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USA Business Cycle Research Paper

… The two large ones are the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the NASDAQ index. The latter is more related to high-tech and blue-chip stocks while the former is a catch-all for other types of companies. The Dow Jones average has been fairly crazy for the last few years but is currently on a strong upward trend. As with many stock indexes around the world, the Dow Jones index bottomed out in the sub-8,000 range (quite low for them) in 2008 but has risen quite strongly since then. There have been some slight valleys in the growth at least one a year but the one in 2012 was pretty slight and even the 2010/2011 iterations were not that bad. The index was at 10,000 at the…. [read more]


Globalization's Effect Term Paper

… The United States has been a leader in encouraging the cross-border deals for the advancement of domestic opportunities. While there are numerous opportunities to derive from the inter-relations of business opportunities with other countries, the United States often faces fundamental challenges in balancing the interest of the national security with the national economy. The September 11, 2001 attack has made the United States to implement stricter control in the foreign direct transaction. (Travalini, 2009).

The review of the literatures explores the impact of globalization on the security of the United States to enhanced greater understanding on steps that the country will take to enhance its national security.

Effect of Globalization on the National Security of the United States

The United States has experienced both positive…. [read more]


United States' Current International Position Essay

… In the era of globalization and market liberalization, the emphasis falls on free trade, regulated only by the economic principles of demand and supply. Nevertheless, such a point has yet to be attained and the countries -- including the United States -- still have the possibility to regulate trade. The most relevant example in this sense is represented by the efforts to stimulate exports and discourage imports.

In order to stimulate exports, the government often offers subsidies to the local industries in order to reduce their operational costs and make them more competitive within the international market place. At the level of imports, the more common methods of limitation refer to the imposition of tariffs and quotas on imports. These policies virtually limit the quantity…. [read more]


International Economics US Direct Investment Into Foreign Essay

… International Economics

US Direct Investment into Foreign Countries

Foreign Direct Investment or FDI is the process of domestic investment dollars entering into foreign markets. The types of available direct investment options include long-term capital infrastructure, building and land purchase for industrial use, and investment into the developing the revenue behind hard assets like film financing. An example of FDI is the recent decision rendered by the Chinese government that eased FDI into the country for development of private hospital infrastructure. A scenario where a U.S. domiciled private hospital invests into constructing medical buildings within the borders of a foreign land as an affiliated hospital is an example of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment into a Foreign Country.

FDI into the U.S.

The reverse of U.S. FDI…. [read more]


Macroeconomic Performance Since 1997 United States vs. The European Union the Transatlantic Economy Term Paper

… Macroeconomic Performance since 1997: United States vs. The European Union

The Transatlantic Economy)

Unemployment

Retirement Age and Associated Pension Costs

Labor Freedom of Movement

Resisting New Labor Entrants

Counter to the Trend: Healthcare Expenditure Differences

In Health Care, Europe also Has a Problem

Education: Europe better in Lower Grades, U.S. better in Colleges and Universities

Forecasting the Future: Europe and the United States

Productivity

Education

Pensions and Government Burden

Taxation

Health Care

This paper discusses the changing nature of macroeconomic performance between Europe and the United States since 1997. Although the U.S. has long exceeded Western Europe in economic and employment growth, recent trends have suggested that, at least in some European countries, unemployment is approaching low U.S. levels. Economic growth is closely related to…. [read more]


Turkey Reflects US Economy Term Paper

… Turkey Reflects Us Economy

Turkey and the U.S. Economy

Economy is the undisputed force that both unites and separates global entities. Countries are economically united in the meaning that they share similar goals, such as reducing the national debt, or the governmental deficit, improving the population's living standards by increasing their wages and pensions, keeping prices under control or strengthening the national currency.

States are economically different as they possess dissimilar resources on which to base their economy. For instance, some countries possess significant crude oil natural resources and the revenues coming from this industry gather up to 60-80% in the national gross domestic product. Other countries possess rich and fertile soils that make the agricultural industry vital to the national economy. David Ricardo's theory…. [read more]


Balance of Payments Term Paper

… Balance of Payments

Explain briefly what a country's balance of payments is and the main elements of the balance of payments

One of Shakespeare's not so foolish fools once said that all pleasure must be paid. Analysts such as Matthew Wolf of the Financial Times have added that the imbalance of trade between the United States and the other nations it is currently trading with may be a pleasure the U.S. economy will soon pay for in strength, jobs, and financial confidence, as its balance of payments increasingly turns into an imbalance of payments. (Why the U.S. current account deficit is a cause for concern, 25 August 2004)

Thus, one could add to Shakespeare's quotation, that in the modern economy of international trade, the current…. [read more]


United States Current Account Situation Term Paper

… ¶ … Account Situation

Current Accounts Deficit: Causes, Risk, and Solutions

The Current Account tracks the trade balance (exports and imports for goods and services), income payments (such as interest, dividends and salaries) and unilateral transfers (aid, taxes, and one-way gifts) (Current account balance - United States). A current account surplus indicates that the flow of capital from these components into the U.S. exceeds the capital leaving the country while a deficit means that there is a net capital outflow from these sources. In 1990, the U.S. current account was in surplus, but by 2006, it had reached more than $850 billion (Bergsten, 2007). The current account deficit now accounts for about seven percent of GDP, more than double the previous modern record of 3.4%…. [read more]


International Trade and Open Economy Essay

… This will benefit domestic producers who increase their sales and the price they can charge (Worth Publishers, 2010). Domestic consumers are likely to be hurt by increased prices of imported wine. The government of the United States and California winemakers is more likely to gain from these tariffs.

Chapter 26

The difference between fixed and flexible exchange rates

Fixed exchange rate system can be used to guard against day-to-day fluctuations characteristic of flexible rates. Fluctuations come about as a result of the specialization in production and flow of international trade and investments. Fixed exchange rates impose some element of price discipline on a nation that may not be practicable under flexible exchange rate systems. This makes nations with higher rates of inflations to be entangled…. [read more]


U.S. Trade Deficit Term Paper

… U.S. Trade Deficit

United States Trade Deficit

The balance of trade is an economic measurement highlighting, amongst other things, the health and stability of a national economy. It is calculated by subtracting a country's imports from the total amount of exports, for a given period of time, generally one year. At the end of a give time period, the balance trade can be positive or negative. The positive balance trade is referred to as a trade surplus, meaning that the country exported more items than it imported. If on the other hand, the country imported more than they delivered to other economies, the resulting trade balance is called a trade deficit.

The United States of America first reported a trade deficit in 1970, deficit which…. [read more]


Economic Analysis the United States Term Paper

… Economic Analysis

The United States is the country with the world's largest Gross Domestic Product, which was estimated to be $13.22 trillion dollars in 2006. The United States economy is typical for countries with "market economy"; it's often called "mixed" economy as majority of microeconomic decisions made by big corporations and firms of private economy sector is also regulated by government. Current U.S. economy is considered to be one of the most stable and strong economies due to a high GDP with reasonably high and stable GDP growth, low unemployment rate and high standards of living. Yet, recent geopolitical issues, high oil prices and external debt create some economic concerns. National debt, which includes interests and government deficits in the year of 2006 was nearly…. [read more]


Canada-u.S. Relations for the Canadian Public Research Paper

… Canada-U.S. Relations

For the Canadian public, the United States is widely perceived as an intrusive, aggressive, and increasingly reactionary bully. For the Canadian Government, the United States is perceived more as a force of nature, an absolute global hegemon providing stability and promoting prosperity, whose needs must be met even at the cost of Canadian national pride. This view was particularly evident during the 2004-2008 period when the two countries were led by Conservatives, who readily acquiesce to the rules of naked power. However, Canadian Liberals are willing to defy American demands at times, although never to the point of recklessness. This applies even if the U.S. president is a Democrat, as President Obama has discovered.

While the recession and terrorism limit the President's discretion…. [read more]


U.S. History Midterm Exam Essay

… 2. Describe how the United States went from isolationism to an internationalist and interventionist foreign policy. You should discuss the 1870-1945 period and focus on the following topics in your response. Why did America's stance change over time?

• Expanding into foreign markets

• Imperialism

• World War I, the Fourteen Points, and the League of Nations

• 1920s-1930s isolationism and trade

• World War II, getting in, fighting it, and planning the postwar world

Regime change is not new in U.S. foreign policy, and in fact it started with the coup against the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893. Its central thesis is that, far from promoting democracy abroad, the United States has reacted many times against the threat that democracy poses to American investments and…. [read more]


US Microeconomics Objectives Research Paper

… Fiscal Policy and Foreign Trade

The a first world economy's macroeconomic objectives are many, but in this most recent global recession there are a few that would help to guarantee fiscal stability and begin to restart the economic growth process. Since these objectives represent the most up-to-date examination of U.S. fiscal policy, at least domestically, they are also the most pertinent to the U.S.'s economic survival. Foreign trade and exchange has always been a major economic boon to the U.S. And this current recession has given much insight into the economic advantages of foreign trade and currency valuation. The U.S. has many tools at its disposal currently to help regulate its fiscal course. The Federal Reserve, an institution whose role it is to help set…. [read more]


International Trade Theories Essay

… Hence, it is no surprise that the openness that India is currently enjoying is similar to that openness which China underwent over a decade ago. So looking at India now the IMF and WTO is merely helping them within the domains of the trading of products that is currently helping them fulfill 20% of their GDP percentage in the world. Hence, we see a vast difference between the financial assistance that IMF is currently willing to give to China which is comparatively more than that attained by India currently. Also, we do see that the WTO has registered much more expansive trade legislatures with China as opposed to India primarily because they are moving at a much more increase trading rate than India (Lemoine and…. [read more]


How the United States Trade Policy With China Has Affected Civil Liberties Inside Term Paper

… ¶ … United States Trade Policy With China Has Affected Civil Liberties Inside China

The work of Ying Ma states that:...the fundamental underpinning of American policy toward China today - and U.S. democracy promotion in China - is economic engagement." (2007) Ying Ma also relates that over twenty years of trade between the United States and China has "drastically altered the face of Chinese society, resulting in an unprecedented expansion of economic, social and personal freedoms for ordinary Chinese citizens." (2007) However these improvements in Chinese society have "not been translated into political liberalization. These Chinese Communist Party (CCP) shows no interest in meaningful political reforms and has continued to rely on repression and brutality to maintain its rule." (Ma, 2007)

IDEALISM vs. REALISM

Idealistically…. [read more]


UN Security Council Proliferation Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:10] [9: Peter Crail, "Implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1540: A Risk-Based Approach," The Nonproliferation Review, vol 15, no. 13, July 2006, p. 355.] [10: Lars Olberg, "The Implementation of Resolution 1540 in the Middle East," Cooperative Monitoring Center-Amman Occasional Paper, February 2008, p. 3.]

Simultaneously, in the years leading up to the adoption of Resolution 1540, the United States was in a hurry to put on the books a measure that obligated the entire international community to take steps to shut down or disrupt terrorist networks seeking WMD. More specifically, the George W. Bush Administration did not believe that the time-consuming process of negotiating a multilateral treaty was an appropriate path, considering the urgency of generating a WMD terrorism nonproliferation tool. In fact, the…. [read more]


U.S. Trade Balance and Exchange Rate Term Paper

… U.S. Trade Balance & Exchange Rate

US Trade Balance and Exchange Rate

Most economists agree that there is a definite relationship between trade balance and the exchange rate. It is a general rule of economics that a negative trade balance (or trade deficit) normally leads to a weaker currency, and a positive trade balance (or trade surplus) results in enhanced value of the currency, although there are exceptions to the rule as several other factors may prevent such weakness or strength. The issue of trade balance and its effect on exchange rate of the country's currency is currently in the limelight because of the burgeoning U.S. trade deficit and the declining value of the U.S. dollar against some of the major world currencies. In this…. [read more]


Exchange Rate Volatility and International Term Paper

… There are many factors that the PPP model fails to consider and it appears that the PPP model only works in long-term, highly inflationary economies. Even these applications have been criticized. There are many later versions of this theory that consider nonlinear and linear economic models. The PPP theory continues to suffer from a lack of conclusive empirical evidence. Therefore this theory is perhaps the least widely accepted of the economic models for predicting exchange rate volatility.

Further work needs to be done on real exchange rate behavior as opposed to theoretical exchange rate behavior in order to devise a better and more realistic working model of the PPP. In addition the proper circumstances must exist in order to apply the PPP model. It is…. [read more]


How China Encourages Trade With the United States Term Paper

… What is not reflected in Figure 1 is the impact the global recession had on the volume of trade between China and the U.S. Between 2005 and 2007, the importation of goods from China into the United States increased from $243 to over $321 billion, but between 2008 and 2009, during the Great Recession, the volume of Chinese imports decreased slightly from $338 to $296 billion (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). By 2010, however, trade with China had begun to recover and reached $365 billion by year's end. The U.S. trade deficit with China also increased from $202 to $273 billion for the same five-year period. This data seems to reveal the Great Recession had only a modest impact on trade with China, probably due to…. [read more]


Business Cycle Analysis Research Paper

… The Book of Vital World Statistics. London: Crown.

English News China. (2013, January 17). China's 2012 Fixed Asset Investment Up. Retrieved from English.news.china: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-01/18/c_132111474.htm

MISH's Global Economic Trend Analysis. (2012, September 26). Is China Burning? Retrieved from globaleconomicanalysis.blogspot.com: http://globaleconomicanalysis.blogspot.com/2012/09/is-china-burning-shanghai-stock-index.html

Morally Bankrupt. (2013). China's Figures. Retrieved from:

http://www.blog.morallybankrupt.org

Morrison, W. (2013, July 17). China-U.S. Trade issues. Retrieved from Congressional Research Service: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33536.pdf

National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2013). Retreived from: http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/

Roberts, D. (2013, July 26). Diving Unemployment in China. Retrieved from Bloomberg Businessweek: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-07-26/divining-unemployment-in-china

Stockcharts.com (2013). China. Retrieved from: http://stockcharts.com/symsearch/index.html?China

Talk, F. (2013, August 26). China Charts That Look Bullish. Retrieved from U.S. Global Investors: http://www.usfunds.com/investor-resources/frank-talk/5-china-charts-that-look-bullish-for-commodities/#.UmoCkvmshcY

The Economist. (2010, November 4). Nominally cheap or really dear? Retrieved from economist.com: http://www.economist.com/node/17420096

The Economist. (2012, May…. [read more]


Exchange Rates and Inflation Can Manipulating Currency Term Paper

… ¶ … exchange rates and Inflation

Can manipulating Currency Rates effectively reduce inflation?

Recent trend have shown that developing countries have been prone to higher inflation than industrialized countries. This trend has formed the basis of monetary policy in these countries since the early 1980s (Bleaney and Fielding, 2005). Bleaney and Fielding surmised that inflation could be controlled in these countries by adjusting currency exchange rates. Bleaney and Fielding suggest that the method of pegging the developing nation's currency exchange rate to the currency of a more advanced nation, or perhaps a basket of such currencies was the most effective means to control inflation.

This was the method that dominated the monetary policy of developing nations before the 1980s. However, in the mid 1980s things…. [read more]


South Korean & German Trade Show Industry Dissertation

… Trade Show Industry in Germany and South Korea



Trade as Marketing and Communication



Area of Study



Study Components



The History of Trade



History of Trade Shows



Patterns of Trade Shows



Marketing Theories



Trade Shows and Market Entry



Development of the Trade Show Industry



Contributions of the Trade Show Industry



Marketing Processes in the Trade Show Industry



Marketing Planning and Tactical Considerations in the Trade Show Industry



Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research



Data Analysis Plan



COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES OF THE TRADE SHOW INDUSTRY…. [read more]


International Trade and Finance Speech Essay

… Quotas are applied in the form of quantity restrictions applied to specific products. Such measures can strain relationships between the importing country and the country whose goods are affected most by the tariff or quota. A good example is the U.S. - China relationship, which usually gets strained any time America adopts a policy aimed at reducing the huge trade deficit between them.

Another key factor that determines the balance of international trade is foreign exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be floating in which case they are determined by the market forces of supply and demand. For example, a sudden increased demand for U.S. dollars by Europeans would strengthen the U.S. dollar against the Euro with other geopolitical factors can also affecting floating exchanges.…. [read more]


Financial Analysis of Mcdonald Essay

… Since foreign exchange and interest rates are volatile, the important measures are to use various financial instruments to reduce exposures of foreign exchange and interest risks. McDonald is exposed to the global market risks due to the foreign currency fluctuation and effect of changes in interest rates.

In addition, McDonald is exposed to the credit-related losses because the company raises short-term and long-term debt to raise its financial obligations. Moreover, McDonald is exposed to the income tax uncertainties. Since McDonald operates in the U.S. And foreign countries, the company financial data is regularly audited by the states, federal and foreign authorities. When the company tax position does not meet the required standard, the company may records interests or penalties. McDonald is also exposed to the…. [read more]


Exchange Rates and Export Opportunities Term Paper

… (Blaine, 1996) However, currencies began to float freely, more or less, in 1973 thus causing the link between exchange rates and trade flow to become very tenuous. (Blaine, 1996). The rapid increase in international capital flows is one reason attributed to this tenuous condition; capital flows are much more sensitive to minor changes in exchange rates compared to trade flows, especially in the short run. Therefore countries that attempt to boost exports by making their currencies weaker can experience negative results such as large inflows of foreign direct investment, large outflows of foreign portfolio investment and domestic flight of capital. (Blaine, 1996) the growing importance of multinational corporations in determining international trade patterns is another factor. Global production and distribution networks act to replace exports…. [read more]


Samsung Electronics Examination and Evaluation Essay

… The consequence was a growing loss of confidence and the rejection of the national currency, making it easier for the distributive conflict to result in price increases.

Within this context, one finds an explanation to such questions as Why did Brazilian firms grant nominal wage increases with little impact on employment levels? Why did Brazilian consumers accept price increases without significantly diminishing their purchases? In other words, why did the market sanction these price increases, allowing the distributive pressures to manifest themselves through inflation? The answer is that all firms know that they can pass on increases in the prices they pay for inputs to their customers, since the latter prefer to keep buying more expensive products than to hold on to currency, whose value,…. [read more]


Microeconomic Event Related to New Essay

… More than 100 countries in the world trade coffee. In Colombia, this cash crop takes over 19% of total land used in agriculture. This is because its consumption and farming is significant in this particular region. In 2009, Colombia traded over 8 million bags of coffee each weighing 60kg. Over $1.3 billion worth of products traded between Colombia and Canada. This has brought a good relationship between the two countries. Canada ' popularity in its major coffee import that makes up to 18% of its total imports makes it necessary to retain its good relationship with Colombia.

The global coffee popularity brought about an everlasting battle in the coffee industry. The coffee market expansion made the colonists to assert control over the coffee production. The…. [read more]


Managing Exchange Rate Risk Capstone Project

… Once there is a sudden decrease in the value of the currency, is when the put options can be sold in the open market or exercised. This will prevent the company from taking large losses at times when there are increased amounts of volatility. (Berger, 2011) (Grady, 2010)

Another option that Fed Ex has available is a currency swap. This is when there is an exchange for the principle and interest in one currency with another. The basic idea is to use this as way to effectively negotiate a predetermined rate in the future with the other party they are working with. It is at this point, when the company will have more stability and can help to mitigate the negative impacts of unexpected shifts.…. [read more]


Balanced Scorecard Analysis: Starbucks Term Paper

… Customer satisfaction numbers have been tumbling as of late despite efforts to retain baristas and to ensure that drinks are served fresh (both areas of customer complaint in the recent past). Prices have been going up and the perception of customer uniqueness is not as strong as it has been in the past. A recent survey of the major fast food coffee chains revealed that although McDonald's was dead last (Starbucks appears to have little worries from the hamburger giant), Dunkin Donuts has become a formidable rival. "The overall average for the sector was 80, and both Dunkin' and Starbucks hit that average. Dunkin' won out in cost -- which was no real surprise -- while Starbucks won the quality fight. The move to 80…. [read more]

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