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Urban and Suburban Planning Term Paper

… Large metropolitan areas are attractive to many due to the economic, educational and cultural opportunities available in these areas. During much of the 20th century and especially during economic downturns and recessions large amounts of people abandoned rural areas in search of opportunities that were available in large cities. They rarely took into account the discomforts and negative effects of urban sprawl, they were in a sense blinded and consumed by the promise of a better life that large cities offered. As certain members of the population become economically stable they seek to improve their quality of life, this is when they begin to notice the both the pros and cons associated with big city living. If they have a successful career and are economically…. [read more]


Urban Sprawl in Europe Article Critique

… Urban sprawl: The United States vs. Europe

Urban sprawl has increasingly become a problem in Europe, but it has been a problem within the United States even longer. One of the reasons Europeans have become so hyper-conscious about the dangers of urban sprawl is that they do not want to fall into the pattern of life exhibited in many regions of the United States, where public transportation is virtually unheard of and even walking to school is difficult. Urban sprawl creates problems for the environment, because of high levels of car dependence, as well as problems for human health. Over-dependence on cars, long commutes, and a lack of attractive places to walk, ride bikes, and play contribute to obesity, high blood pressure, and a host…. [read more]


Urban Sprawl Is a Problem Term Paper

… Moreover, in an effort to enhance their recruiting ability corporations build facilities in rural areas further encroaching on ecologically sensitive areas. However, this does not decrease commute time or miles. In fact, from 1983 to 1990 mean vehicle miles per household rose 29%.

As these jobs become available in suburban areas with free parking and attractive landscapes they become attractive to everyone rather than just those in the local community. Therefore, cross commuting becomes common and travel miles increase. Consequently, increased traffic leads to street and highway expansion and development furthering deforestation and encroachment on wildlife habitat. As urban conditions deteriorate more of its population moves out seeking better conditions. As a result service sector jobs move out of the city to suburban strip malls…. [read more]


Land Use Planning Policies Term Paper

… Effectiveness of plans

Kaiser and Godschalk's literature also reveal planning policies are ineffective. The land use patterns mapped in community administrative departments often set out plans without any specific land use or implementation strategy. Kaiser and Godschalk call these verbal policy plans, designed for non-physical development policy. At the initial stages these plans were found important for foundation policy. However, they give the false impression of concreteness. They were found to be functionary for paper processing purposes. "The Calvert County, MD Comprehensive Plan (Calvert County 1983), winner of a 1985 APA award, exemplifies the verbal policy plan. Its policies are concise, easy to grasp, and grouped in sections corresponding to the six divisions of county government responsible for implementation. It remains a policy plan, however,…. [read more]


Environmental Science Suburban Sprawl: Problems Term Paper

… "

Solution

A solution must be found to combat the problem that urban sprawl has spawned. One such solution is called "smart growth." This approach is one that works with "a variety of stakeholders in the design and construction industry, businesses and land developers, governments and civic leadership, system users, and planners and engineers" (Potential for $mart Growth Services and Technology Transfer in Emerging Markets, 2005)

toward the goals of:

1. Influencing users to drive less and encourage multimodal systems.

2. Maximizing the use and management of existing infrastructure prior to expansion.

3. Shifting the energy base to renewable resources and increasing vehicle efficiency.

One such example that has been successful is that of Curitiba, Brazil. Mayor Jaime Lerner has since 1965 "incorporated economic, social…. [read more]


History of Urban Planning Research Proposal

… History Of Urban Planning in the United States

Drive around a number of cities in the United States -- Houston, for example, or Los Angeles -- and you might think that urban planning was just a fantasy, since there seems to have been no thought whatsoever in terms of might be good for the long-term social, cultural, political, and economic health of these cities, where seemingly anything goes. On the other hand, any one of a number of planned communities that dot the newer neighborhoods across the country suggest that urban planning is simply fascism by other means as people cannot pick the flowers for their front yards. There are, of course, some cities that get their urban planning -- like that final bowl for…. [read more]


New Suburban Poverty Essay

… But it is also a fact that less affluent people are slowly but surely finding their way into suburbs anyway" and Press hopes that this will result in new voting patterns more favorable to the interests of the poor (Press 2007). Press' optimism seems undercut by the recent, overwhelming victory for Tea Party and Republican candidates, overwhelmingly supported by white, suburban voters. A presence within the suburbs does not always translate into electoral victory, if members of the so-called underclass do not vote. One of the dangers of the suburbs may be its spread-out nature, and there is a lack of cohesion and ability to mobilize, versus more urban environments.

Press believes that affordable housing a vital component in providing a meaningful solution to the…. [read more]


Old, My Parents Term Paper

… "No comment," he said with a smile.

The connection between sprawl and crime is less clear-cut than it seems. Although there is unquestionably a link, it is not clear which is cause and which effect. In 1992, a survey of those who had left New York found that fear of crime was easily the most common reason for moving to the suburbs. Crime causes sprawl, as well as the other way round. Here too the solution may lie not in anti-sprawl policies but in anti-crime ones. And, of course, that is what has happened. Crime rates in many cities have fallen sharply in the 1990s. As a result, the population of many city centers has begun to rise again.

The topic of discussion turned to…. [read more]


Suburban Metropolis Essay

… Los Angeles Area: Population Growth

Los Angeles consists of a five county region that has experienced incredible growth since the late nineteenth century. The population of this region has increased from just fewer than twenty thousand in 1870 to almost twenty million by 2010 population estimates. Los Angeles has become the second largest urban region in the United States and one of the ten largest urban regions in the entire world. The movement of people to Southern California during and since World War II ranks with the largest migrations in the history of the United States, and the majority of these citizens have settled in urban areas (Nelson, 1959, p. 80).

The growth rate of the region has nearly reached fifty percent in eight-year stretches…. [read more]


Australian Suburbia Term Paper

… The cooperative in turn, rents those houses to its members. There are new schemes in Australia, but despite attempts to make it popular in Australia, the project has failed considerably because Australians prefer to own houses outright.

For a proposed increase in the density of houses in Australia, individuals need to understand future housing designs. Previous generations in Sydney had a positive response of their neighborhoods. An experiment of the year 1979 showed that 90% of children had positive evaluation about their neighborhood. These children had a positive response on the physical amenities as well as the open space. Children in these neighborhoods were sensitive on the bush land, parks, residential streets and gardens. These open spaces are very essential for children development. Over the…. [read more]


Gendered Spaces of the Suburban Home Term Paper

… Gendered Spaces

Spaces in the modern suburban home are produced primarily through barriers and obstacles: walls, room dividers, doors, and windows. The barriers used to separate one space from another signify role-related restrictions on behavior. For example, a person is expected to chop vegetables in the kitchen, but not in the living room. Access to materials is restricted due to the barriers placed on collective spaces in the home. The television is not viewable from the bathroom but it is from the bedroom. Although most spaces in the suburban home are for collective use, some are not. Private bathrooms and private sleeping areas are not uncommon in the suburban home. Closets, work space, and some objects of furniture may be private too. Private spaces are…. [read more]


Home Building Industry: An Economic Term Paper

… This promotes local growth and activity.

(2) Better Use of Space. Housing developers should use available space to sponsor the delivery of much needed services or facilities, such as child care, GED classes, or a convenience store.

(3) Increase Cash Inflows. Nonprofit developers should also use available space to increase income to the property and residents by leasing space to paying commercial tenants, by entering into profit-sharing ventures with commercial tenants, or by providing services and products to outsiders.

(4) Build Contracting Capacity. The ability to increase cash inflows is directly related to the ability of businesses to compete for work outside of the housing developments. By controlling the awarding of contracts, the developer can "incubate businesses" by awarding work to residents over a period…. [read more]


Game / Outside Game David Book Review

… One of the most valuable contributions of Rusk's book is his use of census statistics to illustrate many of his concepts. This adds a great deal of credence to his theories, and is a profound addition to the anecdotal evidence. Despite this, many of his statistical claims are based on correlational, rather than causational, data.

In addition to his scholarly focus on the presentation of data and theory, Rusk is also careful to focus his book closely on personal and human costs of urban malaise. Rusk writes, "successful political reform movements are not about data. They are about real people in real situations: inspired legislators, courageous city and county officials, determined citizen activists. I hope that the success stories told here will inspire some readers…. [read more]


Office Market Analysis of Philadelphia Term Paper

… "In fact, it appears that builders seldom intentionally build offices for the Class B market or lower" (Archer & Smith 2003:142). According to the First Quarter 2004 Market Report for Philadelphia, "The flight to quality for class A direct space in the Southern New Jersey region has forced some companies to high-end flex buildings over the past eighteen months, illustrating the demand for mid-rise buildings and the strength of class A properties in the region" (2004:4). These trends are illustrated in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Overall Rental Rates vs. Vacancy Rates [Source: First Quarter 2004 Market Report].

Conclusion

The competitive demand for Class B office spaces is directly tied to the availability of space that was not intentionally constructed for this purpose. As a…. [read more]


Beyond the Box While at Least Term Paper

… ¶ … Beyond the Box

While at least a great deal of the motivation behind public housing in the United States has probably been good, the results have often fallen very short of good, or even adequate. Stalinesque is one of the more accurate terms that could be applied to far too much of the public housing that has been built in the United States, especially since the middle of the last century, when much of the push for public housing came about. In no small part because of the many problems that plagued so many public housing projects from the very beginning, government support for public housing has waned over the decades. This paper examines some of the possible paths forward that might be…. [read more]


Why Suburb Development Occurred Thesis

… Suburbanization: Identifying Convincing Rationale in Support of the Process

Throughout history, mankind has tend to migrate to large, densely populated urban centers in an effort to provide themselves with mutual support and protection, as well as to engage in trade and the humanities. Today, these same forces at hard at work, of course, with many of the world's biggest cities continuing to grow larger and larger. Nevertheless, some contemporary authorities suggest that these factors are no longer as relevant to the survival of modern mankind and in reality, many -- if not most -- people do not necessarily want to live in such close proximity to their fellows and have increasingly sought to escape from such densely populated urban centers as soon as it became…. [read more]


Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs Essay

… ¶ … Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs -- from Levittown to today's gated communities

To understand the power of the suburban ideal upon the modern American consciousness it is necessary to go far back in American history, even before the ideal of "Leave it to Beaver" became the benchmark of wholesomeness in the American cultural mindset. The photographs of Jacob Riis of tenement life during the turn of the 20th century are a powerful testimony to the cramped, dehumanized conditions of individuals living in urban locations, the result of rapid urbanization and a rapid rise in immigration. Even in the 19th century, as America was only beginning to industrialize, the ideal of the suburban homesteader proclaimed that finding one's own patch of land, rather than…. [read more]


Sociology of California Department Term Paper

… Compact development has not been objected to in relation to traffic congestion (Gordon), because higher densities meant greater congestion.

Air quality was also questioned in connection with California's rapid growth in the 80s. But sprawl opponents maintained that air quality in California, particularly in Los Angeles, had been improving dramatically every year, even during peak growths in the 80s. Smog alerts were less recently than in 1977, according to them. They continue to suggest that more compact development could affect air quality only minimally because automobile trips are shortened and less frequent (Gordon). It will be emphasized that almost two-thirds of automobile pollution has to do with starting and stopping, the cold start and the hot soak.

It is quite a different thing now with…. [read more]


Memory and Place of Carlton With Relation to Melbourne Term Paper

… Memory and Place of Carlton With Relation to Melbourne

This focus of this study is Carlton, a suburb in Melbourne, Australia. It sits on the edge of the CBD, and has a strong role in tying the city together. The Carlton United Brewery Site sits at very edge of Carlton and the Central Business District (CBD) of Melbourne, and has historically had a major influence on the two. It has been abandoned for years now, but sits on the Swanston Street axis, which pierces through the city and has the city's famous Shrine of Remembrance at the other end, the Anzac memorial. There remains, though, a clear need for the renovation of the Carlton United Brewery site make Carlton more connected with this burgeoning part…. [read more]


WWII and Identifications American Suburbs Essay

… American lifestyle no longer became associated with businesses in cities, but more on the fact that suburban neighborhoods were progressing towards a healthy, nuclear family and neighborhood.

The American Dream was a manifestation after the massive suburban movement. The society in the United States changed alongside this move, though not everyone was able to afford this luxury. Suburban lifestyle became a grounded community after World War II, and has remained a large part of American life even today.

Identifications

1. SCLC

The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is an American civil rights organization, its first president being Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The organization was founded through meetings soon after the Montgomery Bus Boycott; Dr. King consulted with various activists, Bayard Rustin and Ella Baker, among…. [read more]


Affordable Housing and the Use of Exclusionary and Inclusionary Zoning Term Paper

… AFFORDABLE HOUSING & THE USE OF EXCLUSIONARY AND INCLUSIONARY ZONING

In the past few decades, the lack of affordable housing in the United States has emerged as a crisis effecting low-income residents, government agencies and municipalities, and real estate developers alike. The lack of available affordable housing has increased in the past few years, as a result of zoning ordinances and governmental zoning powers that are supported and upheld by the courts. While there are no immediate solutions to this problem, a number of legal scholars have examined the relevant cases and have written extensively on the subject. Affordable housing is defined in the legal context as housing for which the mortgage or rental payments, related taxes, insurance and utilities, do not exceed thirty percent…. [read more]


Urbanization Chicago Case Study

… Urbanization

Chicago has from its beginnings been a city of immigrants and migrants. In the early days, these were German and Irish immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, large waves of immigration from Eastern Europe rolled in made up of Poles, Jews and Ukrainians. The era of World War 1, the 1920s. World War 2 and the post-war period saw a migration from the southern United States of poor whites and blacks to work in the smokestack industries located there. The 1960s, 70s and 80s saw a large emptying out of the city (largely by the white population) as the city deindustrialized. In the 90s, this was mitigated greatly by the service industry boom and the city was a magnet again for people…. [read more]


Real Estate Development Case Study

… Real Estate Development

In every real estate development project regardless of the location the government is a necessary partner. The following is a description of a project that is being built in a prosperous close in a suburban village near a large population center. Tell me in outline form: 1. The various government requirements that the developer will encounter and 2. What must the developer do to satisfy those requirements?

The various government requirements for the developer will depend upon: the city and state that the properties are located. This is because each community; will have different regulations that will apply to: the activities of the developer and what they are allowed to do under the law. The below outline will detail some of the…. [read more]


D'arcy Jones Design Essay

… Architecture

House: The Jones house

The Jones house certainly questions the familiar. It is an unadorned two story gray block of a building with no visible windows or apertures. It is a single-family dwelling that offers a contrast between the greenery surrounding it and the conventional suburban cottages.

It appears robust and heavy on the one hand, and yet, possibly light and minimal on the other with its contrast of the slender wood pillars that cut into it and serve for entrances.

As Dubbledam and Sheppard (2009) remark it "is carefully composed around the inventive use of common materials." Solid gray brick manifest its matter, and the entire is constructed in three rectangular square and solid blocks that complement each other, with barely visible panes…. [read more]


Affordable Housing and Smart Growth Term Paper

… In this case, Cary has a particular need for rental properties and for more low-income housing, making the allowance of ADU's a viable option.

Bibliography

Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001.

Environmental Protection Agency. "Encouraging Smart Growth." EPA, March 2002, http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.com/release.htm

Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001, p 8.

Arigoni et al., p 8.

Arigoni et al., p 9.

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.com/release.htm

Arigoni et al., p 11.

Arigoni…. [read more]


Consumerism and the Reading Terminal Market Term Paper

… Shopping -- Sale of Popular Culture

A trip to the Reading Terminal Market ("RTM") is illuminating for understanding things about consumer culture and popular culture. The first thing that comes to mind, before the direct observations is just to step back and examine the market itself. There as a time not too long ago when such markets were not really a major factor in popular culture -- shopping malls were king. They were the shiny new toys of the retail world, an essential element of popular culture. Suburban culture was formed in the mall, and the mass market retailers contained in the mall were the drivers of cool. Except today that is not the case. Suburbs are out; kids who grew up in the burbs…. [read more]


Literature Response Focusing on Suburbia Thesis

… ¶ … Suburbia

The fulfillment of the "American Dream" was supposed to be there, and millions of Americans certainly tried to find it in the suburbs. Like the participants in a gold rush, though, although some Americans managed to find their dream in suburbia, many others ended up disillusioned, deceived, divorced and broke - or worse. In not a few cases, suburbanites living their lives of quiet desperation ended up taking their own lives as well as the lives of others in the process. In the readings, Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir by D.J. Waldie, the Revolutionary Road by Richard Yates, and Welcome to the Dream House by Lynn Spigel as well as the classic motion picture, "The Swimmer" directed by Frank Perry, suburbia is…. [read more]


Urbanization the Harris-Todaro Model of Rural-Urban Migration Essay

… Urbanization

The Harris-Todaro model of rural-urban migration explains the economic circumstances that result in migration from rural areas to urban areas. Essentially, the model argues that when a rural agricultural worker believes that he or she will earn more in an urban area than in his or her current rural situation, migration will occur. The urban earning in the model is reflected as expected urban wage while the rural earnings are reflected in the model as the marginal product of the rural worker. The model is based on the idea that rural-urban migrations are based strictly on rational economic decision-making.

In the past forty years, the model has become a fundamental tool for explaining rural-urban migration. Riadh (no date) argues that in many less-developed countries,…. [read more]


African-American Housing: Chicago Study Chicago Term Paper

… African-American Housing: Chicago Study

Chicago Housing Study

African-American Housing Disparities

Historical Chicago Housing Facts

Covenants

The Gautreaux Case

Recent Studies and Their Findings

Chicago Housing Study

African-American Housing Disparities

The objective of this work is to examine the status and condition of African-Americans as compared to whites in the area of housing specifically in the city of Chicago, Illinois both historically and presently relating to access to and cost of affordable housing with statistical information included relating to the proportion and number of both groups that occupy public and privately own housing, the median/average monthly payment for housing. Finally this work will review how these facts relate to the overall lives of African-American living in the United States.

Historical Chicago Housing Facts

The work of…. [read more]


Family Business Business Plan

… Family Business

Over the last three years, the commercial real estate market has faced a number of different challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the depth of recession, has been having a profound impact on retail businesses. This is creating ripple effects for commercial property owners, as a variety of companies are having trouble maintaining their locations. At which point, the odds increase that their tenants may be forced to vacate the premises, as they have no way of being able to afford the rent. ("Commercial Real Estate Failures are Easy to Spot," 2010) This is problematic for property owners, who are unable to rent the locations and they could have various debt service obligations that they must maintain. Once this takes…. [read more]

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