Viewing papers 1-30 of 50 for u.s. AND and AND un AND humanitarian AND intervention AND in AND somalia

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UN Peacekeeping Limitations After Five Decades Thesis

… UN Peacekeeping Limitations

After five decades of international conflict, waged between the imperial champion of the communist ideology and the frontrunner for western democracy, the latter prevailed in the peaceful revolution of 1989. With the reunification of Germany, and two years later, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War had ended with little immediately apparent violence or resistance. And from the perspective that the invasive and draconian presence of Soviet supported regimes had fallen in Hungary, Romania, Czechloslovakia and Poland, the end of the Cold War certainly appeared to light the way toward the pervasion of civil liberty, capitalist evolution and democratic policy representation.

In the midst of this deservedly optimistic atmosphere, however, loomed a large range of challenges which would obstruct any…. [read more]

United Nations Missions in Haiti Research Paper

… United Nations Missions in Haiti

The United Nations has been one of the most controversial and at the same time important constructions of the 20th century in terms of the study of international relations. It has been a constant subject for study and interpretation, for criticism and admiration; still, the peace related missions extended throughout the world since 1945 offered a proof of the UN's dedicated goal for humanity and peace. In this sense, one of the most significant missions the UN has deployed in its history is in Haiti, a country torn by war and civil unrest, with human losses and financial distress. However, the UN presence in the country, in different forms, shapes, and mandates has been the cornerstone of the country's attempt…. [read more]

U.S. and UN Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia Term Paper

… ¶ … UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Conflict management and the U.S. And UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Situated on the horn of Africa, Somalia is a country that has been described as one of the most dangerous and underdeveloped areas on the continent. The country has been immersed in various degrees of violent conflict since its establishment as an independent country. It is also a region that has seen various attempts by the United Nations at conflict management. These efforts and operations have not met with any long-term success. For instance, while a United Nations arms embargo has been in place in the country since the early 1900s, the region is awash with weapons, which exacerbates and contributes to the almost incessant violence and…. [read more]

Intervention of States and Human Essay

… The application of the Genocide Convention of 1948 prompts nations to uphold and respect human lives.

The international community can intervene in matters of other states, in cases of high casualties arising during natural disasters, which the country, cannot fully contain. The Myanmar Cyclone test brings to the fore the intervention of the international community in internal matters of nations. The huge magnitude of the cyclone presented extreme strain on both the personnel and resources of the affected country, prompting international intervention in the provision of both aid and human resource (Binder, 2008).

International intervention involves different tools. The primary tool involves the use of diplomacy in prevention and containment of conflicts. The international community engages diplomatic representatives in the negotiation process in attempts to…. [read more]

Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia ) Research Paper

… In Oct 1990, the SPM, the SNM, and the internal USC were signatories of an agreement to not proceed without discussing with one another to create a new political headship and to not negotiate with the Siad Barre regime. As the only one who was actually involved in the fight in opposition to the regime General Mohammed Farah Aydeed, the internal branch was under his control. The collapse of the dictatorship and the disorder that followed lead Ali Mahdi Mohammed being proclaimed by his close acquaintances as the president, even though he was one of the Manifesto participants as the leader of the external USC. Married to the public health adviser of the former president and owner of one of the best hotels in Mogadishu,…. [read more]

Humanitarian Action in a Dangerous Term Paper

… [Author Unknown, A Gibbs Editorial, 2/24/03]

On September 20, 2002 the U.S. Administration unveiled its new National Security Strategy. This document addresses the new realities of our age, particularly the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorist networks armed with the agendas of fanatics. The Strategy claims that these new threats are so novel and so dangerous that USA should "not hesitate to act alone, if necessary, to exercise its right of self-defense by acting preemptively." But in the discussion over the past few months about Iraq, the U.S. Administration often uses the terms "pre-emptive" and "preventive" interchangeably. In the realm of international relations, these two terms have long had very different meanings. Traditionally, "pre-emptive" action refers to times when states react to an…. [read more]

Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically the Case of Somalia Article Review

… IR Review

Fox, J. (2001). "Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically: The Case of Somalia." SAIS Review 2(1), pp. 147-158.


This article describes the decision making process utilized by President Bush, Sr. In developing an implementing intervention strategy in Somalia during the famine and in-fighting of the early 1990s. Falling firmly in the category of theoretical International Relations studies, this article employs a historical viewpoint to discuss the specifics of theoretical application to a unique situation that nevertheless has broader and more broadly applicable elements. Of paramount concern in this article is the failure to analyze the situation in Somalia from a political as well as a humanitarian perspective, with military intervention applied with only a single goal and without taking a Longview of the ramification,…. [read more]

US Intervention in Somalia Research Paper

… U.S. Intervention in Somalia

Introductory Paragraphs

In 1991, Somalia would erupt into civil war after the long serving dictator Siad Barre fled the country. This sparked a conflict between the Somalia National Movement and the various factions that were controlled by different warlords. These are individuals who maintained their own private armies, often holding power over large segments of the country. At this point, the severe fighting halted all economic activity. There was also a major famine that had devastating effects on the local population. As a result, 300 thousand Somalis perished during the first year of the civil war. This would spark the UN to take action, in an effort to address the famine and instability that was affected the country. However, the state…. [read more]

Humanitarian Intervention Is Morally Essay

… There is a moral hazard in the incentive structure for third parties to intervene -- all parties interested enough to intervene have something at stake in the intervention. Western and Goldstein (2011) offer a counterpoint to the issue of moral hazard by highlighting the improvements in the intervention system and philosophy since the disastrous 1990s interventions in Somalia, Bosnia and Rwanda. They see R2P has a tool in an ever-sophisticated set of strategies that make today's peacekeeping missions more robust, and thus less susceptible to moral hazard.

One of the checks and balances that makes the modern framework for humanitarian intervention is the requirement under R2P that the UN Security Council authorizes such actions. Intervention today requires legitimacy in the eyes of the law, in…. [read more]

Somalia Civil War Somalia- Causes Term Paper

… Each side had their own administrative, legal and education system. There were a lot of different economic factors such as taxes and different currencies. The UN set up a commission to help them sort out their differences. The people of the south believed that were better equipped to govern the region as they had a lot of experience. This sowed seeds of bitterness amongst the Northern Elite as they would have to play second fiddle to the south. Their resentment of the south would lead to a lot of problems later.

There were two major political parties in the northern region during Independence. One of them was the SNL, which was a representative of the Isaaq clan. The Isaaq clan also represented a majority in…. [read more]

Somalia Intervention and the Public Opinion Article Review

… ¶ … Somalia intervention and the public opinion of Americans towards this intervention. Somalia is not the first country where the United States has intervened in order to break up a civil war and provide assistance to the citizens. Operation Restore Hope was a peace mission by the United States to Somalia in which American troops were deployed. The civil war was so bad that relief efforts were tampered with caused mass starvation. Many Americans probably wanted to know whether or not our troops should have been deployed to Somalia.

The initial opinion of the American public was to support the efforts in Somalia. However, after eighteen American soldiers were killed during the firefight, the public opinion changed. At this time, President Clinton was in…. [read more]

Military Intervention Research Paper

… Parenti contends that most U.S. missions serve as pretexts for hidden political goals; to bolster conservative regimes, to build infrastructures for big investors, to lend legitimacy to counterinsurgency programs, and to undermine local agrarian self-sufficiency while promoting U.S. agribusiness products.

Humanitarian intervention remains a controversial and hotly debated issue in the field of international relations. However, it is evident that military intervention in sovereign states where massive violations of human rights occur is legal and justifiable under international law. Nevertheless, what constitutes massive violation of human rights will continue to be open for debate.

Works Cited

"Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms." Joint Publication 1-02. 31 August 2005: 338. 3 October 2011. <>

Ferraro, Vincent. "Principles of the Just War" Mount…. [read more]

Post-Conflict, Peace / Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan Term Paper

… Post-Conflict, Peace/Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan

Somehow, within a forty year span of time, the United States has found itself ensnared in multiple wars in Asia at the same time. Again, unless we can influence the postwar nation building process, powers that are inimical to United States interests (in the present Iran) will fill the vacuum upon the American withdrawal. In this short essay, this author will list two lessons learned from our wars apply it to the defacto American raj in Afghanistan and Iraq. First is not to become too closely associated with present unpopular regimes as it is doing with the present administrations in the countries in which we are "nation-building." Also, staying engaged in a never ending guerrilla war that has…. [read more]

International Norms Essay

… Summary and Conclusion

The stated objective of this study has been the examination of whether international norms such as the R2P conflict with the cultural claims of individual states in matter of human rights. While there has been a general failure globally to protect individuals in some states from heinous acts, and while the debate goes forth between realists, interventionists and those who hold differing views, the primary challenge or question that must be addressed is who or what has the necessary 'agent' to become involved in such interventions, or in other words by what right does a particular state or states deemed that it is justified and by some proxy appointed to intervene on behalf of foreign individuals. Indeed the proposition of Walzer does…. [read more]

Iraq War: Humanitarian Intervention? Term Paper

… "

Essentially, as Falk cautions, the United Nations must be involved and thoroughly supportive of any humanitarian intervention in order for it to succeed. But even United Nations support cannot guarantee success: The intervening nations must make sure they have viable successor plan in place if they are to wage war on Iraq for humanitarian reasons.

The United States and Britain would be hard pressed to justify a humanitarian war in Iraq without United Nations support, but if they go forward, as they probably shall, they must at least plan for a successor government in Iraq first that eliminates as many political factions and strifes as is possible under the circumstances.

Wartime effect of Human Shields

One of the most complicated situations arises in war…. [read more]

Military Intervention and Peacekeeping at Different Phases Essay

… Military Intervention and Peacekeeping

At different phases of a conflict the multiple strategies of conflict management respond to barriers in the process in different ways: Conflict Prevention is an approach that seeks to resolve disputes before violence breaks out; Peacemaking transforms the conflict from violent to spoken, and further, toward the definition of a common peaceful solution; Peacekeeping missions are often required to halt violence and preserve peace once it is obtained. If successful, those missions can strengthen the opportunity for post-conflict Peacebuilding, which should function to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing the root causes of conflict and creating a stable and durable peace. Finally, Statebuilding is the process of reconstructing weak or collapsed infrastructure and institutions of a society - political, economic…. [read more]

International Political Economics the Impact of UN Peacekeeper Corruption Term Paper

… International Political Economics: The Impacts of UN Peacekeeper Corruption

International political economy tries to understand global and international problems through a diverse interdisciplinary arrangement of theoretical perspectives and analytical tools. International political economy focuses on the constant breakdown of disciplinary boundaries amid politics and economics. it's not easy to image a world devoid of international political economy since the mutual interaction of international economics and international relations is prevalent. The political activities of nations apparently influence international business and the flow of money, which consequently affects the environment in which nations make political preferences, and entrepreneurs make economic preferences.

It appears impracticable to put into consideration significant questions regarding international economics or international politics in devoid of taking into consideration their mutual effects and influences.…. [read more]

World Problem Term Paper

… ¶ … Darfur Refugees

The conflict in Darfur has been ongoing for some time. It is located in the Darfur region, which is in the western Sudan, and the problems have been mainly between those that are non-Arab and the Janjaweed, which are a militia group that come from the tribes of local Arabs (Morrison, 2006). Because of this, many refugees are leaving Darfur and moving to other places to attempt to escape the fighting. This is a serious world problem, and it is important here to understand not only the refugees, but the conflict that has made them flee, as well. The government of Sudan has denied publicly that they are supporting the Janjaweed, but they have also provided assistance and arms to this…. [read more]

Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention "The Clinton Administration Research Paper

… Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention

"The Clinton Administration has to realize that their humanitarian intervention efforts sometimes result in more harm than good being accomplished. It has to be realized that countries such as Haiti and Bosnia can resolve their internal conflicts by themselves alone especially if sufficient assistance, in the form of disaster relief, has already been extended by the U.S. And the UN. American taxpayers, who pay for such interventions, are the ones who ultimately lose…" (Gray, 1998, p. 143).

Given that the use of force is designated for humanitarian purposes in specific instances, what kind of formal authorization is necessary for the use of force? Is the United Nations the only place a state can turn to in order to receive a bona fide…. [read more]

Strategic Assessment of International Policing Essay

… Changing Paradigm in International Policing: A Strategic Assessment Paper on International Policing in the Contemporary Environment

The first United Nations peacekeeping mission was dispatched to the Middle East in 1948. it's mission was "(Desiring) to bring about a cessation of the hostilities in Palestine without prejudice to the rights, claims and position of either Arabs or Jews."

The role of the military looking peacekeeping forces was not to engage in military action, or to choose one -side over the other, but by their presence to represent the member nation states of the United Nations in its role to negotiate, first, a cease fire, and, subsequently, to engage the warring Arabs and Jews in non-violent conflict resolution. Non-violent conflict resolution has been the weighty undertaking of…. [read more]

International Protection of Human Rights Term Paper

… Human Rights Violations in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Procedures and Strategies for the International Protection of Human Rights

As the world moves towards a global conscience, it is becoming increasingly clear that those nations that would abuse the doctrines of human rights as acknowledged in the international arenas, and by most of today's nation-states, and certainly by world public opinion will soon be forced to the answer to the global conscience. That is, they will at some future date consistent with the expression of global public opinion be held accountable for acts of aggression arising out of political or religious or economic expansionism. Already the response to these acts of aggression by the international communities in the various forums of the United Nations (UN),…. [read more]

Women's Role in Peacebuilding and Development in Somalia Term Paper

… Role of Women in Peacekeeping in Somalia

Women have an important role to play in peacekeeping and resolving societal conflicts. After all, in their traditional roles, women are already expected to negotiate agreements within families, as heads of households, as community members and increasingly, as peace activists.

This paper examines the role that women have played in building and keeping peace in Somalia. It looks at whether the participation of women in the peace process leads to greater social recognition of women's rights. It also examines which factors can become obstacles to the greater participation of women in peace-building and decision-making.

The first part of this paper looks at the status of women in Somalia, with a special focus on legal protections for women's rights…. [read more]

September 11 Term Paper

… Before the attacks on the World Trade Center took place, people from different origins lived there safely without being targeted in any way. They set up their businesses there and lived peacefully. There was a sense of security that prevailed for all people living in the U.S., and there was a great respect for human life no matter what color caste or creed. Even if differences did significantly exist, the media did not splash them out as it is today.

Since the attacks on the World Trade Center took place, all residents and permanent citizens of the U.S. have lost their sense of security. Today, a non-white is seen as a threat to humanity and non-Muslims, especially if s/he is of Arab origin. Anyone with…. [read more]

Giving Women Equal Right and Training in Order to Keep Sustainable Peace for Failed State Thesis

… Learner's name.

Title of the proposed Major Research Project

Overview of the proposed Major Research Project

The need for research

Scope of the study and its significance

Central research question and sub-questions

Relationship between proposed topic and completed academic portion of the program

Overview of Failed States

Recent Peacekeeping Initiatives in Failed States

The Role of Women as Peacekeepers in Failed States

Methodological design

Research Ethics

Major project timetable

Learner's Name:

Learner Name Here

Title of the proposed Major Research Project:

The provision of equal rights and training for women in order to maintain a sustainable peace for failed states.

Overview of the proposed Major Research Project:


Throughout history, most of the wars were started by men, who were expected to expand their land…. [read more]

Hammond Exam on September 11 Essay

… Transitional Federal Institutions (TFI) and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) have been established and empowered to initiate the developmental process in Somalia. The Transitional Federal Charter provides the framework for the operation of the TFI and the TFG. The need for ample external assistance has been brought to light to support this cause of promoting peace and reconciliation, and strengthening the Somali economy and creating jobs while preserving human rights and liberties. Somalis living abroad and other powerful nations have been consistently approached to donate towards the cause of rebuilding Somalia as a civil society. Such development, however, cannot effectively progress until the threat to TFI and TFG is eliminated. Therefore, the primary focus of the United States is to stabilize the situation in Somalia.

One…. [read more]

Global Refugee Regime Term Paper

… There are those who manage to get away from their native lands but do not attempt to cross their national borders and such people are termed "internal refugees." The UNHCR tries to cope with such refugees too, for instance, those who had to leave, due to the tension in 1992, from Transdniesteria. The UNHCR indulges in other activities too. Besides providing a secure place and help to such people it joins hands with the many aid agencies and non-governmental organizations to bring to the attention of the world the hindrances and problems faced by internal and international refugees.

The UNHCR supports and helps millions of refugees. The number of refugees keeps increasing by the day and the various crises have done nothing but to add…. [read more]

Consequences of the Interventions Term Paper

… Irrespective of the fact of its inability to stick to the time schedule, the deadline for the completion of ONUMOZ was extended without the expansion of its mandate. This enabled the ONUMOZ to accomplish its task effectively. (UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone)

To conclude, taking into account the attributes those have been detected, it is apparent that it will be the elements of the intervention process, irrespective of the geo-political level of interference, instead of the attributes of the hostility those will indicate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the interference.


Bethany, Lacina. International Interventions and Imperialism: Lessons from the 1990s. SAIS Review Sample Article. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2003. Retrieved from Accessed on…. [read more]

War on Global Terrorism, a Term Essay

… War on Global Terror

Terrorism, a term which sends chills down the spine of many, is defined as by the U.S. Department of Defense as "the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological" (DoD), even though has been around for several centuries was emphasized to the word by the September 11,2011 al Qa'eda attacks on U.S. soil. Over the years, al Qa'eda has managed to chang its tact and sophistication while attacking U.S. interests in domestic and international grounds. In East Africa for instance, Al-Shaabab, a splinter cell of al Qa'eda has been reining terror on Somalis, Kenyans,…. [read more]

Role of International Institutions in the Development of Higher Education in Post Conflict Situations Term Paper

… Role of International Institutions in the Development of Higher Education in Post-Conflict Situations

The topic of this work is "The role of international institutions in the development of higher education in post-conflict situations." The specific region of focus will be that of Somalia and Somaliland. One devastating aspect of the Somali civil war was the collapse of the entire education system, including all institutions that offered postsecondary education. The work of Mohamed Nur-Awaleh in the work relating to Somalia and Somaliland in the work entitled: "Higher Education in Africa": "The civil war not only destroyed the economic and social fabric of the society, it also created a bleak future thousands of Somali youths, who faced a devastated educational system, a lack of opportunity for higher…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.