal illness. No matter how fully lived the patient's life, no matter how many friends and family members surround the patient's bedside, there is always a profound sense of loss and grief at the end of the possibility of hope. How much more so when confronted a young person facing the end of her life, alone! Such was the case with a twenty-four-year-old cancer patient I tended to as a young nurse, about the same age as you. She was diagnosed with cancer of the ovaries, and her father refused to visit her…. [read more]


Theory Borrowing in the Academic Disciplines of Communication and Women's Studies Research Paper

… Theory Borrowing in Communication and Women's Studies

Theory Borrowing in the Academic Disciplines of Communication and Women's Studies

In communication, there are many theories. One of the most prominent is the cultural approach to organizations (Barnlund, 2008). This theory states that people are very similar to animals in that they are only conscious of the "webs" around them they have created (Barnlund, 2008). Because of that, the culture of any organization is made up of the symbols that are in these webs and that overlap the webs of more than one person. In other words, shared symbols are what make up the webs and, therefore, the organization itself (Berko, 2010; Heyman, 1994). Each of the symbols themselves has a meaning that is unique, and as…. [read more]


Theory Building Term Paper

… Theory Building

There are many theories that relate to the fields of Information and Computer Security Management. In addition to management theories, there are also technical field theories such as game theory. According to Anderson et al. (2007), game theory can be used in the application of determining why and how systems fail. One of the reasons for failure might be incorrect incentives, which combines game theory with management theory. The authors provide the example of those who guard the system in question and the basic divide between them and those who suffer the full effects of the failure.

Game theory ideas can also be applied to environments where incomplete information occurs, where such information is critical but hidden from some principals. Peer-to-peer systems designers,…. [read more]


Theory X And Theory Y Essay

… Of the two workplaces, Google sounds by far the more pleasant environment in which to work. It also sounds like a workplace where the individual employee is nurtured, and encouraged to realize his or her own personal growth as well as serve the needs of the company. However, the success of Apple shows why the concept of Theory X has proved to be so durable, even though McGregor and others have been such staunch proponents of Theory Y in the workplace. Both Apple and Google are flourishing today. However, according to McGregor's analysis, Jobs' ability to lead with his charisma was a relative anomaly and the Google model of organizational design is more likely to be the way of the future. Of Job's Theory X…. [read more]


Theory and Context: Institutional Choice Essay

… However, the role that bureaucracies play as organizations is not well examined from that specific view which is one that is reported to "run counter to principal-agent relationships that must be predicated on a zone of acceptable behavior between such parties." (Meier, 2003) Meier states that what is needed are models that give consideration to the "utility functions of politicians and bureaucratic agencies without relegating the latter to a constraint on the optimization problem facing the former." (2003) Moe notes the fact that the "…norm of reciprocity within Congress are not products of explicit choice but have emerged informally over time through repeated interaction and adaptive adjustment among participants." (2011, p.215)

Conclusion

From the literature reviewed in this brief study it is clear that there…. [read more]


Consumption Conspicuous Consumption Is Unapologetic Essay

… She can be a conservative office worker by day, but at night she lets loose by drinking Bacardi. It suggests that Bacardi unleashes the sexual animal in the consumer. The consumer becomes instantly desirable. For men, this means that rum makes ladies take off their clothes and want to have sex. For women, this means that men find you more attractive.

• What values are expressed?

Values are to have fun, and to not worry about anything. Sex as personal power is also conveyed as a value.

• What groups of people are empowered in this message? What groups are disempowered? How so?

On the one hand, the advertisement shows that women are empowered to control their own sexuality. On the other hand, the ad…. [read more]


Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology Research Paper

… Consequently, some psychologists believe that certain personality types or predispositions may be linked to criminal activities and tendencies.

According to the work of Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, a tendency toward criminal behavior is likely to develop because of personality disorders when the emotional development process goes wrong. Personality theorists have tried to examine the effects of personality development on criminal behavior through conducting personality tests to various groups of criminals and non-criminals. These studies have found that some crimes like sexual offenses of violence involving serious deviant acts can be associated with mental illness or disorder.

Psychological Traits and Characteristics:

While psychologists and criminologists alike have developed theories to explain crime and criminal behavior, they have also examined psychological traits and characteristics that describe…. [read more]


Theory -- Horotwitz and Bartholomew Attachment Chapter

… ¶ … Theory -- Horotwitz & Bartholomew

Attachment Theory and Grief

Understanding attachment theory as applied in the study of grief and bereavement in adults require a thorough reading of one of the theory's pioneers, John Bowlby. Traditional and modern theories and discussions on attachment theory and its relationship to bereavement are rooted on Bowlby's explication of the nature and dynamics of attachment among humans. Inevitably, because attachment theory explains the development of human attachments and the significance of the relationship not only among infants and mothers, but also among siblings, parents and their children (among many other relationships), it also provides an adequate description of what happens when this attachment is severed with the loss of a loved one or significant individual in a…. [read more]


Theory Help Essay

… This is never a good argument because, since the media is strong, someone will hear the outcry of the wronged party (whether that be human or environmental). Organizations benefit from critical theory evaluation because it allows them to look past themselves and the drive to make money. Critical theory makes the management of the organization morally responsible for the decisions that they make.

Management and Critical Theory

Management is the actual focus of critical theory (Stanton, 1993) because issues with management made it necessary for someone else to have a voice. At the beginning of the industrial revolution, a new reality was created for the managers of the multitudes that peopled the new factories. That reality continues today. It is that "management was lionized, even…. [read more]


Multiculturalism Is Being Challenged by New Theories of Cosmopolitanism Essay

… Multiculturalism Challenged by New Theories of Cosmopolitanism

Reasons and challenges of developing policies of multiculturalism in Australia

Multicultural theory is broad often defying its obvious definition. It might be used as a demographic fact that describes the coexistence of individuals from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds in a single organization or society. In Australia, multiculturalism policies have been used to manage sets of diversity. Which racial have achieved this through processes and ethnic groups leverage their support towards achieving their aspirations. In Australia, the concept of multiculturalism has taken a negative connotation, being perceived as a diverse force instead of a platform for coexistence and mutual benefit. In Australia, the concept of multiculturalism has been used to refer to a set of ideals and ideas…. [read more]


International Relations Theory and United Essay

… As an external party, the United Nations has become one of the most evident forms of intervention in violent conflicts as the international level.

Actually, among the current external or third parties, the United Nations has a special place at the international level because of its mission of being the magnificent guardian of international security and peace (Yilmaz, 2005, p.14). Consequently, conflicting parties tend to usually expect more from the United Nations than the other third-parties, which may have necessary resources to exploit the conflict.

Since the international relations theory goes beyond the maintenance of pace and reducing the possibility of war, it explains UN contribution to peace as third-party intervention. This is largely because UN peacekeeping goes beyond the mere coping with physical violence…. [read more]


Theory Essay

… Ridgway's early years involved an abusive mother who was obsessed with dominating her family and who was unhesitant about treating her children badly when they did something wrong. These acts made it increasingly difficult for the man to deal with external situations that put a lot of pressure on him. "The interplay between poor social conditioning and inability to comprehend such conditioning subsequently creates the criminal personality." (Marsh, 2006, p. 64) The violent episodes that Ridgway experienced during his childhood certainly reflected on his personality in later years. He was traumatized as a result of his mother's tendency to relate to him as being a person who was different and whom it was impossible to educate in accordance with conventional strategies. "She didn't want Ridgway…. [read more]


Theory How the Attachment Research Paper

… Many schools of thought are directed at influencing a positive generation of the avenues of managing the respected stages of human growth and development. The child marks the generation of almost everything in the society. Therefore, the effects of childhood become relevant as it relates to the management of the specified avenues of growth and development of children and adults in the field. The fairness is generated from the fact that for an adult to get to adulthood, he or she must be at a position of maintaining gradual segments in the natural avenues of development.

It is very fair to suggest that development through childhood plays a role in the growth and development of attachment theory as regards the social behavior of the aging…. [read more]


Theories the Real Data Essay

… Hall's model views the audience is more skillful and active in decoding and understanding the message. Hall's model also places importance on culture and how culture operates by changing or altering the communication at different steps in the process of dealing with it. Discourse is emphasized rather than passively and the flow of the message. Hall's model encouraged researchers to focus on factors other than the message itself such as culture and community (particularly marginalized communities; Hall 1980). The hypodermic model would propose that the message marginalizes the audience, whereas Hall's model would not agree with this but would try to understand how the message is interpreted and understood based on cultural factors.

The two models are also different in their treatment of the structure…. [read more]


Theory Essay

… ¶ … Theory

There have been several attempts to understand the infant self and the formation of behaviors as the infants grow, right from birth through their childhood and adolescence. Of particular interest has been the study on how the infants relate to others and how they experience themselves in relation to other. There have been a lot of concentrations on the sense of self that are essential to daily social interactions with others. This is in the form of psychoanalysis which has its foundation on the works of people like Freud, Erickson, Klein and Mahler among other psychoanalysis professionals.

Attachment is ranked among the most studied aspects of psychology today and in particular the works of Bowlby as well as Stern's works (Stern D.…. [read more]


Watson's Caring Theory of Nursing Term Paper

… Watson Theory of Nursing

Background and Fundamental Concepts of Watson's Caring Theory of Nursing

Jean Watson conceptualized and operationalized a notion that had always been fundamentally important as a defining purpose within the nursing field: caring. Generally, empathy and genuine concern for the welfare and health of others has always been a common motivating force of nurses. Watson introduced her Carative Theory of Nursing and outlined a framework of carative factors and fundamental assumptions to allow nurses to apply specific facets of caring to the nursing services that they deliver to patients.

In Watson's view, nursing has existed as long as human societies and involves the sharing of caring practices within the social environment and as part of human cultural adaptations necessary to survive in…. [read more]


Theories Human Development Factors Influence Essay

… Moreover, previously learned concepts are probable to become even stronger if the individual is able to conquer this stage. However, if the person does not succeed in completing this stage, he or she experiences identity diffusion, as he or she is no longer to have a solid understanding of his or her personal identity. Some might even go as far as to employ self-destructive behavior as a result of being unable to discover their personal-identity, as these people guide themselves in accordance with the principle that any identity is better than having no identity. If an individual finds that he or she is unable to perform honorable activities, he or she comes to do whatever he or she has access to, even if the respective…. [read more]


Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … Theory

The objective of this work is to review the history, ideology and practice application of 'Attachment Theory' and will do so through a review of the literature in this area of study.

Attachment theory was first conceived by Dr. John Bowlby born in 1907 and developed over time from the decade of the 1950s until the decade of the 1980s. (Tuovila, 2007; paraphrased) Many studies have focused on understanding attachment theory and the work of Tirjo Tuovila, a development psychologist in the work entitled: "What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Father" (2007) states that this is "one of the most extensively research psychological theories." (Tuovila, 2007; p.1) Attachment theory is "a theory about adapting to danger: How can…. [read more]


Theories Essay

… ¶ … theories is probably the main and most important thing when it comes to the creation of a business research project that is to be successful. This is due to the fact that it pushes the author towards taking stock of other knowledge which has been produced previously and is relevant.it also assists authors to make identification of gaps, strengths, deliver constructs which are clear and at the same time ensure that there is the channeling of theoretical developments that will lead to the production of new knowledge which is valuable within the field. They also help in providing a comprehensive and complex conceptual understanding of certain things which can not be pinned down .theories therefore give a new lens to researchers through which…. [read more]


Theory X and Theory Y Essay

… My desire for autonomy is definitely greater than what most companies are prepared to offer. Some of my earliest jobs were governed almost entirely according to Theory X, and those jobs simply did not work out. More recent jobs that were more oriented towards Theory Y management were clearly better fits for me, and were both more enjoyable and more productive.

It is interesting to consider how the transition from Theory X to Theory Y management is going to take place. It already has taken place in some sectors of the economy, but many companies still adhere to management styles that date from decades ago, when Theory X was much more common. So much of our management philosophy still originates from Taylor, Deming and other…. [read more]


Leadership Theory in a Changing Essay

… Thus, for principals and administrators, a balance is demanded. Sergiovanni reports that "the unique context for schooling, particularly in a democratic society, raises the question of sources of authority for leadership practice. As important as a school leader's personality and interpersonal skills may be to success, and as handy as bureaucratic reasons may be to use, neither are sufficiently powerful to provide that leader with the sources of authority needed to reach students, parents, teachers and others in powerful ways." (Sergiovanni, p. 2) Sergiovanni therefore goes on to assert that the discretion provided by moral orientation can help to drive this balance and can help to make one's leadership style adaptable to the specifics of any type of system.

One reason that this adaptability takes…. [read more]

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