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United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Term Paper

… United Nations Peacekeeping Missions

The initiators of the United Nations in 1945 laid down the maintenance of peace and security as one among its three primary objectives. The UN Security Council has the necessary power to undertake military peacemaking action against the concerned government regime. But any such proposal is capable of being barred by any one of the permanent members. As a result of this the UN-led international military peacemaking interference has only occurred two times during 1950-53, against North Korea and in 1991, in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. But the UN has been livelier in a smaller magnitude, peacekeeping activity. Ever since 1948 there occurred about 52 peacekeeping missions, associated with more than three quarters of a million soldiers and civilian…. [read more]

Haiti and UN Peacekeeping Missions Term Paper

… Haiti and UN peacekeeping Missions

The latest era of the UN presence in Haiti started during September 1991 at the time when President Aristide's democratically elected administration was ousted a military government under the leadership of General Raoul Cedras and compelled to flee. The reaction of the international community was quick and started a three-year process of sanctions and negotiations with the military government prior to President Aristide's ultimate return to power during 1994. The reaction of the Organization of the American States -- OAS and the Caribbean Community -- CARICOM was particularly strong, prompted by the OAS's fresh dedication to the strengthening of the representative democracy in the region and the important contribution of the two organizations in easing and supervising the election in…. [read more]

United Nations Missions in Haiti Research Paper

… United Nations Missions in Haiti

The United Nations has been one of the most controversial and at the same time important constructions of the 20th century in terms of the study of international relations. It has been a constant subject for study and interpretation, for criticism and admiration; still, the peace related missions extended throughout the world since 1945 offered a proof of the UN's dedicated goal for humanity and peace. In this sense, one of the most significant missions the UN has deployed in its history is in Haiti, a country torn by war and civil unrest, with human losses and financial distress. However, the UN presence in the country, in different forms, shapes, and mandates has been the cornerstone of the country's attempt…. [read more]

Poverty Challenges in Haiti Research Paper

… A system of governance that highly relies on foreign aid and borrowings is what characterizes the nature of the Haitian government. Structural reforms undertaken since 1995 have not adequately measured their impact on distribution of resources and structural constraints of the economy.

Policies and deregulation programs rarely follow initiatives to strengthen the supply chains of resource allocation and distribution. Various social aspects of the Haitian society contribute to increased poverty levels. Social aspects that have an effect on the poverty situation may include cultural beliefs and perceptions towards formal education and health services. Cultural beliefs that do not allow education of women are a factor for the many illiterate women in the rural areas of Haiti. Early school dropout by young people is also an…. [read more]

United Nations -- Criticisms Description Essay

… It was in 2005 that the United Nations Peace-building Commission came into being as a result of the criticism being faced by the UN regarding Bosnia and Rwanda. The main task of this commission was to bring together all the relevant or the related bodies such as the international financial institutes, the international donors, the National governments, the troop contributors in order to ensure post-conflict peace as well as to mention any issues that might give rise to the conflicts again (UN Peace-building Commission, 2011). Although the creation of this organization has helped in taking the strain off DPKO but in reality it hasn't increased the efficiency of the organization as, the duties have been taken from one organization and put upon another organization (UN…. [read more]

Haiti After the Earthquake Research Paper

… Haiti After the Earthquake

Briefly describe why the earthquake caused such a disastrous impact in Haiti? You can examine the state of infrastructure at the time and the related technical issues as well as the political, financial, governmental, economic and social problems behind it

The earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January, 2010 killed more than 230,000 people and left more than a million homeless. Striking just 10 miles southwest of the capital Port-au-Prince, it destroyed thousands of buildings including the UN headquarters, the Catholic cathedral, and the Presidential Palace.

Haiti has never fully recovered. More than a million homeless are still displaced living in camps, and, in November, 2010, Hurricane Tomas aggravated the misery by destroying much what was left. To compound matters, a…. [read more]

United Nations in East Timor Successes and Failures Essay

… ¶ … peacekeeping missions of the United Nations in East Timor ultimately turned out to be more or less unique in terms of the history of UN actions. A quick review of the specific details is necessary to analyze the UN's achievements in East Timor more closely. East Timor had been a former Portuguese colony on the divided island of Timor: West Timor had been an Indonesian territory. (The island is divided in a way that recalls other island territories like Papua-New Guinea, or the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, divided between two sovereign nations, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.) After the mid-1970s collapse of Portugal's fascist regime (which had been in place since before World War Two) East Timor was poised for the usual rigmarole…. [read more]

Policy Advisement on Efficacy Term Paper

… Whatever happens now, America will withdraw in defeat. Armies are for winning wars, not building nations. Armies that keep fighting a war they've won, will lose it" (Jonas, 2010). This distinction between the role and mission of our armed forces is fundamental to this debate, because as a nation founded on the ideal of democratic freedom, becoming a force of occupation does not align with our military's legitimate objectives. As one prominent foreign policy journalist observed in 2007, when the Iraqi insurgency had reached its bloody crescendo of suicide bombings and assassination attempts -- "the moment the United States invaded the way it did, and occupied the nation as boorishly as it did, the outcome couldn't have been any different than it is now" (Tristam).…. [read more]

Foreign Aid in Haiti Capstone Project

… Foreign Aid in Haiti

The natural disaster that struck Haiti at the beginning of 2010 can be considered as an important international crisis from several points-of-view. Natural disasters are phenomena which can hardly be controlled, regardless of the nation it hits or the technology invented in the last decades. Notwithstanding the advancement of technology and informational systems, it is very difficult to predict events as those which took place in Haiti in January 2010. Despite of these aspects, the response given to this crisis is in fact the result of the thirty years of failure in foreign aid from the international community.

According to news media, the death toll of the Haiti disaster hit 212,000 deaths, as of February 2010 (CNN, 2010). However, the total…. [read more]

Fall of the Soviet Union Essay

… In the First World War the United States had entered late and, although its involvement had an impact on the outcome, its influence was much less than its influence arising from the Second World War.

In the Second World War the United States assumed a leadership position. There was little doubt as to how important the United States' entry into the War was to the ultimate outcome and, unlike what occurred following the end of the First World War, the United States was largely able to dictate the terms of how the War would end and under what terms. The Allied nations, with the exception of the Soviet Union, looked toward the United States for leadership and this time the United States did not withdraw…. [read more]

US Service Capabilities Assessment

… Humanitarian Assistance

In Joint Publication 3-29, the Joint Chiefs of Staff lays out the doctrine for U.S. military support of foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) missions short of war. These capabilities will be deployed in smaller scale contingency (SSC)/MOOTW scenarios, but less than theater of war (MTW) scenarios. In chapter II, organization and interagency cooperation and DOD involvement. This chapter lays out the C2 for the mission ("Joint publication 3-29," 2001, II-1).

One might want to review the 1962 Operation IDA launched in the wake of a series of earthquakes struck northwestern in Iran. This is strikingly similar to our Vignette scenario in the course. The JCS directed United States Army, Europe, to send aid to the victims. Elements of the 8th Evacuation Hospital deployed from…. [read more]

International Political Economics the Impact of UN Peacekeeper Corruption Term Paper

… International Political Economics: The Impacts of UN Peacekeeper Corruption

International political economy tries to understand global and international problems through a diverse interdisciplinary arrangement of theoretical perspectives and analytical tools. International political economy focuses on the constant breakdown of disciplinary boundaries amid politics and economics. it's not easy to image a world devoid of international political economy since the mutual interaction of international economics and international relations is prevalent. The political activities of nations apparently influence international business and the flow of money, which consequently affects the environment in which nations make political preferences, and entrepreneurs make economic preferences.

It appears impracticable to put into consideration significant questions regarding international economics or international politics in devoid of taking into consideration their mutual effects and influences.…. [read more]

Post-Conflict, Peace / Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan Term Paper

… Post-Conflict, Peace/Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan

Somehow, within a forty year span of time, the United States has found itself ensnared in multiple wars in Asia at the same time. Again, unless we can influence the postwar nation building process, powers that are inimical to United States interests (in the present Iran) will fill the vacuum upon the American withdrawal. In this short essay, this author will list two lessons learned from our wars apply it to the defacto American raj in Afghanistan and Iraq. First is not to become too closely associated with present unpopular regimes as it is doing with the present administrations in the countries in which we are "nation-building." Also, staying engaged in a never ending guerrilla war that has…. [read more]

Peace Freedom Is the Foundation Term Paper

… Borno ruled without the benefit of a legislature, which had been dissolved in 1917 under Dartiguenave, until elections were again permitted in 1930. The legislature, after several ballots, elected mulatto Stenio Vincent to the presidency.

The occupation of Haiti continued after World War I, despite the embarrassment that it caused Woodrow Wilson at the Paris peace conference in 1919, and the scrutiny of a congressional inquiry in 1922. By 1930, President Herbert Hoover had become concerned about the effects of the occupation, particularly after a December 1929 incident in Les Cayes in which marines killed at least ten Haitian peasants during a march to protest local economic conditions. Hoover appointed two commissions to study the situation. A former governor general of the Philippines, W. Cameron…. [read more]

Strategic Assessment of International Policing Essay

… Changing Paradigm in International Policing: A Strategic Assessment Paper on International Policing in the Contemporary Environment

The first United Nations peacekeeping mission was dispatched to the Middle East in 1948. it's mission was "(Desiring) to bring about a cessation of the hostilities in Palestine without prejudice to the rights, claims and position of either Arabs or Jews."

The role of the military looking peacekeeping forces was not to engage in military action, or to choose one -side over the other, but by their presence to represent the member nation states of the United Nations in its role to negotiate, first, a cease fire, and, subsequently, to engage the warring Arabs and Jews in non-violent conflict resolution. Non-violent conflict resolution has been the weighty undertaking of…. [read more]

American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

… Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For this reason and was always the main goal of Manifest Destiny, while industrial capitalism required a different type of imperialism that acquired markets and raw materials overseas rather than colonies. Eastern capitalists since the time of Alexander Hamilton and the early Federalists and Whigs had always had a very limited interest in expanding the agrarian frontier, and even less in the expansion of slavery. They…. [read more]

Guantanamo Bay Term Paper

… An additional 16 voted for the Cuban independence measure and abstained from the Platt Amendment (Mellen, 2004). These votes from the hypocritical members of the Senate would have defeated the Platt Amendment had they not changed their position so drastically (Mellen, 2004).

The U.S. intent to use the Platt amendment as the means to legitimize control over Cuba was not a hidden agenda (Mellen, 2004). Congressman Corliss of Michigan stated: "I am construed to vote for the amendment with reference to the island of Cuba, because I believe that the adoption thereof will insure the continuance of our sovereignty. I am unalterably opposed to the surrender of the sovereignty of the United States over the island of Cuba" (Mellen, 2004). Congressman C.E. Littlefield of Maine…. [read more]

World Poor Thesis

… ¶ … aloud or in writing, making the reflective report exercise a valuable addition to the learning process. This reflective report recounts the events that took place during the research process for the study, "Identifying Marketing Opportunities to Combat Global Poverty," including a recollection of individual experiences, the personal feeling and learning that were experienced, as well as the group dynamics and learning that were derived from the experience. A review of lessons learned that can be used in future projects is followed by a summary of the reflective report entries in the conclusion.

Recollection of Experiences

Perhaps the overriding perception that emerged during the earliest phases of the research process concerned the extent of the problem of global poverty and how it affected the…. [read more]

Politics Term Paper

… From 1979 through 1988, Ecuador staggered through a succession of executive-legislative confrontations that created a near permanent crisis atmosphere in the polity. In 1984, President Leon Febres-Cordero tried to physically bar new Congressionally-appointed Supreme Court appointees from taking their seats. "Parliamentary government avoids the problems associated with presidentialism since it mandates a degree of cooperation between the executive and legislature if either are to remain in office, and it also allows for a change in leadership without precipitating a crisis of state."

Presidential systems are said by critics not to offer voters the kind of accountability seen in parliamentary systems. It is easy for either the president or Congress to escape blame by blaming the other. Describing the United States, former Treasury Secretary C. Douglas…. [read more]

Letter to Editor Thesis

… Letter to Editor

As someone who has watched teenage friends make poor family planning choices due to misinformation, I applaud The Dallas News for the recent editorial "Sex Education Without Guesswork." Sex education is important for two main reasons: to help teenagers protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases and to help prevent teen pregnancy. Abstinence is a great choice for some, and whenever possible abstinence is an ideal way to prevent both unwanted pregnancy and STD. However, teaching abstinence does not preclude educators from also teaching about safe sex and contraception. In fact, educators have an obligation to their students to teach the facts about their own bodies. Education is worthless if facts are doled out selectively, or not at all.

Adolescents are deemed mature…. [read more]

Military Intervention and Peacekeeping at Different Phases Essay

… Military Intervention and Peacekeeping

At different phases of a conflict the multiple strategies of conflict management respond to barriers in the process in different ways: Conflict Prevention is an approach that seeks to resolve disputes before violence breaks out; Peacemaking transforms the conflict from violent to spoken, and further, toward the definition of a common peaceful solution; Peacekeeping missions are often required to halt violence and preserve peace once it is obtained. If successful, those missions can strengthen the opportunity for post-conflict Peacebuilding, which should function to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing the root causes of conflict and creating a stable and durable peace. Finally, Statebuilding is the process of reconstructing weak or collapsed infrastructure and institutions of a society - political, economic…. [read more]

Phoenix Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Phoenix Program Lessons to Iraq

Scope and Significance


The Phoenix Program in Vietnam

Lessons Learned from Phoenix

Applications for Iraq

Selected Bibliography


It is not at all unusual to hear popular comparisons made between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq and though most experts see only a casual relationship still others see a comparison that is not only valid but is applicable to the utilization of historical Vietnam tactics and lessons learned from them to formulate reasonable resolutions to the Iraq War. In a collection of essays analyzing the similarities and differences of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars, ed. David Ryan demonstrates that the two wars are very similar in public sentiment…. [read more]

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking Capstone Project

… In particular, heroin from Mexico poses a formidable threat throughout Pennsylvania and Delaware, as evidenced by the increasing availability of high purity, low priced heroin and the resulting escalation in abuse, drug treatment admissions, and overdose deaths. This threat is exacerbated by the widely-reported trend of prescription drugs abusers migrating to heroin, seeking a cheaper and more available high. The DEA Philadelphia Division routinely assesses and ranks the drug threats to Philadelphia and the Delaware area as determined by availability, threat to public health, community impact, attendant crime, enforcement activity, seizures, drug abuse and treatment statistics, as well as propensity for abuse. Analysis of these factors, supplemented by investigative reporting, human intelligence, liaison, and open source data, allows for a comprehensive overview of each drug…. [read more]

Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role in Enhancing International Law Term Paper

… Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role in Enhancing International Law

Legal Status of the Inter-Parliamentary Union

The Development of the International Institutions

The Public International Unions

The Private International Unions

Historical background of the IPU

Brief Overview of the IPU Statutes (Assemblies and Committees, Members,

Functions, Goals and Activities)

The Relationship between the IPU and the United Nations

Beneficial Cooperation between the IPU and the United Nations (Common

Goals, Agenda and Concerns)

The Importance of the Recognition of the IPU Contribution

The Role the IPU Played in Implementing Decisions taken by the Assembly of the United Nations and the Implementation of the Millennium Development


The UN as a Framework of International Machinery for the Peaceful

Settlement of Disputes

What Role can the IPU Play in…. [read more]

U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Why did the United States go to war in 1898 and what were the consequences of the war?

Following the advice of its founding fathers the United States had, in the first century of its existence, kept well away from foreign entanglements. After the American Civil War (1861-1865) the country experienced rapid industrial growth and felt the need for markets beyond its frontiers. There was also a desire to show its political and military muscle at the international scene. The Munroe Doctrine and manifest destiny became popular slogans in the country as more and more Americans began to believe that territorial expansion by the U.S. was both inevitable and "divinely ordained."

It was in this background that certain events unfolded…. [read more]

Wspa Non-Profit Organization Research Paper

… WSPA Non-Profit Organization

The most worthy non-profit organizations are those that commit to the plight of those who are unable to help themselves. The World Society for the Protection of Animals (or WSPA) is one such operation. Animals are a voiceless and unempowered presence in the world and human beings act as both their attackers and their defenders. The World Society for the Protection of Animals has committed their efforts and resources to the suffering of animals, a cause to which most people can relate, provided they have pets, enjoy nature, or just possess basic human compassion.

The WSPA has constructed a comprehensive website which is a wealth of information about the organization, including its history, operations, present and past programs, and goals. In…. [read more]

Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention "The Clinton Administration Research Paper

… Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention

"The Clinton Administration has to realize that their humanitarian intervention efforts sometimes result in more harm than good being accomplished. It has to be realized that countries such as Haiti and Bosnia can resolve their internal conflicts by themselves alone especially if sufficient assistance, in the form of disaster relief, has already been extended by the U.S. And the UN. American taxpayers, who pay for such interventions, are the ones who ultimately lose…" (Gray, 1998, p. 143).

Given that the use of force is designated for humanitarian purposes in specific instances, what kind of formal authorization is necessary for the use of force? Is the United Nations the only place a state can turn to in order to receive a bona fide…. [read more]

Monroe County, New York: Community's Emergency Response Research Paper

… At the minimum, the relevance of having in place effective, well planned and coordinated communication systems cannot be overstated. Essentially, one of the key lessons learnt during the 9/11 terror attacks is that a clear and well formulated emergency communications plan and " media relations plan is essential to get accurate information out to both family members of victims and the general public, & #8230;and to ensure that the presence of media does not interfere with evacuation and rescue efforts…" (U.S. Department of Justice -- Office of Justice Programs, 2013). As it has been pointed out in the Arlington County after-action report (AAR) on the response to the September 11 terrorist attack on the Pentagon, communication systems were busy even before the crash at the…. [read more]

Direct Impact That Catholic Voices Literature Review

… Although initially Unda and OCIC were both founded separately and had no connection to one another what so ever, but after the 1960's both these organizations started coming together more and more as they started dividing the tasks, that before they were doing separately, among themselves. Unda started working with UNESCO in the activities regarding the media education[footnoteRef:9] whereas; OCIC became concerned with the internet and video productions. Since 1980's all the congresses and meetings were being held jointly and later on in 2001 due to the need for one large organization devoted to all the media of the world, these two organizations merged into one organization known as SIGNIS. [9: See the Unda publication Educommunication Nouvelles, which started in may 1987 as a trimestrial…. [read more]

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