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USA Patriot Act: Discussion Questions Essay

… S. PATRIOT Act has many implications for technology -- and hence users and vendors of the same. It is important to note that thanks to technology, the world is increasingly becoming a global village. Technology has also made our lives easier, meaning that we can now conduct business and undertake various duties in a more efficient manner. However, technology has also been seen as an aid to crime, particularly terrorism. This is particularly the case given that modern information communication technologies are vital and could be used as vital tools for the exchange of information leading to attacks and other criminal acts. As per the provisions of the Act, federal law enforcement agencies are permitted to not only "conduct roving wiretaps without probable cause" but…. [read more]

Policing in the U.S.A., UK Essay

… Super Policing in Germany

Meanwhile, in Germany there are three law enforcement components that are part of the system of criminal justice. One, the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) (provides support to police forces in the states of Germany; the BKA is the central agency, conducts investigations internally and internationally, and provides protections nationally). Two, the Federal Police (BPOL) is an armed and trained "militarized police force for border control and internal security" (43). The BPOL also guards federal facilities, foreign embassies, aviation facilities and transportation agencies; and the BPOL investigates "violent political movements" (43). Similar to the United States, Germany has states and each of its 16 states has its own police service. Each of the individual states' law enforcement agencies has police that…. [read more]

US Patriot Act Term Paper

… USA Patriot Act

The purpose of this paper is to research the "USA Patriot Act" and examine exactly what the implications are in the implementation of this act should another terrorist event such as 911 occur.

Restrictive laws have been passed at crucial times in the history of the United States before the passing of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Although the laws within this Act are intrusive upon the privacy of United States Citizens, there are those who do not mind the restrictiveness of the Act in exchange for safety. This is understandable to a certain extent however one must keep in mind that the Constitutional rights vested in each individual in the United States has been tread upon to a great extent by the…. [read more]

Capital Punishment Research Paper

… Capital punishment is ineffective, inefficient, unfair, and inaccurate. Millions of dollars are wasted in a single prosecution. This means that billions of shillings are spent when prosecuting more than one thousand individuals. There are tedious economic challenges in the states. According to these religious groups, the amount of finance spent on capital punishment could be spent in programs of eradicating crime through other mechanisms in the society. This will surely be of much benefit than simple capital punishment, which is against human rights. There are various social setups in need of financial assistance. Services are needed at various departments as those of mental health societies and law enforcement agencies. Much effort and finance should be spent on preserving and improving life rather than destroying life.…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Essay

… Most communities have a skewed view of the law enforcement professionals, which makes it difficult for professionals to operate (Barker, 2011). Secondly, the professionals face a challenge with attending to the vast population with their limited numbers. This slows the efficiency of crime prevention through patrols and other means. Additionally, there is the challenge of the societal creations that bring about the criminal acts. Reaching the agents of the crime manufacturing in the society is difficult; thus, the professional finds it hard to attend to matters concerning the crime prevention process.

In combating these challenges, the professionals can take various models of operation. These strategies to curb the issues challenging the professionals include, empowering the community, which simplifies the relation between the professional and society.…. [read more]

Criminal Investigation Scenario: Criminal Scene Investigators Term Paper

… Criminal Investigation Scenario:

Criminal scene investigators are usually mandated with the task of actively processing a crime scene in order to collect evidence that would be used in arresting and prosecuting suspects. In this scenario, these investigators were involved in active processing of a crime scene where Clyde Stevens was found lying on the floor unresponsive and pronounced dead from an apparent stabbing. Steven's body was found with a large butcher knife protruding from his back by his neighbor, Mary Ellis. In order to collect enough evidence for the crime, the investigators carried out a search in Ellis' walk-in-closet and the bedroom of her adult son. These efforts resulted in the identification of a blood fingerprint adjacent to a light switch in William's bedroom. Through…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… The judge's feature is generally begun at the defendant's first court visit or at a hearing if and when proof exists (Israel et al. 2003).

Five Steps of the Criminal Justice System

Entry into the System

Investigation and Arrest:

In this case discernment is made use of in lots of methods, whether it is to ease pressure of state overcrowding in jails, or the possibility of children getting a policeman that sees more damage in an arrest than a caution. Similar to in the wedding cake model example, everybody has their own views and hence have various responses to discernment. Just the courts, policeman, district attorney could decide to let you of a plea offer or caution if it was your first offence compared with…. [read more]

Criminal Law Foundations Evaluation Essay

… Protection of the privacy needs of the citizens has an adverse effect on the criminal justice and the legal systems. It makes the criminal justice become unable to execute effectively its activities, increasing the likelihood of unidentified crimes. The increase in the crime rates translates its effect to an increase in the cases handled by an adult and juvenile courts. The provision of benefits such as speeding of the trials and having attorneys representing the victims and suspects of the crime often reduces the resources and time required for the success of the whole process; hence, enhanced management of operations in the juvenile and the adult courts (Baron, 2003).


In summary, the fourth, fifth, and the sixth amendments play a role in influencing the…. [read more]

Justice and Security Free Balance Essay

… Changes in technology and mass communication with the effects these have on the justice and security areas

Issues involving individual's rights and the needs of the justice system when maintaining order and public safety have been a controversial topic for many years. The Constitution has many who think it should be written to today's requirements in the world. The First Amendment is one of the hardest hit when it comes to public safety and individual's rights. When a person is out protesting, they could cause a riot due to the words they say. The two topics that this happens with are religion and abortion. Many street preachers who will say the God's words to any who will listen and many do not want to listen…. [read more]

Criminal Law Due Process Research Paper

… It also depends on factors of law that pertains to the rights of the individuals. These factors are used by judges to determine what due processes are required for each case.

Due process protects citizens against abusive actions that can come from government officials in respects to legality of law. The abusive actions can deprivation of rights, such as not making the citizen aware of rights when trying to make an arrest for a crime. It can also be the official making claims without proper evidence to prove guilt beyond reasonable doubt. The fair procedure requirement of due process also works to ensure innocent citizens are not required to answer for crimes they did not do.

The functions of due process in criminal law are…. [read more]

Yates v. United States Term Paper

… Yates v United States, 354 U.S. 298 (1957)

Yates v. United States was a landmark case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1957, which involved the First Amendment issue of freedom of speech and the interpretation and the limits of the Smith Act of 1940 under which the petitioners were indicted by a Federal District Court for conspiring to overthrow the government. The case marked a liberal turn in U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the Smith Act, and it became increasingly difficult thereafter for the U.S. government to convict people on sedition or treason charges.

The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, introduced as part of the Bill of Rights during the first session of Congress in 1789, guarantees the freedom of speech and…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Research Paper

… It could be anything from a new virus shutting down nuclear test facilities in Europe and the Mideast to individual cases of identity theft onto tracking where felons have hidden their ill-gotten gains. These are all crimes that forensic computer experts are called in to examine as a part of helping convict criminals." (Texas Wesleyan University, 2011)

It is reported that careers in criminal justice include those in the following professional occupational fields: (1) legal field; (2) corrections field; (3) law enforcement field; (4) Inspector or Compliance Officer. (Texas Wesleyan University, 2011)

A Profession in the Legal Field






Political Officeholder


Claim Examiner

Legal Investigator


Compliance and Enforcement Inspector

Corporate Investigator


Title Examiner

Patent Agent

Legislative Assistant

Source:…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Essay

… Criminal Justice Process

Considerable attention has been devoted to law, both substantive and procedural on the justice process. The criminal justice system is a legal system. How does the law influence the day-to-day activities of the justice process? Be sure to cover criminal justice decisions in all major sub-components of the process.

The law influences the day-to-day activities of the justice process in a number of ways, because the law determines the parameters of permissible activity at every point in the criminal justice system. First, it is important to realize that the law influences what is considered criminal activity. This may seem like an obvious point, but it can have a tremendous impact on the day-to-day activities of the criminal justice system. For example, the…. [read more]

Criminal Justice: On September 18 Term Paper

… The reason for the suitability of this theory of punishment in this case is the fact that its central precept is that punishment should be in proportion to the harm.

Importance of Code Ethics in the Criminal Justice System:

One of the most essential and fundamental aspects in guiding practices and lessening misconduct by personnel in criminal justice is the importance of code of ethics. Ethics is basically described as moral philosophy, which focuses on examining issues of right and wrong and how people ought to live. The qualities of right and wrong are in turn considered as moral judgments that are assigned to people's conduct and actions. A code of ethics is vital in all criminal justice processes because it provides the professionals in…. [read more]

Criminal Procedure and the U.S. Supreme Court Term Paper

… Criminal Procedure and the U.S. Supreme Court

Although the specific laws that are involved vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, this paper assumes that there is a state law that permits police to hold mentally ill suspects for a lengthy period of time while determining their fitness for trial. Although this law is consistent with the laws of some other states, similar laws have been overturned in the United Kingdom and Europe. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop two opinions concerning the constitutionality of this law from the perspectives of Justices Brennan and Scalia, followed by an assessment concerning how two other justices would likely have responded to these opinions. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Is the Coordination of Putting Term Paper

… Criminal Justice is the coordination of putting into practice and associations exercised by state and local governments which are aimed at sustaining social power, dissuade, controlling misdemeanor and permitting those who disobey laws with illegal punishments. The most important organizations alleged with these tasks are law enforcement, magistrates, defense attorneys and local penitentiaries and jails which govern the process for arrest, charging, arbitration and penalty of those who are found responsible. When giving out blame through the criminal justice method, government must keep inside the outline of laws that defend individual privileges. The chase of criminal justice is like all types of righteousness, justice or progression, basically the chase of an idyllic. All through the history, criminal justice has taken on a lot of unusual…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Substantive vs. Procedural Law Essay

… Criminal Justice

Substantive vs. Procedural Law

Substantive law includes laws that "create, define and regulate legal rights and obligations" whereas procedural law governs and defines rules law enforcement agencies use "to enforce substantive law" (ICMBA, 2007). Examples of substantive law include the rules governing contract law, which determine whether agreements are binding and enforceable (Kubasek, Brennan & Browne, 2006, p. 31). Procedural law tells law enforcement agents and other representatives how to obtain relief for violations of the law when breaches of substantive law occur (Kubasek, Brennan & Browne, 2006, p. 32).

Related to these two concepts according to Kubasek, Brennan & Browne (2006) are substantive and procedural due process; the former requires that laws that "deprive individuals of liberty" or their freedom, or property,…. [read more]

Law Enforcement Technology Do You Think Essay

… Law Enforcement


Do you think you get greater crime prevention by criminals knowing that camera exist somewhere rather than knowing that a camera is observing a specific location? If criminals do not know the specific location of cameras, then the general public doesn't either. Although CCTV is used by law enforcement in public places, do you see privacy concerns? Does your personal privacy concerns out weight any benefit you see of CCTV in public?

Over the last several years there has been a huge growth in the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) security monitoring systems. Video cameras are routinely placed in police vehicles to record traffic stops, and on roadways to monitor and manage vehicle movement. With this there have been several groups that…. [read more]

Criminal Justice- Victimology Term Paper

… Criminal Justice- Victimology

For something so seemingly innocuous, the idea of a bill of rights for crime victims has raised an amazing amount of controversy. Those against the Crime Victims' Rights Amendment believe that it is the first step towards eroding the constitutional protections guaranteed to those accused of a crime in the United States. Such a belief displays a basic misunderstanding of both the U.S. Constitution and the proposed Crime Victims' Rights Amendment. The Crime Victims' Rights Amendment is aimed at offering protections towards those victims whose offenders have been convicted. This idea is not contrary to the United States Constitution, which offers little protection for convicted criminals beyond the right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment.

Before one can determine whether…. [read more]

Criminal Procedure Term Paper

… Criminal Procedure:

The criminal justice system is a process that involves various steps that start with a criminal investigation and end with the release of a convicted criminal from correctional institution. Since it involves a variety of steps, the center of the criminal justice process and criminal procedure is rules and decision making. Rules in criminal procedure involves the use of legal authority such as the United States Constitution, Bill of Rights, state constitutions and rules of criminal procedure, and rules and regulations of the department and agency. On the contrary, the decision making aspect is beyond the learning of rules and the implementation of the rules to particular cases. This is primarily because of decisions are based on discretion, which is the individual application…. [read more]

Patriot Act and the Rule Capstone Project

… Since not all law enforcement officers are clear on how to do this or clear on any changes that may have been made in the rule of law and the regulations stemming from it at all times, mistakes and misunderstandings can and do occur. While most law enforcement personnel do their very best to follow proper procedure, the changing nature of the law can affect them and cause them to overstep boundaries or have other issues at times.

The Effect on Homeland Security

Homeland Security was created as a department of the government (United, 2008). It is designed to make sure that terrorism does not take place on American soil. While there have been some baubles since it was created and implemented, it has generally…. [read more]

Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining a High Term Paper

… Ethics in Criminal Justice

Maintaining a high degree of ethical behavior within the criminal justice system is essential in promoting trust within the community. Police misconduct such as raping detainees does irreparable harm to that trust. In order to eliminate instances of police misconduct, it is imperative to institute strict procedures to address the issue. Only by addressing the issue will the protection of civilians be assured and trust be maintained.

There is perhaps nothing more damaging to the standing of the police within a community than when an atmosphere of mistrust arises due to police misconduct. When this mistrust arises as a result of an officer committing a crime against a citizen while on duty, it is even worse, particularly when that crime is…. [read more]

USA Patriot Act Term Paper

… S.A. Patriot Act) It is clear that the support from a party which was involved with passing the law in the first place. If there is a complaint about a robbery, is the thief expected to be the main witness in the court when the case comes up? Earlier the process needed the minimum of a warrant and a probable cause for the agencies to seek private record of the individual being accused of theft.

Under Fourth amendment, Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, and relevant case laws show that if a state wanted to search an organization, the agency had to show the reasons for believing that a crime had been committed and also to get a…. [read more]

US Patriot Act Term Paper

… U.S. Patriot Act

How the U.S. Patriot Act facilitates foreign intelligence operations

Patriot Act has been helping the FBI with efforts of sharing information. The Act has made significant contributions through its information sharing provisions. The provision of information sharing has formalized the directorate of FBI intelligence. According to the consolidate appropriations of this Act, the FBI has been given the mandate to implement a new intelligence directorate. The necessity for capabilities of intelligence has cut across various programs of the FBI. This has done away with stove piping of information while enabling the FBI to adapt quickly to the changing threats. Experts have projected that this will work on improving the capability of FBI to share intelligence. This is not only between the intelligence…. [read more]

Fourth Amendment the United States Research Paper


FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin?. Washington:

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M Wesley Clark?.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin?. Washington:

"Cell phone vs. Privacy." Talk of the Nation: NPR News. Sound bite. Retrieved Setpember 27, 2011, from .

Searching Cell Phones Seized Incident to Arrest

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M Wesley Clark?.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin?. Washington:

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M Wesley Clark?.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin?. Washington:

The Supreme Court Reexamines Search Incident to Lawful Arrest

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Richard G. Schott?.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin?. Washington:

Richard Hodsdon Sheriff; Sep/Oct 2009; 61, 6; ProQuest Criminal Justice pg. 68

The Emergency Aid Exception to the Fourth Amendment's Warrant Requirement

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Michael T. Pettry?.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin?. Washington: [read more]

Crime Control/Procedures Questionnaire

… There are at least three potential interpretations of the Fourth Amendment: 1) It applies only to full searches and arrest; not short of partial situations; 2) Even brief street detentions are technically arrests, especially pat down searches, and should be executed only if there is probable cause; and 3) Stop and searches are searches and seizures, but only minor ones so have a lesser standard of proof needed than full stops and searches -- there is more discretionary power for law enforcement. In Terry v. Ohio, the Court seems to favor #3 above, and in particular wishes to protect the safety of law enforcement but insists that stops and searches cannot be whimsical, but still need enough facts that a Judge or objective party would…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Essay

… If the Prosecutor decides that there is sufficient evidence against the suspect, they will charge the suspect and take them to court. Once a suspect has entered the criminal justice system, there is a series of procedures which are in place to ensure that a defendant has a fair trial in which the evidence can be examined and a decision as to guilt or innocence can be determined. If found guilty, the convicted criminal will enter the corrections system, a structure of facilities and personnel designed to maintain criminals away from society and to facilitate their re-entry into that society when their sentence is complete.

The importance of this criminal justice system is to keep society safe from the predations of it's less scrupulous members.…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Mainly Focuses Essay

… Despite the existence of these assorted challenges, most judicial institutions have managed to forge cordial relations and cooperation towards realization of justice to all criminals in a state or country (Gaines & Miller 2013).

My decision to choose the manager for the interview came about owing to his vast knowledge in matters of enforcement of criminal justice. Administration of justice to criminals must follow due process of the law (Neubauer 2011). Hence, the manager notwithstanding his experience and expertise in this unit is more candid to provide information without apprehension. Under the administration of criminal justice, only personnel with vast knowledge and experience in matters of law and criminal justice have direct consent or permission to comment and even proceed to give sensitive information (Neubauer…. [read more]

Criminal Procedure Term Paper

… The U.S. Supreme Court said that the 'information and deliberate determinations of magistrates empowered to issue warrants are to be preferred over the hurried action of officers who may happen to make arrests'" Ferdico (2004) citing Aguilar v. Texas 378 U.S. 108, 110-11, 84 S. Ct. 1509, 1512, 12L.Ed.2d 723, 726, (1964) According to Ferdico if a "proper" warrant has been issued then the abuse of discretion has not occurred and the issue of the warrant was legal. Ferdico cites the case Malley v. Briggs, 275 U.S. 335, 106 S.Ct., 1092, 89 L.Ed.2d 271 (1986) as being one case in which a warrant was issued illegally. In this case the Grand Jury did not find 'probable cause' for an indictment. Ferdico covers the explanation of…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Field Research Paper

… Criminal Justice Field

Define what an experiment is and how it is useful in the field of criminal justice research.

Since the beginning of the discipline, quantitative methods have supplied the primary research methods for studying the division and causes of crime. Quantitative methods provide many ways to attain data that is useful to many facets of society. The use of quantitative methods such as survey research, field research, and evaluation research can help criminologists to assemble dependable and valid data. The data can be used by criminologists and other social scientists in order to make causal statements about variables that are being researched (Weisburd, 2000).

Some scholars think that experimental research is the best kind of research to use to evaluate cause and effect.…. [read more]

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