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Views About Sociological Theory in the 21st Century Term Paper

… Sociological theory in the 21st century orients theorists just like architects to have theories existing in minds, with symbolic correspondence and explanations of social truths based on principals of directing thinking in an organized way of the social environment.

Sociological theory in current observation by scholars fails to connect with the reality of current social interactions.

Sociological theory is a representation of the sociologists' prevalent perspectives on the reality of social associations with the daily activities.

The outline of sociological theory in the 21st century relates to the nature of understanding of the locality in consideration that has a more formal approach.

Sociological theory has both deductive and inductive thinking, which sometimes can lead to conservative observations.

As social demands continue to change, sociological theories…. [read more]

General Systems Theory and Modern Research Paper

… System Theory

The origin and foundation of system theory

System theory as a general frame of inquiry

System and environment

Living System Theory

Boundaries of Living System theory

General system theory

Social Entropy Theory (SET)

16A comparison of the theories

In this paper, we analyze Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory by comparing and contrasting the analysis of Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory and its influence on social networking and modern social systems. Other than comparing and contrasting the theories, we synthesize and integrate Bertalanffy's system theory with those of Bailey, Miller and Weick to gain a greater understanding of social systems and the environments in which they interact and exist and a greater appreciation of modern social systems structure.


The trend of change evidence in the…. [read more]

Youth Crime in Canada Functionalism Research Paper

… It is important to realize that not only is the general incidence of youth crime down, but also the severity. The subsequent quotation demonstrates this fact.

Decreases in youth crime were seen among the most serious types of crime. For example, there were 46 youth accused of homicide in 2011, 10 fewer than in 2010,

which resulted in a 16% drop in the rate. Further, the rate of major assault and robbery dropped 4% from 2010. Declines were also seen in the rate of youth accused of most non-violent crimes… (Brennan, 2011).

Additionally, it is important to discuss the ramifications of the Youth Criminal Justice Act which appear to have contributed to the reduction of youth crime in Canada recently. The degree of leniency which…. [read more]

Criminology Theories Biological Theory Capstone Project

… e. criminal) means after socially appropriate means fail (Broidy, 2001; Schmalleger, 2009).

Typical examples of crime that fit the sociological theory of crime include criminal gangs thriving in poor, high-crime neighborhoods and organized crime families whose members are socialized into that lifestyle from their earliest childhood and who seek to achieve many of the traditional rewards of professional success and hard legitimate work by means of criminal enterprises and organizations.

Psychological Theory of Crime

The psychological theory of crime regards human behavior in general and of deviance and criminality in particular as mainly the result of internal states of mind resulting from the latent consequences of earlier experiences, particularly, experiences that relate to traumatic circumstances (Schmalleger, 2009). In principle, the psychological perspective is very similar…. [read more]

Sociology Trey Parker and Matt Essay

… Burke & Banks (2012) point out that sensitivity to diversity is not about being "color blind" or about political correctness. Rather, it can be alright to use stereotypes in a comical manner so long as the underlying structures of racism are not present. This is why Matt Stone and Trey Parker frequently make fun of political correctness. The politically correct attitude is not necessarily one that fosters inclusiveness and egalitarian values. More often than not, political correctness prevents the sociological imagination from being actively engaged in the world.

The sociological imagination is only active when the individual applies it to the here and now. "Fat Butt and Pancake Head" challenges the viewer to step outside the boundaries of self and contemplate prevailing attitudes, beliefs, and…. [read more]

Social Theory the Wide Diversity of Human Term Paper

… Social Theory

The wide diversity of human behavior in a social setting for thousands of years makes it imperative to study these societies to better understand their properties. What are the similarities and differences of this behavior? What are the causes? How do humans differ than other animals in their social development? These questions have been asked by theorists for generations. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, for example, defined individuals and their relationship to society. In the 1800s, social theory was more clearly defined by Emile Durkheim and Max Weber as separate from the individualism in the study of society, or sociology. From this time, specific theories arose, such as functionalism, Marxism, interpretivism, and post-modernism to explain the function of society. These theories, all relevant,…. [read more]

Self-Control Theory of Criminal Behavior Criminal Justice Term Paper

… ¶ … Self-Control Theory of Criminal Behavior

Criminal justice experts and psychologists have continually debated the origin of the antisocial or criminal impulse among individuals who engage in criminal behavior.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the relatively new field of human psychology included the eugenics theory (since discredited as unscientific and invalid) according to which behavioral traits were both functions of inherent personal characteristics as well as identifiable by the relative shape of the skull (Gerrig & (Zimbardo 2005).

Modern psychologists now focus on developmental factors rather than inherent criminal predisposition, but still disagree on the relative roles and the degree to which parental roles and upbringing, society, and genetics play in the formation of the criminal personality. On one end…. [read more]

Linguistics, Language Acquisition, and Pronoun Term Paper

… In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of the body, there will be some trial and error before mastery occurs. This pronoun error may be an example of growing children, in attempts to develop and strengthen their linguistic muscles, overextending their linguistic capability in a specific pattern indigenous to a very specific age group of children.

Rispoli certainly defends the fortitude of the explanation for this occurrence with syntactic theory, but he also…. [read more]

Learning Theories in 2009-2010 Term Paper

… Learning Theories

Jones, Wendell

By the end of the 19th and turn of the 20th century, researchers became fascinated by the differences in learning styles and concepts. This was perhaps a logical reaction to Darwinism, to scientific discovery, and to the realization that in the contemporary world, individuals expressed cognition in different ways. One of the key elements in the ongoing debate uncovering learning theory is the difference between empirical and theoretical learning (Theories of Behavior, 2008). Empirical learning is based on a process. That process compares a number of individually different objects, picks out their observable characteristics. Based on this, one formulates a general concept about this particular kind of object. This type of learning is typical for younger children, preschoolers and the like,…. [read more]

Organizational Theories as a Product Term Paper

… ¶ … Organizational Theories as a Product of an Evolutionary Process

In analyzing how contemporary organization theories are a product of an evolutionary process, the progression of theories can't be viewed in isolation, they must be seen as influenced by the broader demographic, economic, sociological and more immediate knowledge management and managerial trends within organizations. The progression of top-down organizational structures that were heavily influenced by both the military chain-of-command concepts (Mutch, pp. 751-769) and the bureaucratic approach to management have dramatically changed as organizational theories have transitioned over the last century. From theories that were centered purely on the creation of closed-loop systems that had as their catalyst military chains of command to the more contemporary theories today that stress agility and responsiveness, organizational…. [read more]

History of Juvenile Justice System Essay

… On the contrary, in the 21st Century, while dealing with criminals, law enforcers issue Miranda and warnings to suspects before they can interrogate them. Moreover, police officers carry out warrantless searches on suspects if they hold that the searches are likely to lead to evidence of a law violation and crime (Matthews & May, 2007).

Will diversion be relevant during both periods of time? Will there be preventive options during both periods of time?

Criminal and mental health lawyers (CMHL) are a set of different defense lawyers. They do not seek a repeat business because they want offenders to rehabilitate so that they do not re-offend. Offenders who have mental and cognitive health impairments are often represented through out the criminal justice system. There is…. [read more]

Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Essay

… Society teaches young people act in 'deviant' ways (Goode 2006: 420). For example, the lack of opportunities offered to young people in poor, urban communities increase the incentives to be involved in the drug trade, given the limited venues for self-improvement outside of drugs. A lack of positive role models in the community; family members who abuse drugs; and peer influences can all increase the likelihood of abuse and 'teach' young people to find refuge in substance abuse.

Conflict-based theories of abuse stress the role of poverty exacerbating the problem of drug addiction. "Conflict theory argues that inequality is the root cause of drug use, at least the heavy, chronic abuse of and dependence on 'hard' drugs such as crack cocaine and heroin" (Goode 2006:…. [read more]

Presumption, Often Promulgated by Scholars and Politicians Essay

… ¶ … presumption, often promulgated by scholars and politicians in the developed world, that social, political and cultural development are synonymous with a move towards modernization. In fact, modernization theory is also sometimes referred to as the developmental doctrine, a paradigm spurred on particularly after World War II when the United States formed its Cold War policy and understood that it had obligations to the developing world (e.g. unindustrialized or newly independent post-colonial nations). Modernization can thus be an evolutionary movement of technological progress or a reaction to the past and a new template for the future. However, we must understand that it is both a continuous, and open-ended, process. It is not the type of social change in which there is a clear beginning,…. [read more]

Karl Marx and Class Issues Essay

… Karl Marx & Class Issues

Karl Marx is notorious for having promoted communism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but moreover, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century Marx is respected as an economist, sociologist, philosopher and author. His views are rarely embraced in the neo-liberal community (that promotes free-market capitalism, globalization and the power of the private sector) but his scholarship is generally included in economics and sociological studies. This paper presents his views on class, and responses to those views from other scholars.

Viewpoints & Challenges in Response to Marx' Theory on Class

"Studies of Marx's theory of history are complicated by the fact that Marx himself never provided a systematic treatment of its central principles… [hence] the task…. [read more]

Strategic Management [Book Manuscript Draft Ghost Writing

… Expansion of the organization on a global scale requires restructuring of the organization and this is a redesign that reaches outside of the company to the global scale with the necessary control levels outgoing from the domestic organizational location. An IT system has the capacity to enable this level of global control from the domestic operation with the provisions of enhanced instantaneous communication. The provision of instant communication is of optimum importance in the environment characterized by uncertainty where the organization is operating in a market that is not familiar and with unfamiliar conditions.

Cultural Barriers

Another aspect of the challenges to globalization are the cultural barriers that some companies have experiences and this impacts the organizational policies and processes that are instituted to overcome…. [read more]

Sociology Introducing Alexa Madison Essay

… As Anderson (1994) points out, "Of all the problems besetting the poor inner-city black community, none is more pressing than that of interpersonal violence and aggression," (1). Ethics "on the street" are difficult to navigate, as issues like respect rise to the surface among a community that has been systematically subjugated and oppressed. When African-Americans continue to experience obstacles to achieving success within the structures of the dominant culture, efforts are met with frustration that too often finds its venting domestically. Domestic or spousal abuse is not the only ways that women find themselves doubly subject to persecution in the society. African-American women experience discrimination in their own community because of their gender.

Rather than bonding together, women would occasionally stab each other in the…. [read more]

Slavery the Emancipation of Slaves Research Paper

… Several criminological and sociological theories can be used to explain "black crime." Durkheim's concept of anomie, the erosion of social norms, was one result of peonage and its similar racist institutions. Likewise, strain theory can easily account for the manifestation of "black crime" in the Untied States. An oppressed culture evolves in opposition to the dominant culture, rejects the norms of the dominant culture, but has no institutions or structures in place to create a constructive response to oppression. A similar situation plays itself out all over the world, where oppressed communities struggle to find strong leadership and a cohesive means by which to achieve economic, political, and social power.

Slavery by Another Name is a powerful documentary that rounds out an understanding of American…. [read more]

Develop an Affirmative Program Designed to Reduce Citizens Complaints Essay

… Reducing Citizen Complaints

A growing body of evidence suggests that in any police department a small percentage of officers are responsible for a disproportionate share of citizen complaints. Develop an affirmative action program designed to reduce citizen complaints. Discuss affirmative steps that a department may take to train and monitor officers' conduct that tend to produce citizen complaints. Include discussions on the legal and personnel implications of your proposed program.

Psychologists have proven that it is often a part of human nature that when humans are given more authority, sometimes they act excessively with that authority and go beyond the normal, accepted morality of a situation to become more brutal and violent. Witness many rather mild-mannered German officials who, during the advent of Nazism, became…. [read more]

Equal Opportunity in the American Workplace Research Paper

… ¶ … Male Consciousness-Raising from a Sociological and Political Perspective

Male employees are often found showing negative attitude towards female employees' high status positions at the workplace and liberalization in the society. Through this article, the author aims to discuss the role of male consciousness groups and the impacts of power relationships on men's attitudes. The author has presented his views in the light of his vast experience in the field of Political Sciences and Sociology. He has also used subjective evaluation and approaches to make his research reliable and authentic for the future researchers. As the article contains much discussion on the dominance of females by male groups, it can also be used to explain the gender inequality at the workplace; especially the topics…. [read more]

Progression of Women Throughout Time Thesis

… Progression of Women Throughout Time


An Analysis of the Progression of Women's Historical Role

We have seen that women, as a social group, have generated huge interests not only from the scientific, academic community but also from other progressive sectors of the society. Women are very much a part of our everyday lives -- they are our mothers, sisters, or daughters but they are also a part of the grander scheme of society that stigmatizes women. Sociologists, for example, found it useful to label women as minority group because it is a basic social fact that women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics (Henslin 93).

It is in this light that the author aims to fully understand the many facets…. [read more]

Anomie: A Sense of Alienation From Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Anomie: A sense of alienation from society, popularized by Durkheim's social theories. Ex. The sociologist Durkheim suggested that modern man or woman was in a perpetual state of anomie, because of the breakdown of social institutions.

Social fact: A social fact may be contrasted with a scientific fact -- both of them strive to be based in objective data collection, such as the scientific fact that the earth rotates around the sun, or that a poorer school district has a lower graduation rate and a higher rate of juvenile offenders than a richer comparative district. These substantiated facts are used when conducting experiments. Social facts, as coined by the positivist school of criminology suggests that social pressures that are external behaviors that are…. [read more]

Slumdog Millionaire the 2008 British Term Paper

… Slumdog Millionaire

The 2008 British film Slumdog Millionaire became a worldwide hit, earning a slew of awards and nominations as well as mainstream critical acclaim in the United States. Danny Boyle's movie is an adaptation of a novel called Q&A by Vikas Swarup. Slumdog Millionaire is a rags-to-riches coming of age story of a poor street urchin who, though a series of unlikely events, winds up on a televised quiz show. The film is a comedy-drama, addressing deadly serious issues ranging from child abuse, rape, and battery to the political, economic, and social problems plaguing Indian society. At the same time, Slumdog Millionaire has a happy ending and enough comic relief to emerge as a feel-good film.

As compelling and entertaining as Slumdog Millionaire may…. [read more]

How Nelson Mandela Influence on Apartheid Research Paper

… ¶ … macro sociological issue being addressed?

what theory did he or she use?

did the article have a social impact- positive or negative?

what did you learn?

what are suggested if any? do you see them as feasible?

develop a survey that is no more that 10 questions. A. The survey must be administered to at least 40 people. B. The survey results will provide data for your research paper. The questions will address your research question.

Harrell, Willie, J. Ethnicity and Race in a Changing World: A Review Journal

Vol 1 Issue 1 -- January 2009

Found online at

Nelson Mandela's South Africa

Born to walk in the steps of ancestors past

Across plush fields where once we hunted and gathered

San,…. [read more]

Israel Explanation Term Paper

… With both sides of the equation being labeled as both victim and perpetrator, it becomes difficult to propose sensible national security policies.

The securitization process of Israel has been recently built on the labeling mechanism. Labeling Palestinians with the blanket term of "terrorist" has become the major means by which Israel garners domestic and international support through the media and popular culture. As Finkelstein (2003) puts it, Israel "has defined Palestinian terror as an existential threat to the survival of the Israeli state and society," (p. 3). The speeches of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu echo the existential threat theory that permeates Israeli public consciousness. As a direct method of promoting right-wing security strategies, propaganda such as this helps to establish an ethnocratic regime under the…. [read more]

Racial Profiling Is Not New Essay

… Stopped blacks are 76% more likely to be searched, and stopped Latinos are 16% more likely to be searched than stopped whites.

Stopped blacks are 29% more likely to be arrested, and stopped Latinos are 32% more likely to be arrested than stopped whites.

Now consider this: Although stopped blacks were 127% more likely to be frisked than stopped whites, they were 42.3% less likely to be found with a weapon after they were frisked, 25% less likely to be found with drugs and 33% less likely to be found with other contraband. We found similar patterns for Latinos" Ayres ()

The irony about stereotyping, though, is that there is even a phrase that emulates through popular culture. Instead of DUI (Driving Under the Influence),…. [read more]

Gangs as Culture and Subculture Essay

… If we do not know much about them, how can we effectively combat their dangerous activities? Esbensen et al. explicate as to why the lack of knowledge about gangs can be dangerous or detrimental:

For example, research on the extent and nature of the gang problem faces three possible outcomes: (1) accurately stating the gang problem with the best definition for the research question, (2) underestimating it with a far too narrow definition, or (3) overestimating it if the definition is too broad, capturing individuals, groups, and behavior that are of little interest to the intended audience. (Esbensen et al., 2001,-Page 106)

Defining and agreeing upon what a gang is central to intervention efficacy with the support of public policy.

When dealing with gangs, a…. [read more]

Education Mcintyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research Thesis

… Education

McIntyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research

What are the different rules and assumptions of these paradigms?

The different rules and assumptions of these paradigms all revolve around how adult education is conducted, and how it should change to incorporate more ideas and research principles. One accepted paradigm that the author wants to change is the participation paradigm, because it is outdated and has been done repeatedly. The rules of this paradigm include why people take distance education courses, why they chose distance education, and what they get out of the courses (if they participate). While these studies have been valid in the past, they have been done, and instead of rehashing old information, and making assumptions from this old information, new research and paradigms…. [read more]

Social Justice and the Gospel Essay

… Over the last three to four decades, the global landscape has changed to embrace a process called globalism. Globalism is a key change in that economic, political and cultural movements throughout the world move closer together as a result of economic cooperation and communication. Globalization has shrunk many aspects of the world that prevented social justice in the past. The Internet is available almost everywhere, the news media accesses even the darkest regions or states, and it has transformed the way culture, society, and the economy work in the modern era. The world is richer than ever, communicates more, trades more, and cooperates more than ever. To date, the most robust paradigm of globalization has been the way many countries are integrating themselves with each…. [read more]

Life Coach as Singer Essay

… This has led to the discovery that the inability to resist the desire for instant gratification may actually be hard-wired into the brain. The issue was originally looked at by a study in the late 1960s and early 1970s that used marshmallows and cookies to assess the ability of preschool children to delay gratification and those who could not. Later, brain imaging was used that showed key differences between the two groups in two areas: the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum. "This is the first time we have located the specific brain areas related to delayed gratification. This could have major implications in the treatment of obesity and addictions," said the lead author B.J. Casey, Ph.D (Nauert).

As we have seen, instant has definitive…. [read more]

Deviance in Society Essay

… Deviance in Society

The sociology of deviance has been a profitable endeavor for decades. It has contributed valuable knowledge to social theory and criminology. Yet today the study of deviance is in disrepute among some sociologists for reasons of political correctness and the bankruptcy of ideas. Some sociologists wish to refrain from stigmatizing or pathologizing people through a label of deviance (see Goode, 2004, p. 114). Others from a feminist angle criticize its reliance on patriarchal notions. Indeed, Sumner (1994) has even written its obituary. Despite such dissenting opinion, a valuable inquiry into theories of deviance can still be made. This essay aims to compare the normative and labeling approaches to deviance, clarifying their perspectives and applying them to examples. Both approaches have strengths and…. [read more]

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