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Urban Sprawl in Europe Article Critique

… Urban sprawl: The United States vs. Europe

Urban sprawl has increasingly become a problem in Europe, but it has been a problem within the United States even longer. One of the reasons Europeans have become so hyper-conscious about the dangers of urban sprawl is that they do not want to fall into the pattern of life exhibited in many regions of the United States, where public transportation is virtually unheard of and even walking to school is difficult. Urban sprawl creates problems for the environment, because of high levels of car dependence, as well as problems for human health. Over-dependence on cars, long commutes, and a lack of attractive places to walk, ride bikes, and play contribute to obesity, high blood pressure, and a host…. [read more]

Old, My Parents Term Paper

… "No comment," he said with a smile.

The connection between sprawl and crime is less clear-cut than it seems. Although there is unquestionably a link, it is not clear which is cause and which effect. In 1992, a survey of those who had left New York found that fear of crime was easily the most common reason for moving to the suburbs. Crime causes sprawl, as well as the other way round. Here too the solution may lie not in anti-sprawl policies but in anti-crime ones. And, of course, that is what has happened. Crime rates in many cities have fallen sharply in the 1990s. As a result, the population of many city centers has begun to rise again.

The topic of discussion turned to…. [read more]

Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas Research Proposal

… Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas

Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has undergone a tremendous transformation. Where, a number of countries have begun to engage in different policies to reform their economies. In the case of the EU countries, the overall amounts of economic restructuring have been increasing dramatically. This is because the increased amounts of globalization and the desire to integrate the different economies into a political / economic union; is causing many countries to more aggressively implement such policies. Where, they are moving away from the traditional state planning or socialist-based model. Instead, many of these countries are forced to embrace these changes or face the possibility of: being unable to adapt to the changes…. [read more]

Roman Identity Thesis

… Roman Urbanization

Why was Urbanization an Important Element for the Construction of a Roman Identity?

The challenges of nation and empire building have been a fascination of western civilization since before the industrial revolution, which marked a period of massive alterations in the development of urban centers for trade and commerce in such societies. Yet, it must also be made clear that the development of urban centers occurred in the model society, for much of Western development, i.e. Rome. Roman identity was in fact, largely based on the functional and fundamental development that made urbanization in building a culture possible. It is in fact fair to say that the development of Roman identity was fundamentally dependant on urbanization, as the city state was the most…. [read more]

Buchanan Report Warned Urban Designers Thesis

… What is attractive too about Buchanan's approach is that he combines restrictions with permissiveness, curtailing traffic in some areas and bombarding those districts with signs and impediments, whilst liberating other districts of posters and signs. Ultimately, given Buchanan's approach, his approach can be extended to integration with that of Monderman where Monderman's ideas can be cautiously introduced in certain areas whilst allowing Buchanan's ideas to still exist and never to be totally removed. Monderman's ideas can still be cautiously and gradually implemented and tested whilst doing so, but Buchanan should remain in effect in certain key areas of towns and cities and should always be there as back up. People after all are still people, and although Monderman's ideas are attractive and utopian, we need,…. [read more]

Urbanization Chicago Case Study

… Urbanization

Chicago has from its beginnings been a city of immigrants and migrants. In the early days, these were German and Irish immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, large waves of immigration from Eastern Europe rolled in made up of Poles, Jews and Ukrainians. The era of World War 1, the 1920s. World War 2 and the post-war period saw a migration from the southern United States of poor whites and blacks to work in the smokestack industries located there. The 1960s, 70s and 80s saw a large emptying out of the city (largely by the white population) as the city deindustrialized. In the 90s, this was mitigated greatly by the service industry boom and the city was a magnet again for people…. [read more]

Neck Sits on the North Term Paper

… ) Cape cods and ranches predominate, but the single-family housing mix also includes colonials, Tudors and Mediterranean styles.

Some older houses date back to the 1880's, with a large number of Victorians along Arrandale Avenue and scattered around the village. However, these houses are priced particularly low and many have taken to buying them, knocking them down, and building bigger, more expensive homes. While many contend that the older homes were falling to pieces, many see developers as robbing the city of its heritage. Luckily for the conservationists, the village's landmarks preservation commission is in the process of creating a landmark district along Arrandale Avenue. 2,474 of Great Neck's 3,347 houses are owner-occupied, with 1,067 of these residences built before 1940 and another 1,435 built…. [read more]

Population Growth in Putting Increasing Stress on the Environment Term Paper

… Population Growth Stress on Environment

The world population has increased exponentially over the last 100 years, as technology and development outstrip the ability of the fragile planet to absorb the massive influx of polluting and needy people. To survive people must have land, water and fuel and yet, upon the earth such elements are finite, unless technology meets the demand for sustainable or human created sources of these elements.

A economic growth, the rise in living standards and increased consumption levels have brought on dramatic increases in per capita demand for land, energy, food and fresh water and, increases of a similar magnitude in the production of wastes and pollutants. With the rapid loss of agricultural land and natural habitats (around 2% per decade in…. [read more]

Walking City Term Paper

… Walking City

This work will discuss the makeup of the Walking City and how the development of modern transportation caused that type of city to disappear and helped created the Industrial City including aspects such as mass transit, urban sprawl, spatial segregation and how the rise of industrialization changed the face of the city forever. Finally, this work will describe how the Suburban City developed and will provide a depiction of how life in the city is in this future time and what major differences are seen in relation to the original city structure.

The cities of today's world are in desperate need of redesign however, there is a problem insofar as the structures already in place that must be within the redesign configuration. Not…. [read more]

Global Warming Introduction

… This descriptive Analysis takes a holistic view of the city in terms of inputs, flow through the system, and outputs. Urban metabolism will be used in conjunction with sustainability of those resources and flows as part of the model development for this research the study.

Urban pathology is it method of diagnosing problems within the city structure. It can be used to diagnose economic factors such as a weak market structure are any other systemic problem that the city faces (Furdell & Wolman. 2006). Urban pathology applies root cause analysis to the city as a tool for finding solutions to the problems in improving conditions within the city.

Cities come into existence for many different reasons and with varying degrees of forethought (Ellis). Urban development…. [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltishhum") a Comparative Chapter

… 40).

Thus, from the perspective of the bottom rung of Indian society, it is Lapierre's contention that the self/other dichotomy if not fully eradicated, at least becomes practically irrelevant. Lapierre's slum dwellers refuse to entertain invidious distinctions between self and other. The familiar as well as the stranger, the healthy and the diseased, the old and the young -- all are taken in and cared for in one big, harmonious community of the urban poor. In a society of unfortunates who all must struggle simply to survive against great odds, no one is rejected "marginal." The denizens of Calcutta's slums, Lapierre tells us, "had reconstructed the life of their villages in urban exile" (p. 41).

Stephan Kovalski, an expatriate Polish priest, is the main European…. [read more]

Political Machines: Politics Term Paper

… They called their workings patronage democracy, an 'I'll scratch your back if you vote for me, a form of what Riordan's composite creation Plunkett called honest graft. Plunkitt and his constituency shared common class and ethnic origins and even while political bosses were lining his own pockets the machinery men did seem to feel and express sympathy for those whom they served, and seemed to genuinely care for those who elected them to office. In fact, constituents often expressed local pride at a man who had made good on his humble beginnings through his quick wit.

Some machine politicians held themselves up as moral templates to the community, evidence that 'anyone' could make it in America. Plunkitt claimed that he did not drink alcohol. However,…. [read more]

Improving the City of St Term Paper

… Improving City of Saint John's_

VI .Conclusion

Allocation of land for building nature or wildlife reserves in cities that are still developing gives children in such neighborhoods an opportunity to become more conscious about their environment. They in the process appreciate the need for environmental conservation. Nature and wildlife reserves have both social and economic benefits to the residents of such cities. The benefits can be varied and does include creation of employment opportunities and source of revenue for city authorities to mention but a few. This paper seeks to illuminate the benefits the City of St. John's Newfoundland, Canada is likely to accrue when it puts in place nature and wildlife reserves.

Bolduc, M., Guha, M., Laurendeau, E., & Satienpoch, M. (2003). WPI --…. [read more]

Social History of the Automobile Research Paper

… ¶ … Automobile on American Leisure

One of the defining paradigms of American culture since at least the 1920s has been the automobile. In a sense, at least to American sensibilities, the Automobile was created by an American (Henry Ford), perfected by an American (Ford as well), and designed for the wide open spaces in the United States. To most Americans, the automobile symbolized something far more than transportation or movement from point A to B. The automobile, in fact, symbolized freedom -- freedom of movement from place to place, freedom to live in a different area than where one works, freedom from relying on public transportation, freedom to define oneself through the choice of automobile, and most of all, the freedom to make decisions…. [read more]

Fabrica Benetton Verona Italy Tado Ando 1994-2004 Research Proposal

… Fabrica

Personal Response to the Fabrica Benetton Building in Verona, Italy

One of the more appealing ambitions to emerge from post-modern architectural philosophy is that which seeks to immerse structural ambition into its natural surrounding without disruption. Traditional approaches to modern urban design have sought to dispatch with nature in favor of all-consuming building sites. Tadao Ando's Frabrica, also known as the Benetton Communication Research Center, in Verona, Italy stands as an inspiring counterpoint to this philosophy. The sprawling array of columns, arches, terraces and chambers was completed in 2004 and is an absolutely stunning inversion of architectural principles, weaving itself harmonious into the natural landscape by integrating a reflecting pool, an open-air solarium and indoor corridors illuminated by ample sky-lighting.

The research center was…. [read more]

Canada's Environmental Wellbeing Term Paper

… Canada

In his book Tar Sands: Dirty Oil and the Future of a Continent, Andrew Nikiforuk outlines his "12 steps to energy sanity." These are

Admit the magnitude and complexity of the energy crisis

Slow down tar sands development and cap production at two million barrels a day

Establish a national energy strategy for energy security and innovation

Impose a carbon tax with a 100% dividend

Challenge the first law of petropolitics

Challenge continental energy integration

Relocalize food production

Abandon economic dead-end activities such as carbon capture and storage

Orient all rural and urban planning to renewable energy

Pick the lowest-hanging fruit first

Don't wait for government

Renegotiate NAFTA

Of these twelve steps, the most important for Canada's environmental well-being is to orient all rural…. [read more]

Iconography of Los Angeles Term Paper

… The facilities that make up the infrastructure of normal life, from boutiques to food outlets, churches to dry cleaners, department stores to universities, have taken shapes influenced by the presence of the universal network of roads and the universal assumption that all that matters is centered on the car. The automobile is an icon of freedom, perhaps the perfect embodiment of all the reasons why people opened up the West of the United States in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - to find space, liberty, individual expression. Los Angeles, the freeway city, is the sum of these ideas.


Banham, Rayner, Los Angeles: the Architecture of the Four Ecologies (London: Allen Lane, 1971).

Crouch, Winstan W. & Beatrice Dinerman, Southern California Metropolis: A Study…. [read more]

Consequences of Artificial Lighting on Bats and Ecology Research Paper

… Artificial Lighting -- Impacts on Bats

When Thomas Edison introduced the incandescent light bulb in 1879, it was seen as an enormously helpful technology. Little did Edison know that by 2013 environmentalists, naturalists, and medical professionals would consider "…light pollution to be one of the fastest growing and most pervasive forms of environmental pollution" (Chepesiuk, 2009). Light pollution is known to affect flora and fauna, along with frogs (whose mating calls are inhibited when they are "…exposed to excessive light at night"), turtles, migratory birds and bats. Indeed, the "…feeding behavior of bats is altered by artificial light" (Chepesiuk, 24).

In this paper documented, empirical research reveals that bats are certainly affected by light pollution. Bats are found around the world in various habitats, and…. [read more]

Estimation of Road Traffic Emissions in Jakarta Indonesia and Development of Strategies for Reducing Dissertation

… ¶ … prosperity in the developing nations of Asia such as Indonesia is exacting a toll on the health of people and the environment through increased vehicular travel and concomitant increases in harmful emissions. This aim of this case study is to estimate and to quantify road traffic emissions and determine how they could have a bearing on the transportation sector in Jakarta, Indonesia. To carry out this research, it is proposed that it must follow three main steps. Firstly, to analyse the current data about characteristics of transportation such us traffic volume, average speed and proportion of vehicles in the main streets of Jakarta. Secondly, to examine these parameters within a particular air pollution model to determine the impact of the pollution this has…. [read more]

British Heritage Conservation Principle Term Paper

… British Heritage Conservation Principle

An Analysis of the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter Conservation Efforts and What Can Be Done to Improve the Process

One of Birmingham's oldest manufacturing communities is its jewellers in the city's historic Jewellery Quarter. Today, efforts are underway to preserve the unique quality and character of the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter, but some observers suggest that these initiatives may do more harm than good by destroyed the region's unique qualities and flavor. To determine what can be done to improve the process across the board, this paper provides a review and discussion of the relevant issues, followed by a summary of the research and salient recommendations in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview. Today, Birmingham is the second largest city of…. [read more]

Mass Transit in Atlanta Georgia Research Paper

… Mass Transit in Atlanta, GA

Mass transit in Atlanta, Georgia is not without its limitations; however, on the whole it is convenient, affordable, and progressive, and valuable to the population.

The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority puts out an annual report on metro Atlanta's transportation systems. It is a comprehensive and detailed accounting of the condition of transit in the state of Georgia. The GRTA annual report covers a variety of transportation factors, such as the increase or decrease in traffic congestion and its influencing forces, statistical data about morning and afternoon rush hour, transit safety and accident and death rates, the budgetary and financial concerns of county, city, and state agencies, the status of various road and bridge projects, and even the state of Georgia's…. [read more]

Post Modernism Architecture Thesis

… Postmodern Architecture

Postmodernism in Architecture: A Flawed but Permeating Style of Building

Physical surroundings are a determinant factor in the defining the human experience. The communities, neighborhoods and buildings where we find familiarity and comfort are also those same hosts upon which we rely for sustenance, socialization and survival. And to that end, the interaction between man and nature defines the shape taken by each of these pursuits. Though such is a premise which has always persisted as an overarching theme in the infinite architectural philosophies that have adorned and scarred the earth, today's architectural dilemmas suggest that the emphases on nature and humanism have become destructively obscured by the thrust of post-modern design.

The end of the 19th Century brought with it a host…. [read more]

Contested Public Space: Memories Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:7] [7: Thakkar, Op. Cit.]

Berlin's "Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe" has long been plagued with delays. In the planning for over 15 years, there have been disputes over its location, design, cost and building materials. The debates have centered on the legitimacy and functionality of the memorial. Over a period of many years, heated arguments about the necessity of building a memorial and to whom it should be dedicated criss-crossed the newspapers. In 1991, a dispute broke out between the Roma / Sinti survivors of the Holocaust and Jewish survivors. The Roma argued that dedicating the Holocaust Memorial to Jews was a "selection" not unlike that in the camps, but this time viewed as choosing between first-class and second-class citizens.[footnoteRef:8] Issues about…. [read more]

Civilization and Barbarism and Cruelty Term Paper

… His moral character is affected by his custom of triumphing over obstacles and the power of nature. Although like Echeverria, Sarmiento did describe the gaucho as strong, haughty, vigorous and admirable, he could not condone the gaucho's lack of instruction. Worse yet, the gaucho also saw himself as without need of higher education and modernization, either, and thus, rather than seeing the gaucho as embodying the pure and romantic power of nature, Sarmiento saw the gaucho as a man without a means of subsistence and without needs, who was happy in the midst of his poverty and privations, but whose lack of governable character left Argentina open to political abuse and effective modernization. He is one, wrote Sarmiento "who has never known greater pleasures or…. [read more]

Wetlands Are the Main Link Essay

… There were, however, some wetlands that did recover almost fully, according to the authors' narrative on page 5. In hydrologic settings where tidal dynamics -- and rivers -- are fully functioning, the natural flow of fresh water helps those particular wetlands to recover their "biological structure" after twenty to thirty years. In contrast to restored wetlands where fresh tidal and river / stream flows are present, wetlands that are inland -- that counted on rainwater or groundwater for flushing and sustenance -- had not recovered to the original health "…even after 50 years following restoration" (Moreno-Mateos, 5).

Volunteers Help Restore Wetlands

The Southern California Wetlands Recovery Project (SCWRP) is just one of many recovery plans throughout the United States; the SCWRP is a cooperative effort…. [read more]

Policy Analysis on the United States Transportation Research Paper

… ¶ … Privatizing China's Transportation Infrastructure

The 21st century has been called the "Century of Asia" and China is clearly leading the way. Over the past 30 years, China has increasingly shaken off its state-controlled economic model in favor of a free market approach. As a result, China has experienced an unprecedented period of economic growth that has been met with a corresponding increase in the need for an efficient transportation infrastructure that is currently straining under the pressure. Economists have consistently cited the need for an efficient transportation system as part of a country's overall economic development needs and China is certainly no exception. Indeed, the need for an efficient and modern transportation infrastructure has never been greater than today, and policymakers in China…. [read more]

Asthma and ER Utilization Term Paper

… Asthma is more prevalent among African-Americans. The incidences were almost twenty two percent higher than Caucasians. On average, in every state in American, blacks suffered from asthmatic attacks almost eight percent more than whites did. The Hispanic population also suffered a greater number of attacks. (CDC, 2001)

Geographic disparities play an important role in the negative impact of asthmatic attacks. In poorer states, where more residents have difficulties in accessing health care have a greater incidences of asthma. Climatic conditions and states with greater polluting industries pose a greater risk for complaints with asthma. The states of Arizona, District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming have higher percentages of asthma complainants than…. [read more]

Kent Larson's Ted Talk Term Paper

… Kent Larson's TED Talk on the 21st Century City

In the TED Talk presented in Boston in 2012, architect and MIT professor Kent Larson demonstrates some innovative ideas for re-creating city life to meet twenty-first century needs. As Larson points out, cities evolved from small communities that were centralized around the needs of the population. With the rise in popularity of the automobile in the 1950s and 1960s, roads were built to connect cities and suburbs. People began enjoying a new kind of lifestyle away from urban areas but still within easy reach by car. Half a century later, urban areas designed with the automobile in mind have become expensive, congested, and polluted. People like living in urban areas because they are great centers for…. [read more]

Principal-Agent Model in Economics Dissertation

… The entire implementation procedure was accomplished in twelve sequential steps, staring mainly from the reduction and the removal of the customs and import quotas among the trading coalition. The Tunisia-EU free area trading agreement after affects and whereabouts are discussed in order to explore the findings about the research question that is the impact of the Tunisia-EU agreement on the trading patterns of Tunisia.

Literature Review

The international political perspectives of free trade

A Global Analysis

The growth of world trade has consistently outstripped rates of world output in post-war years, a trend that has continued to play a key role in the internationalization of economic activity and to deepen global inter-dependence of regions and nations. In 1994 world trade was valued at $5.14 trillion,…. [read more]

Urbanization Ecological Problem Grade Course Essay

… This is either improper or absent in several parts of the world. However, concern is not only associated with waste produced at houses, but rather it is the industrial, hospital and other institutional wastes that contains toxic and harmful materials. It needs to be disposed off in an appropriate manner otherwise it results in adding into the dump seen on the streets and other places. If the waste is left open, it is carried away into the water bodies because of rain. This in turn pollutes the ground water and is harmful in places where the water is drawn out of the wells.

Since urbanization poses serious harm and risk for the environment, there are only few cities that are working upon controlling the ecological…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.