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U.S. and UN Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia Term Paper

… ¶ … UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Conflict management and the U.S. And UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Situated on the horn of Africa, Somalia is a country that has been described as one of the most dangerous and underdeveloped areas on the continent. The country has been immersed in various degrees of violent conflict since its establishment as an independent country. It is also a region that has seen various attempts by the United Nations at conflict management. These efforts and operations have not met with any long-term success. For instance, while a United Nations arms embargo has been in place in the country since the early 1900s, the region is awash with weapons, which exacerbates and contributes to the almost incessant violence and…. [read more]


US Intervention in Somalia Research Paper

… U.S. Intervention in Somalia

Introductory Paragraphs

In 1991, Somalia would erupt into civil war after the long serving dictator Siad Barre fled the country. This sparked a conflict between the Somalia National Movement and the various factions that were controlled by different warlords. These are individuals who maintained their own private armies, often holding power over large segments of the country. At this point, the severe fighting halted all economic activity. There was also a major famine that had devastating effects on the local population. As a result, 300 thousand Somalis perished during the first year of the civil war. This would spark the UN to take action, in an effort to address the famine and instability that was affected the country. However, the state…. [read more]


UN Peacekeeping Limitations After Five Decades Thesis

… UN Peacekeeping Limitations

After five decades of international conflict, waged between the imperial champion of the communist ideology and the frontrunner for western democracy, the latter prevailed in the peaceful revolution of 1989. With the reunification of Germany, and two years later, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War had ended with little immediately apparent violence or resistance. And from the perspective that the invasive and draconian presence of Soviet supported regimes had fallen in Hungary, Romania, Czechloslovakia and Poland, the end of the Cold War certainly appeared to light the way toward the pervasion of civil liberty, capitalist evolution and democratic policy representation.

In the midst of this deservedly optimistic atmosphere, however, loomed a large range of challenges which would obstruct any…. [read more]


UAE Abuse the United Arab Emirates' Successes Research Proposal

… UAE Abuse

The United Arab Emirates' Successes and Failures in Resolving Domestic Disputes: An Evaluation of the Performance of the UAE's Social Support Centers

Domestic violence, defined as both physical and/or emotional abuse taking place in the home between members of the same domestic unit or family, remains a large problem throughout the world. It is difficult to determine the true rates of domestic violence and partner abuse that occur each year due to the fact that many lack access to any means of reporting such incidents, let lone to services that might assist them in overcoming this violence and leaving or changing the abusive relationship in such a way that the abuser is left without the power or ability to continue their abuse. When…. [read more]


Interventions by Koffi Annan Book Review

… Interventions Kofi Annan

Interventions -- a life in War and Peace -- Kofi Annan with Nader Mousavizadeh

Kofi Annan is diplomat belonging to Ghana who served as the seventh secretary general of the United Nations. His time in United Nations was from January 1997 to December 2006. The United Nations and Annan attained a Nobel prize in 2001 for his contribution and funding to the Global AIDs and health program. Following that, Annan has been the UN-Arab league Representative to Syria. For the ongoing crisis in the country, Annan has been working and trying to find a solution for the Syrian people. Annan was born in 1938 in Kumasi and attended the elite Mfantsipim school from 1954 till 1957. Following that he studied economics in…. [read more]


Intervention of States and Human Essay

… The application of the Genocide Convention of 1948 prompts nations to uphold and respect human lives.

The international community can intervene in matters of other states, in cases of high casualties arising during natural disasters, which the country, cannot fully contain. The Myanmar Cyclone test brings to the fore the intervention of the international community in internal matters of nations. The huge magnitude of the cyclone presented extreme strain on both the personnel and resources of the affected country, prompting international intervention in the provision of both aid and human resource (Binder, 2008).

International intervention involves different tools. The primary tool involves the use of diplomacy in prevention and containment of conflicts. The international community engages diplomatic representatives in the negotiation process in attempts to…. [read more]


Somalia Intervention and the Public Opinion Article Review

… ¶ … Somalia intervention and the public opinion of Americans towards this intervention. Somalia is not the first country where the United States has intervened in order to break up a civil war and provide assistance to the citizens. Operation Restore Hope was a peace mission by the United States to Somalia in which American troops were deployed. The civil war was so bad that relief efforts were tampered with caused mass starvation. Many Americans probably wanted to know whether or not our troops should have been deployed to Somalia.

The initial opinion of the American public was to support the efforts in Somalia. However, after eighteen American soldiers were killed during the firefight, the public opinion changed. At this time, President Clinton was in…. [read more]


United Nations Operations in Congo ONUC Research Paper

… United Nations Opreations in Congo-ONUC

The United Nations is considered at this point to be one of the most important actors on the international scene, despite the constant controversy surrounding its history, present, and achievements. Even so, the framework of the international peacekeeping operations has enabled the UN to have a consistent contribution to world peace, democracy, and above all, to the development of least developed countries around the world.

The United Nation Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is an example of the impact the organization has had along the decades in the war torn African country

However, the Stabilization mission currently on the ground in the Congo represents just one example of the constant presence of the UN in the…. [read more]


Comparing Between the Two U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan and Pakistan After 2001 Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S. Interventions in Afghanistan and Pakistan

intervention in Afghanistan in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and its involvement in Pakistan since 2001, although of diametrically opposite nature, are intertwined in many ways. Its intervention in Afghanistan was essentially a revenge attack for the 9/11 terrorism in order to punish the Taliban for their support of al-Qaeda; it was purportedly also aimed at capturing or killing Osama bin Laden, who lived in Afghanistan at the time, and to destroy the Islamic militant training camps in the country. Its involvement in Pakistan was basically aimed at stopping its government and its intelligence agencies from supporting the Taliban forthwith, to extend full co-operation to the U.S. In its "War against Terror," and to disband…. [read more]


Somalia Social Perspective Research Paper

… Somalia- Social Perspective

On the east cost of the African continent lays a strip of ground surrounded by the Indian Ocean, on one side and by exotic lands like Kenya and Ethiopia on the continental side. This is Somalia and, when hearing about it, most of us would be tempted to refer to the present situation and attributes that best describe this part of the Earth- poverty, hunger, illiteracy and its given qualification as a "third world country."

Yet, what one does not know about Somalia is the fact that it is part of one of the oldest cultures in the world, with the presence of humans being attested from around 9000 before our age and with a dynamic history which relates to the existence…. [read more]


Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically the Case of Somalia Article Review

… IR Review

Fox, J. (2001). "Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically: The Case of Somalia." SAIS Review 2(1), pp. 147-158.

Description

This article describes the decision making process utilized by President Bush, Sr. In developing an implementing intervention strategy in Somalia during the famine and in-fighting of the early 1990s. Falling firmly in the category of theoretical International Relations studies, this article employs a historical viewpoint to discuss the specifics of theoretical application to a unique situation that nevertheless has broader and more broadly applicable elements. Of paramount concern in this article is the failure to analyze the situation in Somalia from a political as well as a humanitarian perspective, with military intervention applied with only a single goal and without taking a Longview of the ramification,…. [read more]


War on Global Terrorism, a Term Essay

… War on Global Terror

Terrorism, a term which sends chills down the spine of many, is defined as by the U.S. Department of Defense as "the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological" (DoD), even though has been around for several centuries was emphasized to the word by the September 11,2011 al Qa'eda attacks on U.S. soil. Over the years, al Qa'eda has managed to chang its tact and sophistication while attacking U.S. interests in domestic and international grounds. In East Africa for instance, Al-Shaabab, a splinter cell of al Qa'eda has been reining terror on Somalis, Kenyans,…. [read more]


Post-Conflict, Peace / Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan Term Paper

… Post-Conflict, Peace/Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan

Somehow, within a forty year span of time, the United States has found itself ensnared in multiple wars in Asia at the same time. Again, unless we can influence the postwar nation building process, powers that are inimical to United States interests (in the present Iran) will fill the vacuum upon the American withdrawal. In this short essay, this author will list two lessons learned from our wars apply it to the defacto American raj in Afghanistan and Iraq. First is not to become too closely associated with present unpopular regimes as it is doing with the present administrations in the countries in which we are "nation-building." Also, staying engaged in a never ending guerrilla war that has…. [read more]


Military Intervention and Peacekeeping at Different Phases Essay

… Military Intervention and Peacekeeping

At different phases of a conflict the multiple strategies of conflict management respond to barriers in the process in different ways: Conflict Prevention is an approach that seeks to resolve disputes before violence breaks out; Peacemaking transforms the conflict from violent to spoken, and further, toward the definition of a common peaceful solution; Peacekeeping missions are often required to halt violence and preserve peace once it is obtained. If successful, those missions can strengthen the opportunity for post-conflict Peacebuilding, which should function to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing the root causes of conflict and creating a stable and durable peace. Finally, Statebuilding is the process of reconstructing weak or collapsed infrastructure and institutions of a society - political, economic…. [read more]


U.S. and Int'l. Relations International Essay

… Liberalism, however, cannot explain why the U.S. went into Iraq without UN Security Council authorization in 2003. Also, Liberalism cannot explain why the U.S. used its position as the superior country to overthrow Saddam Hussein, such a move is contradictory to the ideals of Liberalism.

The third broad theory of International Relations is the idea of Constructivism. This theory is outside of the normal arc of IR theories because it does not concern itself with the 'high politics' of Realism or Liberalism. Constructivism does not concern itself with the decisions of the United Nations, nor of the power struggles between states in the international system. Rather, Constructivism is an idea of the cultural values and political realities of the societies within states, and how those…. [read more]


CSR the Economic System Research Paper

… U.S. Code Chapter 47, for example, outlines different types of fraud that are illegal. Typically, there are a number of bodies that can investigate fraud, depending on the type of the fraud and its amount. The SEC might investigate a Ponzi scheme like Bernie Madoff, but other forms of fraud might be subject to criminal investigation at a more local level, or even the FBI level (Lenzner, 2008). Such laws seek to ensure that when firms compete, they do so fairly, and do not compete by seeking to destroy their competition through illegal means.

Analysis

In general, these laws have created a robust, competitive market economy in the United States. There are legal issues that emerge every day. This does not mean that the system…. [read more]


Al Queda Has Shaped Research Paper

… They believe this voice comes with the possession of WMD capabilities. Any such capability certainly gives the group who possesses it the potential to gain collective support from, and further unify, Islamic radicals and certainly makes the rest of the world pay attention.

Al-Qaeda and United States

The discussion of voice highlights the difference between what targets terrorist threaten, and what is at actually at stake. Terrorists threaten the security of U.S. citizens at home and abroad. They threaten the security of developing nations. They threaten the sovereignty of weakened states. They threaten everyone with the potential proliferation of WMDs. Indeed, their targeting is indiscriminate. Patterson characterizes terrorist views as follows:

"...terrorists and guerrillas see no distinction between combatants and non-combatants. Al Qaeda and other…. [read more]


Somalia Civil War Somalia- Causes Term Paper

… Each side had their own administrative, legal and education system. There were a lot of different economic factors such as taxes and different currencies. The UN set up a commission to help them sort out their differences. The people of the south believed that were better equipped to govern the region as they had a lot of experience. This sowed seeds of bitterness amongst the Northern Elite as they would have to play second fiddle to the south. Their resentment of the south would lead to a lot of problems later.

There were two major political parties in the northern region during Independence. One of them was the SNL, which was a representative of the Isaaq clan. The Isaaq clan also represented a majority in…. [read more]


United Nations Missions in Haiti Research Paper

… United Nations Missions in Haiti

The United Nations has been one of the most controversial and at the same time important constructions of the 20th century in terms of the study of international relations. It has been a constant subject for study and interpretation, for criticism and admiration; still, the peace related missions extended throughout the world since 1945 offered a proof of the UN's dedicated goal for humanity and peace. In this sense, one of the most significant missions the UN has deployed in its history is in Haiti, a country torn by war and civil unrest, with human losses and financial distress. However, the UN presence in the country, in different forms, shapes, and mandates has been the cornerstone of the country's attempt…. [read more]


Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia ) Research Paper

… In Oct 1990, the SPM, the SNM, and the internal USC were signatories of an agreement to not proceed without discussing with one another to create a new political headship and to not negotiate with the Siad Barre regime. As the only one who was actually involved in the fight in opposition to the regime General Mohammed Farah Aydeed, the internal branch was under his control. The collapse of the dictatorship and the disorder that followed lead Ali Mahdi Mohammed being proclaimed by his close acquaintances as the president, even though he was one of the Manifesto participants as the leader of the external USC. Married to the public health adviser of the former president and owner of one of the best hotels in Mogadishu,…. [read more]


Military Intervention Research Paper

… Parenti contends that most U.S. missions serve as pretexts for hidden political goals; to bolster conservative regimes, to build infrastructures for big investors, to lend legitimacy to counterinsurgency programs, and to undermine local agrarian self-sufficiency while promoting U.S. agribusiness products.

Humanitarian intervention remains a controversial and hotly debated issue in the field of international relations. However, it is evident that military intervention in sovereign states where massive violations of human rights occur is legal and justifiable under international law. Nevertheless, what constitutes massive violation of human rights will continue to be open for debate.

Works Cited

"Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms." Joint Publication 1-02. 31 August 2005: 338. 3 October 2011. < http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/jp-doctrine/jp1_02(05).pdf>

Ferraro, Vincent. "Principles of the Just War" Mount…. [read more]


Weapons of Mass Destruction Research Paper

… Chemical weapons comprised liquids as well as gases that suffocate the victims, upset the central nervous system, blister the skin, and poison the blood. Biological weapons include infectious agents such as fungi, viruses and bacteria. Bursting the biological weapons over a populated area might eventually result in the outbreak of deadly diseases such as plague, anthrax, or smallpox. A study conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense indicates a strong correlation between the country's participation on international relations and terrorist assault on it

The assessment might involve a range of states including states with stakes as well as those without interests. Even though countries would work toward realizing peace and stability of their neighbors, it is important for every nation to come on board during…. [read more]


Iraq War: Humanitarian Intervention? Term Paper

… "

Essentially, as Falk cautions, the United Nations must be involved and thoroughly supportive of any humanitarian intervention in order for it to succeed. But even United Nations support cannot guarantee success: The intervening nations must make sure they have viable successor plan in place if they are to wage war on Iraq for humanitarian reasons.

The United States and Britain would be hard pressed to justify a humanitarian war in Iraq without United Nations support, but if they go forward, as they probably shall, they must at least plan for a successor government in Iraq first that eliminates as many political factions and strifes as is possible under the circumstances.

Wartime effect of Human Shields

One of the most complicated situations arises in war…. [read more]


Hammond Exam on September 11 Essay

… Transitional Federal Institutions (TFI) and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) have been established and empowered to initiate the developmental process in Somalia. The Transitional Federal Charter provides the framework for the operation of the TFI and the TFG. The need for ample external assistance has been brought to light to support this cause of promoting peace and reconciliation, and strengthening the Somali economy and creating jobs while preserving human rights and liberties. Somalis living abroad and other powerful nations have been consistently approached to donate towards the cause of rebuilding Somalia as a civil society. Such development, however, cannot effectively progress until the threat to TFI and TFG is eliminated. Therefore, the primary focus of the United States is to stabilize the situation in Somalia.

One…. [read more]


Women's Role in Peacebuilding and Development in Somalia Term Paper

… Role of Women in Peacekeeping in Somalia

Women have an important role to play in peacekeeping and resolving societal conflicts. After all, in their traditional roles, women are already expected to negotiate agreements within families, as heads of households, as community members and increasingly, as peace activists.

This paper examines the role that women have played in building and keeping peace in Somalia. It looks at whether the participation of women in the peace process leads to greater social recognition of women's rights. It also examines which factors can become obstacles to the greater participation of women in peace-building and decision-making.

The first part of this paper looks at the status of women in Somalia, with a special focus on legal protections for women's rights…. [read more]


Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention "The Clinton Administration Research Paper

… Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention

"The Clinton Administration has to realize that their humanitarian intervention efforts sometimes result in more harm than good being accomplished. It has to be realized that countries such as Haiti and Bosnia can resolve their internal conflicts by themselves alone especially if sufficient assistance, in the form of disaster relief, has already been extended by the U.S. And the UN. American taxpayers, who pay for such interventions, are the ones who ultimately lose…" (Gray, 1998, p. 143).

Given that the use of force is designated for humanitarian purposes in specific instances, what kind of formal authorization is necessary for the use of force? Is the United Nations the only place a state can turn to in order to receive a bona fide…. [read more]


Peace Agreements and International Term Paper

… Such resources not only provide armies with a means for continued fighting, they also become the reward against which they weigh the benefits of peace.

A key difference between Mozambique and Angola is that, in the latter country, UNITA's access to diamonds emboldened their spoiler behavior, whereas RENAMO's lack of access to such resources effectively limited the benefits of returning to war.

Civil wars rarely take place in otherwise stable regions. As Peter Wallensteen and Margareta Sollenberg observe, many civil wars today intersect with regional conflicts and interstate competition.

From this it would follow that the attitude of the surrounding states towards a peace agreement in a neighbor's civil war plays a key role in supporting or undermining the prospects of peace. Spoilers to a…. [read more]


Democracy We Live in a World Term Paper

… Democracy

We live in a world that is constantly changing in a process of development and evolution that affects all walks of life and all regions of the world. In the context of the political scene in today's globalised world, the issue of democracy and the notions defined by this term has become one of the most stringent subjects for discussion in the world political forums. In the beginning of the 1990s Francis Fukuyama's proclamation of the end of history and the reconsideration of world politics on the basis of democratic rule was of resounding impact (Nye, 2005). However, it was afterwards considered to be a hasty determination of the evolution of world politics in the decades following the end of the Cold War. Although…. [read more]


Child Sex Tourism: Its Scope and the Law Research Paper

… Canada's Criminal Code lets it prosecute its permanent residents for having child sex in a foreign country. Child Sex Tourism Offences as well as Related Measures Bill during 2007 in Australia is another recent initiative. The UK Sexual Offences Acts of both 1996 as well as 2003 allows extraterritorial prosecutions. The Protection of Children Act 1978 in UK declares taking and circulating indecent photographs of children as punishable.

According to Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI), 1988, the UK's Criminal Justice Act 1988 seeks to create "a summary offence of possession of an indecent photograph of a child." In November 1997, the EU's Tourism Council propounded its stand against the issue. In 2007, the EU declared October 18 as an Anti-Trafficking Day.

Based on German…. [read more]

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