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History of Communication Timeline Term Paper

… This is important in the history of communication because the rise of urbanization that would accompany the birth of capitalism is overall responsible for a certain measure of social organization that would result in overall technological innovations, in addition to the invention of a new social category: the bus driver.

SOURCE: Nicholas Hammond (Editor), The Cambridge Companion to Pascal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz -- co-inventor with Sir Isaac Newton of mathematical calculus -- works on Pascal's designs to create a cylindrical gear calculator. This is important in the history of communication for the same reason as Pascal's computation machine was. (See above.)

SOURCE: Wikipedia, "Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz"

Leibniz first describes binary mathematics, which will become the basis of contemporary…. [read more]

Two Milestones in the History of IBM Term Paper

… ¶ … Milestones for IBM

The System 360 and the Personal Computer

Many inventions have changed the world: The automobile, the airplane, the telephone, and the computer. Each in its own way transformed how we live, how we work, and how we communicate. Yet technological revolutions are only possible once the new technology has been seamlessly integrated into everyday life. A product that is too difficult, or too expensive, for general use will remain a curiosity, or a novelty, with little practical application.

The earliest cars were toys of the very wealthy. Made-to-order, they were costly to produce, and difficult to maintain. There was no infrastructure to support them, paved roads were scarce, and gas stations did not exist. Owning and operating a car was…. [read more]

Functionality of the Microprocessor History Term Paper

… While 4004 was a 4-bit microprocessor, 8008 has an 8-bit architecture, twice as powerful as 4004, that accommodates alphanumeric data.

Next to 8008 of Intel was the release of 8080 microprocessor in 1974. 8080's development was considered the beginning of other milestones in the computer industry. From A Brief History of Microprocessors, Faggin stated that "The 8080 really created the microprocessor market. The 4004 and the 8008 suggested it, but the 8080 made it real." The first personal computer, Altair, used Intel 8080 for its microprocessor. This started the history of personal computer (PC). In the same year, Bill Gates and Paul Allen started Microsoft when they wrote a BASIC program for Altair (Taylor, 1997).

In 1976, another microprocessor of Intel was released - the…. [read more]

Are Indian-Israeli Relations Useful for India's National Interests? Thesis

… ¶ … Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's National Interests?

Today, India stands at an important juncture in its historical development. Following its independence from Britain in 1948, the years that followed have been turbulent ones for India, with a relentless series of political, military and economic challenges confronting the country time and again. Despite these challenges, India has emerged in the 21st center as an increasingly important actor within the international community and has enjoyed steady economic growth for the past two decades. Notwithstanding its enormous geographic size and population, though, India continues to perceive a number of external threats, most especially with Pakistan over the Kashmir issue and relations with much of the Arab world that have often been ambivalent or even hostile. In…. [read more]

Evolution ERP Timeline Steps Enterprise Essay

… Actually, MRP2 was somewhat an ERP, however, it was only capable of coordinating with manufacturing department. Period stating for 1960 is known as "age of ERP." This period onwards, slowly the benefits of ERP were felt by different organisations (Millman, 2004).

Companies involved in the process

History of Sap ERP consists of comprehensive study of association of SAP with ERP. SAP is considered to be the Global leader of SAP technologies. It was established by 5 engineers, in 1972. Larson software, an invention which was included in the main software, was introduced soon after its creating. The main purpose of this invention was, to substitute market practise of making and developing separate software to fulfil different business needs. Few other companies like, Baan Corporation and…. [read more]

Comparison Between Rup and Ethics Methodologies Using Nimsad Framework Assessment




the History Timeline of the RUP development

RUP Iterative development

One of the most significant current discussions in the human and commercial philosophy is how to develop information systems in the most efficient and effective way. The mechanism by which the information system is structured, organized and developed is known as methodology. According to Britain computer society (BCS, 2006), methodology is "a set of recommended means for information systems development or part of it which is based on logic and specific philosophy." A closer look at the great improvements in the field of methodology development can observe that there are many methodologies have been developed to meet various requirements for the different information systems. In order to be able to identify, evaluate,…. [read more]

German Transportation Technology Term Paper

… German Transportation Technology

Germany's History Behind the Railroad

On December 7,1835, the first English manufactured train ran from Nurnberg to Furth, Germany. The locomotive was built by Robert Stephenson and Co in Newcastle England, and was first driven by an English engineer, Mr. Willam Wilson. Like the U.S. And English countries the railway system connects all corners of Germany from the east towards the west. With the onwards policies of the German Government to continue building their own railways system, on October 4, 1840, Germany launched its first train on the Munchen Augsburg Eisenbahn Gesellschaft. In 1875, history signaled the unification of the whole of Germany. This time served as the starting point wherein all of the state connected in the country were all interconnected…. [read more]

Sprint Nextel Merger Term Paper

… Sprint Nextel Merger

History of Sprint

Sprint Corporation's history started in 1899, when its founder, Cleyson Brown, founded the Brown Telephone Company in Abilene, Kansas (Sprint Nextel, 2007). In 1972 the company's name was changed into United Telecommunications. The company acquired GTE Sprint in 1986, and started to be referred to as Sprint (Wikipedia, 2007). Although most telecommunications resources state that Sprint stands for Southern Pacific Railway Internal Network for Telecommunications, it seems that the real provenience of the name is: Switched Private Network Telecommunications.

The first six metropolitan areas to benefit from Sprint services were: New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Anaheim. In 1986, Sprint merged with U.S. Telecom, forming U.S. Sprint. Later, in 1991, the newly formed U.S. Sprint was…. [read more]

Patient Centered Medical Homes (Pcmh) Essay

… Here the focus of the medical staff remains on the issue or disease that has brought the patient to the hospital. However, the notion of medical homes ensures that people receive health care by expert practitioners who are equivalently good as private doctors and their focus does not only remain on the disease or illness but they focus on the entire human body and follow up with the patients with checkups on regular basis. This allows the people to attain the facility of quality health care whilst paying small amounts of money for treatment s as compared to those charged by the private practitioners. Thus, the basic problem that is intended to be solved by the legislations and policies regarding medical homes is the inability…. [read more]

Historical Context of Distance Education Thesis

… ¶ … distance education offers a timeline of distance education that stresses a new and independent view of individuals. Most interestingly distance education began as a for profit industry associated with teaching those who could not travel to educational institutions, vocational subjects that would be of interest to them, even though they were often many miles from the instructor and received material only by mail. This shows in part the interest of opening education to a broader audience, including women and to those who were working to make a living. Women also benefited greatly from early distance education, and though the article does not mention it the contention that women would be damaged by the society of higher education, removing this environment from the equation…. [read more]

Corporate Entrepreneurship Term Paper

… Corporate Entrepreneurship

The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the key success factors that corporations who are successfully managing corporate entrepreneurship programs have in common and which factors they vary on. The issue of how competitors to companies who have successfully put corporate entrepreneurship programs into place attempt to create comparable entrepreneurial climates and copy processes proven to be successful will also be addressed. Four companies who have successfully used corporate entrepreneurship programs are used as the basis of this analysis.

Introducing IBM's Emerging Business Opportunity (EBO) Unit

Of the many companies who have successfully managed to create and sustain their corporate entrepreneurship programs, IBM's efforts in this area exemplify best in class performance. In an excellent article on corporate entrepreneurship in the…. [read more]

Google or Southwest Airlines Essay

… References (2009). Google - Overview, Company Culture and History, Retrieved from Tech careers:

All, A. (2007, Nov 5). Google's Unconventional Idea of Professional Development. Retrieved from IT Business Edge:

Arrington, M. (2009, January 18). Why Google employees Quit. Retrieved from TechCrunch:

Cosser, S. (2008) Google Sets the Standard for a Happy Work Environment. Retrieved from Ezine Articles:

Google. (2009). The Best Place to Work. Retrieved 2009, from Google Diversity and Inclusion:

Google. (2009). Google Milestones. Retrieved from Google- Corporate Information:

Hamel, G. And Breen, B. The Future of Management. Harvard Business School Press. Boston. Pp. 112-116, 137, in Ringo, T., Schweyer, A., DeMarco, M., Fones, R. And Lesser, E. (2008). Integrated talent management Part 3 -- Turning…. [read more]

Information Technology to Transform a Company Term Paper

… Information Technology to Transform a Company

Transform Company

Before going into the factors that are holding back Teltron from growth, it is worthwhile to have a brief introduction in the realm of Telecom Expense Management --TEM on which this Case Study is based. Spiraling growth in telecom services, features, and vendors along with the deregulation in the telecom industry have made contract documents complicated, pricing programs, processes and billing. This apart, financial constrains have resulted in customer service getting compromised, lack of accuracy in billing, and reporting from telecom service providers. In this backdrop, inaccuracies as also opportunities for optimizing services happen frequently. Presently, font ranking companies are adopting TEM solutions as best practices. Major opportunities are in store to lower costs, enhance service levels…. [read more]

Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Term Paper

… Environmental management includes recycling and remanufacturing of parts and products (Anthony, 2002). Disassembly and recycling of reusable parts help the cause of environment protection, reduces the cost of usage of a fresh component, and avoids disposal costs. Material Resource Planning (MRP), an assembly-oriented scheduling system, does not support the process of disassembly. Uncertainty of quality, quantity and timing of recovery of reusable parts makes production planning difficult. To incorporate product recovery planning in MRP, use of reverse bill of material for every retrieved component or product is recommended. Concepts used in planning probabilistic demands for end items are used in structuring the bill of material.

Closed loop system is a widely used environment practice by many companies. This system requires new material only on non-receipt…. [read more]

Partnership or Alliance Term Paper

… It should include the anticipated level of support that may be defined in terms of effort, funding, knowledge transfer and risk, and benefit sharing.

A successful partnership is planned -- the participants establish a fundamental understanding of how they will work together, proceed to live up to their obligations consistent with the understanding, and share the incremental benefits that result from the their collective effort.

According to Chao, King and Everson, one company reaping the riches of superior external development is Cisco Systems, where deal making is central to innovation and growth.

According to Carless: "A strategic alliance is a relationship that has the potential to contribute significantly and in multiple ways to the bottom lines of participating companies, as well as their customers. Such…. [read more]

Advanced Persistent Threat Research Paper

… ¶ … Persistent Threat

Historical Background of APT

Today, APT, or Advanced Persistent Threat, describes cyber attacks, which are produced by organized teams of individuals, whom have extremely in-depth resources. These teams of individuals have highly advanced technological and database penetration skills and they target specific profiles. Attack tactics are very precise and deliberate and they remain consistent in their attacks. The attackers evaluate the attacked profile's defense and what their likely response will be to the attack in an attempt to anticipate what techniques will need to be implemented.

According to a 2010 CSO Cyber Security Watch Survey, threats posed to organizations by cyber crimes have increased faster than potential victims over the last few years. Cyber threats are becoming significantly more common throughout…. [read more]

American Airlines Brief Description Term Paper

… American Airlines

Brief description of the Airline History:

American Airlines -- AA till date is credited to have the twin distinction of being the world's largest scheduled passenger airline as also the biggest scheduled air freight carriers extending a broad range of freight and mail services across its systems. At the latest count, AA operates scheduled jet service to nearly 150 destinations in the entire N. America, the Caribbean, Latin America, Europe and Asia. ("AMR Corporation 2006 Annual Report," 2006) A table showing the top ten airline by traffic as on June 2007 is stated in Exhibit -I ("IATA Economic Briefing: World Air Transport Statistics 51st Edition June 2007.," 2007)

Looking back, April 15, 1926 was a momentous occasion in the history of American aviation.…. [read more]

Machine Translation and Horizons Seminar Paper

… Also, newspapers are relatively standard, simply-written documents that are not analogous to complex legal and business documents, and they lack the subtleties and complexities of literature.

The opponents of these enthusiastic supporters of machine translation contend that all forms of machine translation are inherently useless and produce nothing but humorous nonsense. "As they expect nearly perfect speech, they will find themselves largely disappointed."[footnoteRef:2] It is very easy to find examples of humorous mistranslations that leave the reader scratching his or her head at best, or, at worst leave the reader dangerously misled. But this dismissive view belies the fact that there is a serious need for effective machine translation, and real and sustained efforts are being made to ensure that the process can become a…. [read more]

Computer Hard Drives the Globalization Term Paper

… Three of them competing with IBM and Seagate are Maxtor, Western Digital, and Hitachi Global Storage Technologies. The production of improved and advanced hard drives continues today. As PC World writes,

Smaller hard drives, faster drives, and the opening up of the market for hard drives in consumer electronics devices will be among the key industry milestones in 2003, according to the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association."

Various types of hard drives are now available in the market, from internal hard drives, external, and portable ones. Each type are available from a variety of manufacturers catering to diverse hard drive features such as speed, capacity, size, and materials used.


As computers are becoming indispensable device of acquiring information access and gathering vast…. [read more]

Machine Translation, and the Future Dissertation

… Machine Translation: History and Current Issues

Champollion (2001) addresses the issue that is the main subject of this research, the ability of machines to replace human translators. Champollion agrees that the field of machine translation is still very young. He also feels that advances in software will eventually make the job of a translator, more of a proofreader of machine output (Champollion, 2001). Champollion makes a distinction between a computer playing chess by calculation and a human "understanding" chess. He compares machine translation to this example. The future of machine translation technology lies in the advancement of neural networks and artificial intelligence. Champollion's main argument is that in time advances in technology will make machine translation more accurate, but the human proofreader will still be…. [read more]

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