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Sleep and Wakefulness Essay

… Many studies have been conducted with, so-called, type A and type B personalities, and it is evident that type B personality types sleep much better than those with type A personalities. This can even be seen in infants. Those that display more type A characteristics, even at a very young age, have a greater difficulty getting to sleep and remaining asleep (Kelmanson, 2004). This is interesting because it further proves the effect of personality on the type of sleep an individual will get.

Circadian rhythms

All of the above issues can be related directly to whether a person is sleep deprived or not, but the circadian rhythms are a major factor in wakefulness and sleep acquisition also. The circadian rhythms are still controversial among some…. [read more]


Cardiac Disorders and Sleep Apnea Research Paper

… Typical breathing pattern with Cheyne-Stokes respiration with hyperpnoeic and apnoeic sequences in sleep stage 2. There are fluctuations in oxygen saturation in response to periodic breathing, with delay of the transit time from the lungs to the fingertip of the left hand.

Figure 2

Source: Kohniein, Welte, Tan and Elliott (2002)

It is reported that the presence of period breathing during sleep in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) has implications that are of a significant nature. Patients with congestive heart failures and periodic breathing "are more limited in their physical performance and develop dyspnoea at lower workloads than patients with disease of similar severity but without periodic breathing. On average, the left ventricular ejection fraction is lower in patients with periodic breathing and the…. [read more]


Infant Sleep Patterns People Research Paper

… There are several things to consider regarding the sleeping patterns of infants that can go a long way in reducing the probability or risk of SIDS in infants:

1. Children that sleep with their parents may sleep less than those that sleep alone and may be at an increased risk of SIDS (Carpenter et al., 2013). Sharing a room rather than a bed is the better option in order to allow the child to get sufficient sleep and to ensure that this risk is decreased. The baby should sleep alone. The infant can suffocate via a number of mechanisms when sleeping in an adult bed with adults such as becoming trapped between the headboard slats, the space between the wall and mattress, or the space…. [read more]


Sleep Behavior and Habits Scientists Thesis

… Most significantly, it is the shift from one schedule to the other that is more important than whether workers maintain night shifts or day shifts regularly. The available research suggests that it is the disruption of the circadian rhythm and the fact that it requires several weeks to reset properly that is responsible (Lamond, Dorrian, Roach, et al., 2003; Pauley, 2004). Equally significant is the degree to which lighting issues affect the quality and restorative value of sleep among workers who must sleep during daylight hours (Pauley, 2004).

The Importance of Darkness during Sleep

Some of the most interesting research studies on the topic of sleep deprivation and sleep quality have to do with the physiological effect of residual lighting on sleep (Pauley, 2004). Specifically,…. [read more]


Sleep Deprivation and Its Neurotransmitters Research Proposal

… REM Sleep Deprivation

The complex neurochemistry of the sleep wake cycle has been researched much over the last few decades. It is clear that REM deprivation causes the brain cellular machinery to trigger various neurobiological responses involving selective expression of genes, down regulation and upregulation of neurotransmitters, as well as reorganization of excitatory synapses.

Sleep is an indispensable physiological function for all living beings. The rejuvenating and refreshing effects of sleep are well-known and over the last few decades there have been numerous research on sleep. The negative effects of sleep deprivation or sleep restriction have been analyzed by many researchers and we now understand some of the basic neurological mechanisms of sleep. It is well-known that sleep deprivation affects the thalamocortical circuits that are…. [read more]


Sleep and Dreams Research Paper

… REM Sleep and Dreaming

Last night while we slept, most of us did not know that we went into the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) mode when we slept and dreamed. More than likely, we will not remember any of dreams for a very good reason: we evolved not to. However, all normal, healthy humans go into the REM state and dream every night -- and most mammals show evidence of this brain pattern too. The function and meaning of dreams have always been a source of mystery and fascination. Some ancient civilizations saw dreams as a way to divine the future or visit with long-departed ancestors. At the beginning of the last century they were viewed as mechanisms for the fulfillment of wishes or as…. [read more]


Business Plan for Sleep Lab Business Plan

… Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep

Disorders Research

Necessity of Sleep Reviewed

Sleep Industry

Types of Sleep Lab Business Structures

Mission Statement

Keys to Success

Market Analysis

Equipment

Supplies

Technicians

Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep Disorders Research

According to the National Institutes of Health 2007 Fact Book the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) "...plans, directs, and supports basic, clinical, and applied research, health education, and training in sleep and sleep disorders. It oversees developments in its program areas; assesses the national needs for research on causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sleep disorders and sleepiness; and coordinates sleep research activities across several Federal Government…. [read more]


Wakefulness and Sleep Essay

… ¶ … evolution have enabled blind mole rats to synchronize their SCN activity to light, even though they cannot see well enough to make any use of the light?

The SCN is a way that mammals are able to synch light and visual images from the retina to the brain. However, most of the input to this path is not initiated from simple retinal receptors. This must mean that light and light intensity is not all that is being communicated, since there are a number of animals that are "blind" based on their environment and evolution. For instance, blind mole rats do not have eye muscles or a lens to focus and they have less than 1% of the number of optic nerves in other…. [read more]


Memory Enhancement Term Paper

… ¶ … Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R., & Born, J. (2004). Sleep inspires insight. Nature,

Research area

The notion of insight is difficult to quantify but psychologists have attempted to do so for many years. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that many great insights have been arrived at by great thinkers by 'sleeping on it.' There is also biological evidence to support the notion that this cliche, in fact, may be true. Both human and animal studies support the idea that the neural representations of tasks performed while awake become reactivated during sleep. The evidence suggests that sleep consolidates and restructures memory.

Understanding how people and animals learn can be very useful in terms of creating a supportive environment for knowledge acquisition.…. [read more]


Behrens and Rosens ) Essay

… In fact, a study of professional truck drivers found that 28 hours lack of sleep, drivers evidenced cognitive deficits similar to those found after alcohol intoxication (BAC at 0.1%) (Dumer & Dinges, 118).

Neurocognitive impairments reducible to lack of sleep have long been validated. The first to do so was one conducted in 1896 on three adults who experienced 90 hours of continuous wakefulness (Dumer & Dinges, 125). Since that time, numerous studies have documented the negative impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive abilities and behavior. The literature falls into three categories: term-term total sleep deprivation, short-term total sleep deprivation, and partial sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation, as it is to be expected, has a less malignant effect on neurocognitive functions whilst both long-term total…. [read more]


Human Science Sources Essay

… If the initial sample unit has the same sleeping time pattern or a pattern that is not highly varied, then a second random sample will be taken.

The data will be collected from the participants through two major means. The first will be the filling in of the sleep schedule that will be given to the participants who will be indicating their commencement of sleep and waking time over a period of one full year. The second data type will be the performance trend that can only be obtained through observation of the results at the end of each session from the respective offices with the prior permission from the participants.

The participants will first be fully briefed of the intention of the research and…. [read more]


Benefits Associated with Sleeping Research Paper

… One of the secondary benefits of sleep is enhanced productivity, which is brought by improved cognitive functioning or performance. According to the findings of a study, employees demonstrate enhanced productivity after achieving quality sleep before work (Takahashi, p.2). The improved productivity emerging from sleep is because it enhances the mental and physical wellbeing of an individual. Sleep contributes to improved productivity by helping people to have the right mood, attitude, and alertness prior to work. Moreover, it eliminates fatigue and other stressors that could hinder or limit an individual's optimal performance of his/her job responsibilities and tasks.

Secondly, sleep has been found to have positive relationships with enhanced or better sex life of an individual (Crain par, 7). Good quality sleep contributes to a better…. [read more]


Sleep Disorder Epidemic Case Study

… ¶ … sleep disorder epidemic in the United States. This paper highlights the disease signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the patient. In addition, an analysis and evaluation of the case study as well as the reasoning for your findings. Besides, the paper gives recommendations for further diagnosis and treatment relating to the case study. The paper reflection on whether this case series has the potential to be used in evidence-based medicine.

Sleep disorder is a medical disorder of human's normal sleep pattern. Besides, sleep related issues are prevalent in the United States with studies showing that approximately 70 million American adults have a sleep disorder ( American Psychiatric Association, 1994). According to statistics, the major sleep-related complaints are insomnia, and the inability to…. [read more]


Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Term Paper

… Generally, he postulated that human beings have a protective psychological mechanism designed to shield the psyche from various thoughts and perceptions and from actual memories whose conscious perception could be so traumatic that they would be damaging to the individual to perceive consciously (McWilliams, 2004; Mitchell & Black, 1995). According to Freud, those types of thoughts remain in the subconscious but invariably become the source and the root cause of numerous different types of psychological pathologies in waking life when they are left hidden from the conscious mind and unresolved (McWilliams, 2004; Mitchell & Black, 1995).

More specifically, Freud argued that the actual imagery of dreams represented psychologically significant ideas and that identifying the meaning of those images could provide the basis for linking the…. [read more]


Melatonin and the Pineal Gland Research Paper

… Reports of Clinical 1, Clinical 2, or Clinical 3 randomized clinical trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohorts, case series, registry data as well as narrative and systematic reviews." (2004) Buscemi et al. (2004) states that the data "were extracted from all reports of studies that were included in the review using a standardized Data Extraction Form." (Buscemi, et al., 2004) Included in the report are specifics as follows:

(1) Details of study design and inclusion/exclusion criteria.

(2) Details of the population such as gender, age, ethnicity, and type of sleep disorder.

(3) The number of individuals that were eligible for, and enrolled in, the study.

(4) The number of comparison groups and participants allocated to each group.

(5) The number of participants who withdrew from…. [read more]


Nature/Nurture Debate the Long-Standing Essay

… ¶ … Nature/Nurture Debate

The long-standing debate about nature vs. nurture seeks to identify the greatest influence on one's intelligence, personality, and talents. Some believe that people inherit these characteristics, which will be manifest regardless of the circumstances under which one is raised. Others believe that one's environment shapes these factors. Talents and intelligence will languish if not nurtured; conversely, one born with average abilities and intelligence can benefit from enrichment. It is impossible to know to what extent nature vs. nurture shapes a child. Researchers could never conduct experiments in which groups of children were provided one type of upbringing over another; to do so would be shockingly unethical and immoral. However, scientists can study real-life cases and try to draw some conclusions.

The…. [read more]


Symbolism in After Apple Picking Essay

… Symbolism in "After Apple Picking"

Robert Frost, in his poem "After Apple-Picking," uses many different symbols and metaphors to describe the final moment of a man falling asleep or, perhaps even dying. On the surface, the poem is a simple reflection of a day spent picking apples in an orchard, but Frost uses his images, descriptions and objects to convey a much deeper message.

The free verse poem is divided into two long stanzas, and the mood changes significantly between the first and second section. In the first stanza, the speaker is reflecting upon his life's work, perhaps as an apple farmer, but more likely as a poet or other artist. His ladder is now pointed "toward heaven still," a powerful symbol that evokes the…. [read more]


Can a Machine Be Conscious or Sentient Term Paper

… Artificial Intelligence

Machine Sentience

The differences between thinking, intelligence, and consciousness are difficult to determine, but are important to understand when one wishes to study the subject of Artificial Intelligence. Thinking is simply the action of gathering information and processing thoughts in order to reach a reasoned conclusion. This is an action that is seen from small animals to large, in humans, as well as computers. Intelligence, on the other hand, is the ability to make self-aware decisions in order to advance one's own knowledge. Only human beings hold intelligence at this moment in time. Intelligence is, however, something that many believe will be achievable by machines in the future. Finally, Consciousness is the state of being 'aware', which means understanding one's own place amongst…. [read more]


Gender Borders in Art: Visible and Invisible Essay

… This painting, one of the first Impressionist works, caused public scandal because of its depiction of naked women matter-of-factly eating and bathing with a group of clothed males outdoors. In contrast to late Impressionists, such as Monet, Manet used a more realistic style. The sharply-defined bodies of female nudes and clothed males are in stark contrast to the hazier depiction of water and grass.

Like Kruger, Manet enjoyed taking aspects of existing art -- in Manet's case, high art -- and making new meaning from them. The female nude has historically been a typical subject of art and used to 'represent' sexuality but the realistic (as opposed to classical) setting and its cheeky provocation caused many art critics of the day to see Manet's work…. [read more]


Fred D'aguiar's Surreal Poems Term Paper

… Contemplating death in light of race-related murders, Nichols notes that black and white commingle at funerals. "The dead / beside the white candles / will not be offended," (13-15). What attracts scorn and hatred from the community as skin color becomes a requisite article of clothing. Black on fabric does not offend. Yet as skin color, black is a detriment, a drawback, an insult. It is far from being "the number in which she comes into her own power," (8-10). Quite the opposite: black skin indicates a total lack of power, even a lack of life. Black skin weakens whoever wears it; black skin adorned with "amber earrings" or a "scarf of pink" does not rise to any occasion as the black dress does (16-17).…. [read more]


Dreams: Their Purpose and Meaning Research Paper

… However, an attempt has been made to differentiate the dreams using the preceding sleep stage, feelings encountered, relative proximity to reality and the causal demarcation. EEG tests have been able to mark out four succeeding stages of sleep with each lasting roughly for two hours or thereabouts. Amongst the first things that sleep confers is to rest the mental activity, the period of psychological resting stage wherein the brain filters away thoughts and emotions and chooses to distinguish between trash and the retainable experiences. These are two stages that constitute the D-sleep, the desynchronized EEG. The remaining two, the later ones are the ones dedicated for the physical rest required by the body. This is the S-Sleep or synchronized EEG sleep period. The D-sleep period…. [read more]


Aviation Fatigue Term Paper

… Aviation Fatigue

Fatigue is a complex phenomenon that has been ascribed to various causes. The underlying reasons for fatigue are investigated in this paper and the focus of the research is on solutions to the problem as well as on the importance of understanding the causative factors. Fatigue has also been singled out by the aviation industry and the Air Force as one of the most pervasive reasons for in-flight errors and loss of concentration in operational conditions. The seriousness of the issue of fatigue and fatigue related problems are indicated by the numerous studies, reports and seminars that have been conducted over the past decade. In this investigation into the solutions to the problem of fatigue, the study also finds that the solutions are…. [read more]


Understanding Our Dreams and Nightmares Research Paper

… Dreams

An Analysis of Why Dreams Exist and What They Mean

All humans, and even some animals, know what it means to doze off to sleep and dream. Whether it is seen in the quietness of the dark in a partner who is sleeping in the same bed, whose eyelids flutter as he or she sleeps, or whether it is experienced firsthand, as a series of recurring images, drawn together by the threads of a seemingly important story, dreams are inescapable features of sleep, and particularly of REM sleep. Dreams are not just 'B-rated movies,' as some have called them, but are a way for the mind to sift through events and make sense of the day just passed, as well as categorize experiences for…. [read more]


Fatigue Management in Aviation Essay

… Brandon Printup (2000) notes that none exists in regards to the circadian rhythm, whilst, on the contrary, operations differ in regards to flight and duty time restrictions and companies save money by routinely lodging crews in noisy motels.

b. Individuals and regulation

Individuals, themselves, could have, as in the case above, and can be in future instances responsible for their own welfare simply by taking pre-emptive steps such as making sure they obtain sufficient sleep before as flight. Using earplugs and eye masks can help, as well as proper nutrition and exercise. Avoidance of coffee, sodas, and alcohol particularly during the flight is recommended as well as the fact that pilots should ascertain that they stay well hydrated. In a loud cockpit, pilots can wear…. [read more]


Concentration, Contemplation Forms of Meditation Mysticism Term Paper

… ¶ … Concentration, Contemplation

Forms of meditation

Mysticism and meditation. Finding God within.

Tibetan Buddhist meditation and transcendental meditation

The differences between yoga and Christianity

Finding God within:

From Dream sleep to Awakening

From Illusion to realization

From Darkness to Enlightenment

From Imprisonment to Liberation

From Fragmentation to Wholeness

From Separation to Oneness

From Being on a Journey to Arriving at the Destination

From Being in Exile to Coming Home

From Seed to Flowering Plant or Fruitful Tree

From Death to Rebirth

It appears that every spiritual leader used a similar approach to the realm of transcendence. They all suggested that the key is found within oneself. Buddha, Christ, the Muslims and the Judeo-Christian Scriptures make reference to a process of introspection that leads to…. [read more]


Pablo Neruda's Search for Identity Essay

… The imagery suggested in the stone, just like a quiet person, can seem powerful if it is regarded in the right way.

Our 'naming' is due to the fact that we are locked in social constructs. "When I sleep every night, / what am I called or not called? / And when I wake, who am I / if I was not while I slept?" Naming is about ego and division, the sort of artificial barriers discussed in Tolle which the mystic says keep us from living in the present moment. What is important to Neruda is his immediate state -- of sleep or wakefulness, not what is name is, not his nationality, his skin tone, or any other social properties connected to his character.…. [read more]


Evidence Has Been Put Forth by Researchers Term Paper

… ¶ … evidence has been put forth by researchers in that there is a relationship between sleep, learning, and memory. The relationship was discussed by several German authors - Born, J., Rasch, B., Gais, S., in a review published in the Neuroscientist (2006). The review, called "Sleep to remember," starts with the assumption that sleep is a state that leads to (optimizes) the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory. The authors bring forth evidence that sleep mediates the storage of newly encoded information into long-term memory. There are two important constructs discussed in this article: memory and sleep characteristics related to memory.

The authors begin their review by defining the three fundamental processes concerning memory: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. Acquisition circumscribes the learning process…. [read more]


Human or Animal Behavior Essay

… ¶ … human or animal behavior you would like to study experimentally. Develop a hypothesis and describe the variables you want to study. How would you assign the subject to the various groups, manipulate the independent variable or variables, control extraneous variables and minimize forms of bias?

People assume that a researcher who has graduated from an Ivy League institution of higher learning is more competent and credible than a researcher who has not graduated from an Ivy League School.

Researchers who have gone to more prestigious vs. less prestigious institutions of higher education

Experiment design: Three groups of people would be given the same research study, one of which would state that it was conducted by Harvard University graduates. A second group would be…. [read more]


Dreams Have Been an Area Term Paper

… Dreams have been an area that has been studied for centuries with little understanding. For decades when the area of dreams are discussed, people often think of the works of Freud and Jung, and their many followers as well, whom have taught us a great deal. Dreams are, as Freud states, the "royal road to the unconscious" a road to greater knowledge about a patient or about oneself. (Hartmann 3)

Dreams are viewed differently by each individual. However, Hartmann's opinion is clear. He reports that great things happen in dreams, great discoveries in science and in art. The French chemist August Kekule discovered the structure of the benzene ring in a dream. Elias Howe invented the sewing machine based on a dream. Robert Louis Stevenson…. [read more]


Plato, Descartes, and the Matrix Essay

… The Matrix is safe, and there is no reason why people need to know that they are not really living the lives they think they are living. What harm is it doing, and what good can it do to show these people the truth? The idea that ignorance is bliss is a popular theme throughout the Matrix, but others believe that it is much more important to know one's reality - even if that reality is not what one expected. Overall, it is better to know reality because that is the only way that truly informed and honest decisions can be made. Otherwise, remaining in ignorance is just living a lie. The longer that goes on, the more complicated and painful it will be when…. [read more]

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