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Victorian Women Literature in 19Th Century Chapter

… ¶ … social legacy and literary work of Victorian women. In the 19th, many Victorian women are very popular century because of their literary contributions during the era. Typically, Victorian women produced vast number of sensational and sentimental romantic poems and novels throughout the 19th century. While a large number of women had been recognized as writers, some women were handpicked as Victorian writers of poems and novels. The most prominent Victorian writers include poets Christiana Rossetti, and Elizabeth Barrett, novelists Mary Elizabeth, Charlotte Bronte and George Eliot. Elizabeth Barrett was one of the leading prominent Victorian writers. Christina Rossetti also received a critical praise as one of the best important poets of her time. Typically, Christina Rossetti produces variety of devotional and romantic poems…. [read more]

Gender in the 19Th Century Novel Essay

… Similarly too Emily Bronte's Heathcliff "forgets" or is made to forget who and what he was; Mary Shelley's monster is "born" without either a memory or a family history…what all these characters and their authors really fear they have forgotten is precisely that aspect of their lives which has been kept from them by patriarchal poetics: their matrilineal heritage of literary strength, their "female power" which…is important to them because of (not in spite of) their mothers. (Gilbert and Gubar 59)

Gilbert and Gubar are certainly right here, that to a certain extent what is central in a feminist conception of the "matrilineal heritage" of literary genealogies is the prospect of identifying with one's precursor. (It might be worth noting that Mary Shelley conducted her…. [read more]

Shared Rhetorical Strategy in 19Th Century British Fiction and Non Essay

… 19th c Prose, Fiction and Non-Fiction

One crucial way in which English fiction and English non-fiction prose in the nineteenth century do inform each other is in the development of the grotesque as a rhetorical mode. Although "grotesque" is a somewhat loose critical category, it is nonetheless common in critical discourse in the period and since, and generally refers to the exaggeration of unnaturalness, ugliness, or strangeness, usually pushed to an effect quite near comedy. Certainly the grotesque in nineteenth century English literature more generally is observable as an emergent mode -- to turn, in poetry, from Wordsworth to such later works as Tennyson's "Saint Simeon Stylites," Browning's "Caliban Upon Setebos," or the Death's Jest-Book of Thomas Lovell Beddoes is to witness the emergence of…. [read more]

Story of an Hour Essay

… This aspect explains the perpetual nature of women and is evident in the modern society. While woman do not want to continue being submissive to their husbands, the true nature of her role still stand (Shumaker 598). In his article "Too Terribly Good to be printed," Conrad Shumaker also depicts women as inferior to men and having to play the role of mothers, wives and housekeepers. According to Shumaker, attack on motherhood and home was an offensive act (Shumaker 598).


The stories involve intricate work and a productive indictment of the 19th century's attitude towards sexes and the acquisitiveness that underlies that opinion (Shumaker 598). They represent a contrary view of the modern women who fear shifting sexual roles, and who do not recognize…. [read more]

Nineteenth Century Prostitution Within the Grand Catalogue Term Paper

… Nineteenth Century Prostitution

Within the grand catalogue of criminal offences, the asking for a reward by a young woman in return for a sexual service must surely rate as a trivial misdemeanor. Yet across the centuries and within many cultures, the female prostitute has been a focus of anxiety for those who wish to regulate society

The social ramifications and cultural factors surrounding prostitution in the nineteenth century were as varied as they were at times fanciful. Prostitution was tied to certain mental as well as physical abnormalities, yet the blame for their situation usually fell on the women themselves. As if they had some propensity that was either inherent or acquired that led them to the life of a streetwalker. In fact the Victorian…. [read more]

Madame Bovary's Entire Experience Term Paper

… Everything is repeated, but in a different context or in a different way." This is not a moral transgression, but rather a breaking away from the style fully in place during this literary period. "To say that The Awakening is not about sex exclusively, or even primarily, is not to say that sex is unimportant..." (148) Biggs asserts. And yet, "The full range of the senses, the full gender-transcending range of personal possibility, and the full range of means of sexual expression..." were very clearly understood by the author, and are "intermingled in her fiction" (148), according to Biggs' analysis.

What Biggs meant in her line alluding to the "gender-transcending range of personal possibility..." is that she believes both Edna and Robert may be gay.…. [read more]

Unprivileged Chinese Women in the 18th Century Research Paper

… Women in 18th Century China

The Unprivileged Chinese women in the 18th Century

The role of Chinese men has always been dominant in the China. In the 18th century, unmarried Chinese women consistently lived what most would consider an underprivileged life. The unmarried Chinese female was restricted to traditional customs and did not receive equal treatment from society. Their status as a woman was inferior to the status of men as both children and adults. Once a female was born to the family, it seems that their fate has been made by their family without their consent or input. The research on this subject has been extensive, though often associated with an external view, sighting sources from western onlookers and minimal masculine sources from within…. [read more]

Woman Question Float John Stuart Mill Term Paper

… ¶ … Woman Question float

John Stuart Mill, Elizabeth Browning, and Mary Wollstonecraft on Sarah Ellis' "The Woman Question"

In the essay, "The Woman Question," author Sarah Ellis presented a contemplative thought on the nature of female characterization in most literary works in 19th century. Explicating her thoughts in writing, Ellis reflected on how literature had been an influential medium through which patriarchy was validated and women suppression was further reinforced. Her observation included the assertion that all women, specifically literature's female characters, were "held up in universal admiration." This admiration stemmed from the fact that female characters were often depicted not as "accomplished women, women who could solve problems, and elucidate systems of philosophy," but instead, these females were those "who have gone down…. [read more]

Medieval Romance Has Inspired Literature Term Paper

… The various images of beauty the poet paints about love and its exhilarating effect make "The Eve of St. Agnes" a wonderful combination of medieval and romantic elements. Here we see how the poet has moved away from moralizing in his poetry and instead settled on rich details and idealized characters.

Another poet that brought the medieval past alive in his poetry was Alfred Tennyson. His poetry often revives old ideas and phrases within new contexts. This kind of poetry can be seen as old notions with a new spin. "Idylls of the King" and "The Lady of Shallot" demonstrate his skill in this area. The poem, "Idylls of the King" illustrates the poet's ability to capture and renew older legends and myths with a…. [read more]

British Poetry of the 19Th Century Essay

… ¶ … narrative technique in poetry of the nineteenth century is to discuss the various meanings and symbols written in the words of that era. Victorian poetry, including Romantic poetry, included an eclectic mix. The authors of these kinds of poetry loved to experiment and broadened not only the range of English poetry, but also subject-matter, and method, to an unmatched extent. The writers of this era paid attention to narrative because that is how they felt the words would be expressed best. Their focus was that on description, feeling, and persistent thought. Foremost poets like Arnold, Browning, Tennyson, and Keats demonstrated consistent techniques that became synonymous with Victorian and Romantic poetry.

"To Marguerite: Continued" a poem by Matthew Arnold, was first published in 1852.…. [read more]

Austen, Eliot, Besant, Browning: 19Th Century Views of Marriage and Property Essay

… ¶ … Marriage in 19th c English lit

To a certain extent, England owes its national identity in the modern period to issues of marriage: it was over marriage policy that Henry VIII would break with Rome and establish his own church in the sixteenth century, and the Church of England's denial of sacramental status to marriage led to a large-scale literary attempt (whose results are evident in works as disparate as Spenser's "Epithalamion" to Shakespeare's "Much Ado About Nothing") to find a cultural meaning for marriage when the religious meaning had been radically redefined. By the nineteenth century, however, the religious debate over marriage had largely been subsumed by a legal one (with extensive parliamentary wrangling over the status of married women's property rights,…. [read more]

Waste Land French Lieutenant Essay

… Waste Land French Lieutenant

The Waste Land and the French Lieutenant as Exemplary Modernist Texts

Modernism and Post-Modernism are considered the dominant literary movements of the twentieth century, with Post-Modernism continuing into our own century. Each was an artistic movement representing a clear break with the past. Their literary components were especially unique, revealing the myriad unexplored forms that literature could take.

Although famous, these movements are difficult to define because their canons are composed of highly unconventional works, escaping easy categorization. Both movements are impossible to define through common features alone. Therefore, classifying a text, such as the Wasteland or the French Lieutenant's Woman, as Modernist or Post-Modernist, involves much more than identifying features off of a checklist.

The terms Modernist and Post-Modernist cannot…. [read more]

Feminism 19th and Early 20th Essay

… However, when she goes downstairs, she looks away from the window and sees her husband walk in the door. Looking away from the window that symbolizes her happy future, Louise falls down dead from a heart attack. Even though the doctors say she died of joy, the readers know that she died of shock and disappointment. The implication is that her heart trouble was actually brought on by marriage.

Like the short hour of freedom that Louise enjoyed, The Story of an Hour is short. Each paragraph is small, and made up of small sentences, as we carve up hours, minutes, and seconds. Unlike most writing of the time, Chopin had to be concise with her writing in this story, so she tried to make…. [read more]

Historical Novel in Victorian Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … Tale of Two Cities is long-lasting evidence to the best, and an intense analysis of the worst of human nature. Charles Dickens set out to make the French Revolution live in the minds and hearts of the reader. Human suffering is not the only problem that faced the French people in the 18th Century. With all the injustices and poverty highlighted, A Tale of two Cities is a journeying of situations that will go on just as long as inequity and violence continue to flourish. However, while the novel is a social critique, it is also an examination of the restraints of human injustice where innocent people are killed and imprisoned. In this regard, this paper highlights social upheaval and restoration of social…. [read more]

Little Women, Louisa May Alcott Term Paper

… Alcott was a struggling spirit in struggling times. She waged a war with poverty as her nation burned in a Civil War. She had unqualified dedication to her family and desire to rid it of poverty. She did everything from teaching to sewing and working as hired domestic servant. It was at 16 that she tried writing, all with the end-view of earning enough for her family to alleviate its poverty. In 1851, her first poem was published under the pen name, Flora Fairfield, and this brought her much honor and confidence along with the money. She became known for her pieces, showing the 19th century domestic life, which enticed and entertained young and old readers then and now. Her literary works were accepted by…. [read more]

Compare the Use of Nature With Male and Female Poets Term Paper

… Women and Men: Differing Poetic Views of the Natural World -- Byron, Barrett Browning, and Bishop

Women are nature. Men observe nature. Women are controlled by nature. Men are in control of nature. Women are 'of' nature. Men are artistically empowered and inspired by nature. Women are metaphors of the natural world. Men make metaphors about women and the natural world.

These assumptions about male/female dichotomies of meaning in relationship to the natural world have haunted female poets throughout Western culture. There remains a pervasive assumption that men are the craftsmen of artistic work, and women are the muses and mere subjects of artistic work. This idea was particularly pervasive in much of 19th century Western poetry, when the Romantic poet Lord Byron, George Gordon…. [read more]

Flapper Movement the Effect Essay

… The creation of a specific "hip" and special language is often been observed as a sign of a particular generation or ostracized group searching for its own values and definitions. A sign of a behavioral shift in a group is often associated with that group developing its own lingo or jargon to differentiate itself from the majority (Isaacs, 1975). Nonetheless, despite the use of the new lingo by the Flappers many of the sayings and slang terms that originated during this time continue remain popular and in use even today.

A Shift in Gender Roles.

The Flappers certainly challenged traditional roles expected of women. Traditionally women stayed home and men worked outside the home; however, the Flapper movement saw women more and more working outside…. [read more]

Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a Story of Victorian Childhood Term Paper

… Victorian Childhood and Alice in Wonderland

The World of Victorian England

Childhood in the Victorian England of Lewis Carroll

Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature

Analysis of Alice in Wonderland

Works Cited and Consulted

The children's novel, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, written in 1865 by Charles Dodgson, under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, may well be the most popular, and imitated book in the history of the English language. It has inspired numerous screen adaptations, stage plays, and served as the basis for a number of fictional stories loosely based on Alice's adventures. Whether because of the 1951 Disney version, the 2010 Tim Burton film, or the sheer power of the novel itself, the characters have become archetypal in the modern world. Who has not heard…. [read more]

Women's Literature Term Paper

… Bertha Mason: Madwoman or Just Mad?

Why, Jane, what would you have?... You will stipulate, I see, for peculiar terms -- what will they be?" only want an easy mind, sir... I shall continue to act as Adele's governess; by that I shall earn my board and lodging, and thirty pounds a year besides. I'll furnish my own wardrobe out of that money, and you shall give me nothing but -- " it is your time now, little tyrant, but it will be mine presently: and when once I have fairly seized you, to have and to hold, I'll just -- figuratively speaking -- attach you to a chain like this" (touching his watchguard).

In this brief, but telling, exchange the reader sees that Jane…. [read more]

Sexism in the Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Term Paper

… ¶ … Conrad's Heart of Darkness

Historical literature is filled with examples of pre- and post-colonialist paradigms. Within each of these models, however, there is a certain part of a larger story that can only be told in the larger view of the historical process. One of the grand themes that help us wade through that process is that of the dehumanization of the individual. For whatever psychotically reasons, humans seem to have the need to change others into less than human in order to subjugate them economically, intellectually, or culturally. We might even think of the process of imperialism as practiced by the European powers as dehumanization of culture and society; begun at the micro level and then evolving into the macro. The individual…. [read more]

Adam Bede, George Eliot Uses Term Paper

… She may even have lost herself - for in the end she seems to have been reduced to something less than fully human, although not something that is in any way natural. She has none of the grace of the natural world that is so important in this novel - as well as in other Romantic works. She has become some sort of living ghost, some broken, preternatural thing.

We see the essential destruction of this character in this description of the fate of her child; in this passage we see how Eliot has irrevocably marked her as being unable to act as a moral agent in this story. Her inability to serve as a force of good - or even evil - marks her…. [read more]

Nineteenth Century, the Women's Suffrage A2 Outline Answer

… Lucy, on the other hand, cannot seem to distance herself from it. Her subconscious repeatedly leads her to Dracula's presence as she begins sleep walking out of her room night after night. This interaction with the vampire is something Lucy's character craves within the depths of her mind and restricts her of any strength that would be needed to provide a good example of a feminist character.

Although she still grasps on to the chastity of an ideal Victorian woman, Mina Harker possesses the traits needed to progress into a woman of the future. If she were to never marry, she would be more than capable of sustaining herself. Her career as a schoolteacher marks a new wave of financial independence while her passion for…. [read more]

Social Political and Cultural Implications of Defining Gender Roles in Relation to Domestic Space Essay

… Female Sexual Subjugation and Domesticity in America
The end of the 19th Century brought with it a host of changes which,
as driven by technology and spreading urbanization, brought the entire
world under the sway of the Industrial Revolution. Factories, tenements
and immigrants filled the cities of Europe, the United Kingdom and the
United States, and with them came overcrowding, urban blight, aesthetic
conformity and the seedling of mass consumerism. The result was not a move
away from the inequality of the eras before it but a repackaging of this
imbalance to fit new cultural tendencies. This would be especially true
for women in such contexts as the United States, where the premise of
equality would be subverted by a reconsideration of American culture within…. [read more]

Literature and the City the Presentation of London in Three Novels by Charles Dickens Essay

… London and Dickens

The City of London in Charles Dicken's Great Expectations, David Copperfield, and a Christmas Carol

The Dickensian city, while a reflection of social injustices, is not strictly limited to depicting humanity in the light of such suffering. For Dickens there is a wider hope -- a higher heaven than Victorian socialism can afford. Socialism is the economist's hope for heaven on earth. Dickens connects his London characters to another heaven -- this one attained by uniting oneself to the sufferings, not of the poor, but of the Christian Savior. It is no coincidence that in David Copperfield, the eponymous hero should fall in love with a girl named Agnes (who embodies all the virtues of meekness like the spiritual Lamb for whom…. [read more]

Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft Term Paper

… Feminist Reading

Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft and Chopin on the Social Dynamics of Female Emancipation

One of the most fundamental and profound developments in literature and literary criticism in the past century or two is the emergence of the feminist perspective, or more correctly an abundance of feminine perspectives. The plural is the proper form because there is no true cohesion in the many ideals, frameworks, and conclusions that "feminist" (even this use of the term is somewhat specious) authors and critics have brought to the creation and interpretation of literature from the dawn of the nineteenth century to the modern era. To be fair, certain strains of feminism can be found in earlier works, as well, and it was not until the late…. [read more]

Culture Theme Essay

… ¶ … Spheres: Men and women and the 'battle of the sexes' before and after the film

Adam's Rib

Man's love is of man's life a thing apart, 'Tis woman's whole existence.

-Lord Byron, Don Juan

The history of the Separate Spheres ideology

The cultural theme of the separate nature of men and women is an old one. However, in the wake of the Industrial Revolution, the conception of the sexes as inexorably polarized became even more exaggerated. The late 18th and early 19th century Romantic poet Lord Byron's succinct summary of love being the sum total of women's existence epitomizes the notion of the Separate Spheres ideology. Women were seen as emotional, romantic, and obsessed with the 'private' aspects of human existence. Men, in…. [read more]

Spanish Women and Values Within the Turn Term Paper

… Spanish Women and Values

Within the turn of the twentieth century, Spanish women have spread to the fields that were greatly overrun by men. Cinematography, authorship, and activism have welcomed women in their embrace -- though not without some hardship on the way. This can be owed to the changing and non-changing class and social values of Spanish families after the poignant historical eras of both the Spanish Civil War and the Franco-rule dominating Spain around the mid-1900s.

Post-Franco era has gradually given way to a democratic Spain, and by 1976, this led to the alteration of Spanish values, most notably a view of gender roles within the scope of society (Perez). In the light of politics, film, literature, and other media, society has given…. [read more]

Elizabeth Gaskell's North and South Term Paper

… Elizabeth Gaskell's North And South

Nineteenth century England was a country caught up in the turmoil and excitement of change. As the environment and society changed, people were faced with immense challenges, including how to survive in a changing world. While every sector of society felt the force of the turmoil, the changes most affected the working and poorer classes. This was then also reflected in the arts of the time, including novels such as those by George Elliot and Elizabeth Gaskell. Gaskell's North and South then particularly demonstrated the potential benefits of embracing the future, however uncertain, while celebrating what was best in the past. The focus in Gaskell's novel, demonstrated through the character of Margaret, is thus the creativity and energy that was…. [read more]

Domestic Prison Gender Roles Thesis

… 19). Most of her early biographers also failed to realize that her work was heavily based on family and personal experiences, including the lives of her mother and grandmother. One of these ancestor stories, "Athenaise" was based on her grandmother's unhappy marriage to a man who deserted her and left her in poverty to raise seven children on her own. The fictional story features one of Gilman's ironic reversals, however, and has the wife desert her husband and striking out on her own to live with the Cherokees in Indian Territory.

American realism and naturalism were at their high point during the three decades after the Civil War, and among its leading luminaries were Mark Twain, Stephen Crane and Henry James. Chopin certainly fits within…. [read more]

Metonyms in Dickens Essay

… Metonymics in "Little Dorit"

Metonymy is a literary term that is used to describe a concept that is not called by its own name, but rather by something symbolically associated with it that has a deeper, metaphorical meaning. For example, the words "white coat" could be utilized to infer a doctor or medical professional or the city "Washington" could refer to a governmental decision, as in "Washington's policy of…." Metonymy works in literary prose by the association between two concepts -- metaphor by the similarity. Typically, use of metonymy presupposes that the speaker or author wishes to transfer the archetypal qualities of one item into the other, all without a large explanation of those qualities. For example, the American stock system is referred to by…. [read more]

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