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Principles Policies and Rules in Legislation and Police Power Term Paper

… Law and Police Powers

Recent changes to the law in Queensland, and to the powers of police there, mean that citizens need to think twice next time they stroll home after a night at the pub, climb a tree in a local park or question why a police officer has asked him or her to do something. Citizens' right to free use of public spaces is not as clear and unmitigated as it once was.

The two enactments of most concern are the police move-on powers located in the Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000 and public nuisance law as set out in the Summary Offences Act 2005. These are separate arms of the law, but have the effect of greatly increasing the number of…. [read more]


Soviet Law the Legal System Research Paper

… In the United States, if a party fails to present evidence at the trial level that evidence cannot be considered at the appellate level, in Russia, however, appellate courts allow parties to introduce additional information and evidence which was not presented at the trial level (Reshetnikova, 2009, p. 6).

Modern Russian courts are evolving and have incorporated European and western legal principles and codified those rules in their statutes, constitution, and civil regulations. However, the Russian court system, like the Soviet legal system, is a complex and political entity. The increasing standardization of Russian law in the modern era has not eliminated the influence of government officials and wealthy businessman in Russia. Two groups which are often exempt from punishment funder the law for various…. [read more]


Law and Women in Medieval Europe Research Paper

… As suggested already, adultery was rampant in this period and attracted serious legal repercussions. The social circumstances under which sexual defamation occurred in this age suggests that sexual reputation was honorable to women than in men. In this respect, sexual defamation was mainly propagated towards women (Merback 64). These cases were brought to both ecclesiastical courts and secular courts, although the latter jurisdiction stopped handling these cases in the late medieval period. Church courts were confined to slapping spiritual penalties that ranged from excommunication or penance upon defamers. However, there are instances that those who defamed were permitted to pay money for their acquittal (Brundage 83).

In conclusion, ecclesiastical courts and secular courts formed an indispensable component of the medieval Europe judicial system. They handled…. [read more]


Public Problem Why Gun Laws Should Be Changed Term Paper

… Gun Laws

To begin, gun laws of late have become a very contentious issue for politicians and society at large. In one instance policy makes must appease their natural funding constituency in regards to their basic rights to bare arms. However, they also must consider the broader implications of their policy actions on society at large. When juxtaposed against one another, a very contentious and often emotional debate arises. Many agree however, that gun laws must be altered to reflect the changing operating environment our world functions in. With the advent of globalization and e-commerce, new threats to society and the general public have become very profound. Immigration laws have allowed millions of undocumented individuals into the nation. These individuals have the ability to obtain…. [read more]


Security Private Security vs. Law Essay

… Security personnel will be unarmed except for unit leaders. All officers remain connected with communications devices that are to remain on at all times. The communication devices are linked to local law enforcement agencies for back-up support if necessary. In case of a natural disaster or terrorist incident, the local law enforcement community will be on hand to provide assistance. Security personnel will, therefore, be expected to fulfill the duties of first responder. We are mandating that at least one security officer per station is trained in emergency response.

Security officers will occasionally need to address fights and altercations among patrons. These fights will be settled swiftly and deftly, by more than one officer assigned to that station. It is critical to monitor the alcohol…. [read more]


Women in Law Enforcement Term Paper

… History Of Women in Law Enforcement

Recently the small Iowa community of Montrose made history when it hired Lee County's first female chief of police, Wilma Smith.

As far as I know the Fort Madison Police Department has never had a female police chief," said current Police Chief Randy Van Wye. "That's to the best of my knowledge and the best of the knowledge of several long-time employees." (Baksys G.)

This represents another instance of the participation of women in Law enforcement at a senior level.

Numerous newspapers and journals attest to the fact that the situation of women in Law enforcement is improving. Further evidence of this improvement is cited by the assistant attorney general for the Office of Justice Programs.

In 2001," Daniels…. [read more]


Police Ethics and Terrorism Essay

… Law Enforcement: Ethics, Stigmas, and Anti-Terrorism Roles

The police mission inside the U.S. has been completely transformed and redefined by terrorism and the threat of domestic terror attacks. Police have an important anti-terrorism role to play. The post 9/11 world looks very different from the world before the World Trade Center Attacks from a law enforcement as well as an ethical standpoint. The balance between maintaining order and security and maintaining the civil liberties guaranteed by the U.S. government and founding fathers is a very fragile one, and one that exists within a give and take model of enforcement. For each leap forward in security, often a part of the fabric of America's hard fought civil and social landscape must be relinquished, sometimes forever. Te…. [read more]


How Technology Is Currently Affecting Law Enforcement Communications and Records Term Paper

… Law Enforcement

How Technology Is Currently Affecting

Law Enforcement Communications and Records

This paper aims to show how law enforcement has been both positively and at times adversely affected by technology. Unfortunately, the cost of crime fighting is high. It is often the case that large urban or well funded communities do not have the necessary funds they need to purchase and implement the newest cars or the most effective night vision scopes. Small departments are usually even more under funded as well as under manned so they miss out on technological breakthroughs. As our world has become more technologically advanced, both big and small law enforcement departments have been pressured to implement new techniques and technologies in the constant battle against crime. With those…. [read more]


Police Management: Throughout History Research Paper

… The challenge associated with the difficulty in investigating these crimes is that they can be perpetrated in a jurisdiction that is outside where the crime occurs. In addition to this, there are challenges associated with investigating these offenses since criminal organizations are becoming more sophisticated and increasingly knowledgeable in their use of new technologies.

Resources for Fighting Crime Effectively:

The other challenge for law enforcement managers because of globalization is that these managers are finding it difficult to provide police officers with the necessary resources for fighting crime effectively (Viau, n.d.). This is major challenges particularly with regards to the increase in organized crime that continues to threaten the democratic institutions in the country and the economy. The fight against organized crime is a huge…. [read more]


Arizona Laws and State Statutes Analysis Assessment

… To this effect, only the weapons to be taken away are those which are in view by the officer. This means that the officer is not to search the arrested person beyond the scope of a cursory search. If the arrested person has a bag, totes, or other belonging, they are not to be searched without the consent of the person or for a probable reason. In case the arrested person is released, then all the property seized from the individual is to be returned.

On the other hand, if an arrest is effected by a citizen, the law requires that they the person being arrested is made to understand that they are under arrest and why? The law doesn’t require a recitation of…. [read more]


Enforcement of European Community Law Essay

… By asset of Article 234, people are capable of invoking Community law and to impulse a national court to request to the ECJ the query of whether and how Community law would need to be smeared. The straight result on EU law is confidently the most significant and also the most real option in order for people to enforce EU law. When it is acknowledged that Community law is openly effective and triumphs over national law, the way is then open for a person with a right under Community law -or that may have some sort of an interest in its request to bring accounts in the national courts and therefore to make use of national lawful medicines to implement it. Main actors, in that…. [read more]


Policing: The Police or Law Term Paper

… Force Continuum:

Force continuum is a critical policing issue since it's used to guide the reaction of a police officer and to focus his/her perspective of risk. The significance of force continuum originates from the fact that police officers are not usually justified in using force. However, the use of force requires an officer to comply with a number of criteria in order for it to be legitimate. According to the law, police officers are permitted to use force to protect themselves and other people around them. Furthermore, the use of force is legal if it's the minimal amount of force that is necessary to control a particular situation.

One of the recent measures that have emerged to control the use of force by police…. [read more]


Contemporary Criminal Justice Issue Police Use of Deadly Force Capstone Project

… Police Use of Deadly Force

Since time immemorial, the use of deadly force has been considered justified for self-defense, or for the defense of one's family and even property. When deadly force is used by governmental authorities to protect law enforcement authorities, citizens and property, though, the justification becomes less clear-cut and the appropriateness of such use can be highly subjective. Because most uses of deadly force take place during violent encounters where split-second decisions can mean the difference between life and death for police officers, there must be solid guidelines in place to help police make the right decision at the right time. To determine what type of typical guidelines are in place in various jurisdictions throughout the United States and the controlling federal…. [read more]


Deploying Law Enforcement Resources Research Proposal

… Deploying Law Enforcement Resources

The security of the human communities represents one of the most important if not the most important priority for the authorities. Today the society is constantly faced with threats that are no longer traditional in their range or methods. From this perspective, it is essential that the law enforcement authorities be prepared and ready with the latest technology as well as the usual resources used in law enforcement actions.

Having in mind these new threats but considering as well the traditional threats to the security of the community, the police can be considered to have a number of objectives concerning the safety of our society when deploying law enforcement forces: "minimizing total index crime within the city as a whole; providing…. [read more]


Steroid Use in Law Enforcement Officers Thesis

… Cops and Steroids

Steroid Use Among Law Enforcement Officers

Drug crimes are a menacing problem for the society. It is more aggravated if the police force that is vested with the power and the authority to tackle the problem is itself abusing drugs. This may sound unreal but in fact it is the dismal picture of police departments across the nation. Police officers who have to defend against drug offenses, are themselves stained with charges of steroid abuse. The use of Anabolic steroids is on the rise among police personnel. Many police officers consider steroid usage as a vital part of their strength-training regimen in order to develop an impressive physique to subdue criminals. The history of steroid usage dates way back to the period…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Computers and Their Term Paper

… The fingerprint also enabled the police investigator to track down the perpetrator of a crime even in those cases in which there had been no human witness, and in which other evidence was lacking or incomplete. The further influence of science - in particular medical science and pathology - led to ever more sophisticated techniques for investigating crime scenes. Biological and chemical evidence now put the noose around as many criminals' necks as once had eyewitnesses and fingerprints. With increased medical knowledge, a coroner could determine almost the exact time of murder victim's demise, thus helping the investigation. Having a specific window in time to work with, police had a better idea of whom to look for and whom to question. All of these new…. [read more]


Force Police and Other Protectors of Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Force

Police and other protectors of society are in a precarious position of being responsible to protect society, at the cost of utilizing violence to do so. Violence, may in fact be a strong word, the preferred phrase is use of force, a phrase which denotes that the use of such force is reasonable and necessary in some moral sense. In Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Guidebook on Democratic Policing the dilemma of the intense pressure that police face in protecting the public, under the dichotomy of following "all laws, constitutions, criminal codes, police acts, and International and national (and human rights) standards in the process," is made absolutely clear. (2006, p.17)

Many argue, without a full knowledge of the…. [read more]


Law Enforcement Community Relies Essay

… S. "has offered rewards of up to $5 million for information leading to the location of [Taliban leader] Hakimullah Mehsud" (The Citizen).

It can backfire on the U.S., and indeed a Taliban "informant" took money from the U.S. But it turned out he was an "…informant-turned-suicide bomber who killed five CIA officers and two CIA security contractors" in 2010 (The Citizen).

As for police departments and their approaches to informants within the U.S., an article in Law Officer points to "key elements in establishing informant reliability" (Jetmore, 2007). The following steps should be taken by investigators prior to accepting the veracity of a potential informant -- in order to "achieve the totality of circumstances and thus probably cause": a) "corroborate as much of the informants'…. [read more]


Hobbes and Natural Laws Term Paper

… Hobbes and Natural Law

Hobbes' argument is that the laws of nature are immutable and eternal, and that issues such as injustice, pride, and arrogance cannot be made lawful, which is an opinion largely verifiable by looking at how humanity addresses the issues that occur naturally and how it creates social contracts and agreements that do not allow specific types of treatment of other human beings to be acceptable. There are reasons why Hobbes takes this opinion, most of which come from the idea that the true state of nature is that nothing is just or unjust, and that everything belongs to everyone. With that, however, comes the idea that violent death is a real possibility, because there are no protectors.

There are only other…. [read more]


Violence Legitimate Force and Illegitimate Essay

… Even then they feel proud to be a part of an armed community willing to fight against the State. They believe that it is the right thing to sacrifice their life for. They do so because they want to build a more just and equal society for all the citizens (Vardalos, Haig, Karzai, Letts & Teixeira 2011).

Violence has been observed to bestow clear adaptive profits and advantages to the successful party. It is never completely eccentric, individual or particular. It is always with another party in a way or other. Violence does not randomly target anybody and has always some meaning or significance for the actor. In the same way, violence is not at all senseless to the injured party or viewer. In short,…. [read more]


management organization law enforcement Essay

… For instance, Langham (n.d.) notes that Millennials are 'team oriented, intelligent, cooperative, technology driven, and interdependent,' (p. 1). Neal (2014) likewise notes that Millennials are both 'confident' and 'independent.' All of these Millennial traits are ones that the effective law enforcement leader can leverage to promote the public safety goals of the organization. Rather than expect an entire generation of police officers to conform to outmoded structures and cultures, practical leaders respond to generational differences with planned, strategic organizational change. As McCafferty (2003) points out, 'Law enforcement agencies must become a learning organization in which individuals become active participants in expanding their knowledge in an atmosphere in which people discuss and explore concepts,' (p. 87). Learning organizations plan for more proactive policing methods, and boast…. [read more]


International Trade Law Term Paper

… International Trade Law

In the case of Owusu vs. Jackson, of 1 March 2005, case number C-281/02, trading as 'Villa Holidays Bal Inn Villas', the judgment of the Court was that the English Courts must pay the costs. The decision, made in this particular case, leaves the English courts vulnerable to try any case, even though the Court may believe that this may not be the very bets forum in which to hear the case. In fact, England has been the most favored venue for those claimants, who become attracted to the jurisdiction in English courts, by the mere prospect of gaining for themselves generous awards in damages.

As a matter of fact, there have been several cases wherein the defendants of the cases have…. [read more]


Human Trafficking the State Department Research Paper

… Within the text of the law itself, there is little description of these programs, and no provisions for funding. The law also includes provisions for the victims of trafficking. These include outlining the requirements to receive funding, definitions of trafficking victims, the production of the annual report, the investigation and prosecution of offenders and protections for victim, including clauses related to immigration status (TVPA, 1475-78). The law also sets the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. These are the standards that are used in the annual report to grade other nations on their anti-trafficking legislative environment. The minimum standards are:

The prohibition of severe forms of trafficking

Mandatory severe punishment for those found guilty of sex trafficking

Severe punishment for other forms of severe…. [read more]


International Law Research Paper

… " (Hathaway, 2005)

Conclusion

This work has examined the issue of the legitimacy of international law and the enforcement authority of international law and has found that the state is ultimately the political power and actor that determines whether international law is enforceable and as well is the authority with the power to actually enforce international law. However, the political factors that are entangled with such decisions requires that more in-depth future study be applied in this area of research.

References

Besson. S. And Tasioulas, J. (2010) The Philosophy of International Law. Oxford University Press. 2010.

Cassels, A. (1996) Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. London and New York. Retrieved from; http://m.friendfeed-media.com/16091f1cfb5c64ee8145abc0116d37a065575b7d

Coleman, Katharina P. (2007) International Organizations and Peace Enforcement Operations: The…. [read more]


International Law Traditionally Term Paper

… International Law

Traditionally, International Law was defined as "the body of law that governs the legal relations between or among states or nations." ("The Free Dictionary"). In this definition, the state or a nation is assumed to be sovereign, have its distinct territory, a population, and a government. Hence, if we strictly follow this definition, international law would only apply to relations and interactions between sovereign states. In the current changing paradigm of increasing globalization, the proliferation of non-government organizations, and the growing activities of multinationals, the scope of international law has become much broader. The jurisdictional and protective reach of international law now extends far beyond traditional state-to-state interactions to international organizations as well as individuals. This paper looks at the background of the…. [read more]


Rochin v. California Summary Essay

… (Samaha, p. 223).

Recommendations -- Under a stricter interpretation of the Bill of Rights as noted in Rochin, if there was no reasonable overt showing that any of the passengers had either done anything wrong or were holding any contraband, the idea of assuming a high probability seems counter to the Constitution. The original stop was made because of a faulty brake light, and had nothing to do with any of the passengers. Even though the driver had a visible needle and admitted to using, the other passengers, according to the case, were not acting as if they were under the influence and did not physically do anything to cause suspicion. Therefore, the search of the purse should have been illegal.

Case 3 -- Jacobson…. [read more]


Entrapment Defense: Case Term Paper

… The entrapment defense is not valid in this case since the defendant was already looking for the drug and would have obtained it without the involvement of the undercover officer. Similar to United States v. Russell case, the defendant was already in search of the drugs, which implies that the offer by the undercover agent did not necessarily induce the crime but provided him with the opportunity to commit the crime. As previously mentioned, entrapment is defined as an affirmative defense through which an offender is excused from liability for offenses that with clear proof that they have been induced by some governmental deceit or persuasion (Johnson, 1996).

Therefore, providing an opportunity for someone to commit crime is not similar to entrapment since the opportunity…. [read more]


International Labour Law Term Paper

… ¶ … Professor Alston on the 'core labor standards' of the International Labour Organization (ILO), a review of how the Declaration goes against the original intent of the 1919 ILO tradition (ilo.org 2012). Pointing out that the intent of the ILO was to serve as a globally represented oversight in setting standards for International labor laws through use of conventions. Conventions being made up of legal and government delegates from each country to convene to discuss issues with labor and trade relations. According to Anderson in an article on Labour Rights on a Global Context, there are three main areas where international rights and enforcement coincide. Making social rights constitutional is an area deeply affected by politics and economic influences. Those with power be it…. [read more]


Business Law Which Type of Contract Term Paper

… Business Law

Which type of contract, bilateral or unilateral, is more common in business? Why? Under what circumstance would someone prefer one or the other? What are the advantages of each type for the offeror? For the offeree?

A bilateral contract is one wherein each party who has promised something has a duty to perform the same. For instance, in case of a contract of a sale an article, one party has the duty to deliver the article he is selling and the other has the duty to pay money for the article for performance of the contract. However in case of unilateral contract, one party has made a promise anticipating in return for something other than a returned promise. In case of these types…. [read more]


Law Enforcement Bulletin Article Review

… Gangs Military Weapons Tactics

UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY/LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

Gangs Deploying Military Hardware, Tactics

Street gangs are increasingly obtaining and deploying military-grade equipment and tactics. Be prepared for increasing levels of force and resistance. Pick your battles: Stay alert to stay alive!

National Gang Intervention Center 2007

National Gang Intervention Center 2007

Street gangs have been acquiring military-grade hardware, as indicated by:

Increasing civilian arrests for illegal purchase/posession of weaponry from private-sector Department of Defense contractors (1)

Congressional testimony and increasing nationwide arrests for stolen military offensive and defensive hardware sold at gun shows and by private individuals going back nearly two decades (2)

LAPD San Bernaardino arrested a parolee in 2006 in posession of a military rocket launcher (3)

Recent and increasing arrests…. [read more]

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