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Theory Critique of Jean Research Paper

… A deeper spiritual connection promotes healing and provides comfort to a patient's inner feelings (Watson, 2009).

Caring Moment

Caring moment as a phenomenon comes about when a nurse and the patient meet. The union of the two promotes human caring. The phenomenon broadly features personal experiences, personal perceptions, environmental conditions and understanding of personal meanings, in relation to the present, historical or hypothesized future. The caregiver should authenticate their presence of being in the moment of caring with patients. The caregiver must also be aware of his consciousness that is crucial for healing. Both parties make choices based on the relationships thereby becoming part of one's history through influence. Caring becomes transpersonal when one allows a spiritual interaction. Nurses using these phenomena promotes healing and…. [read more]

Nursing Theories Essay

… Part of the strength of King's theory is that it was influenced by theories outside of the nursing discipline, most notably systems theory. "She developed a general systems framework and a theory of goal attainment where the framework refers to the three interacting systems - individual or personal, group or interpersonal, and society or social, while the theory of goal attainment pertains to the importance of interaction, perception, communication, transaction, self, role, stress, growth and development, time, and personal space" (Key concepts, 2013, Goal attainment theory). King's theory acknowledges that human beings participate in a series of different life spheres, and all of these must be taken into consideration when giving advice to the patient. Although not an explicitly multicultural theory, King's approach will serve…. [read more]

Nursing Across Theories Essay

… Nursing plays a vital role in contemporary theories. The objectives of nursing in the theories are to assist the patient to achieve as much independence as possible to promote better health outcomes when the patient is living at home. Nursing is applied differently from one theory to another in the focus of the theory. Where one theory focuses on caring, one focuses on independence, and still, one focuses on self-care. In all the theories careful evaluation is needed to determine what the patient needs and any deficits that need to be addressed. After evaluation, the nurse can provide guidance, support, and teaching to assist the patient to develop their own self-care agency. Continued evaluation is important to determine changes as they arise and offer teaching…. [read more]

Jean Watson Analysis of Nursing Research Paper

… Like any other scientific methodology, Watson's nursing processes begin with assessment. During this process, the nurse observes, identifies and reviews the problem in hand. This process subsequently leads to the development of hypothesis. Once a nurse performs the hypothesis, a care plan is developed which would lead to the determination of variable factors which are expected to have an impact on patient's health. This care plan further devises the methodology as to how these factors should be evaluated and what data should be used as a reference for this study and how it should be integrated into overall research.

Third step in the patient's care is intervention. Where the second develop helps in developing the care plan; third step is related to its implementation and…. [read more]

Watson's Caring Theory of Nursing Term Paper

… Watson Theory of Nursing

Background and Fundamental Concepts of Watson's Caring Theory of Nursing

Jean Watson conceptualized and operationalized a notion that had always been fundamentally important as a defining purpose within the nursing field: caring. Generally, empathy and genuine concern for the welfare and health of others has always been a common motivating force of nurses. Watson introduced her Carative Theory of Nursing and outlined a framework of carative factors and fundamental assumptions to allow nurses to apply specific facets of caring to the nursing services that they deliver to patients.

In Watson's view, nursing has existed as long as human societies and involves the sharing of caring practices within the social environment and as part of human cultural adaptations necessary to survive in…. [read more]

Nursing Metaparadigms and Practice-Specific Concepts Research Paper

… The argument can be made that all of the foregoing modes involve developing an effective therapeutic relationship and that the better the relationship the better the clinical outcomes. For instance, according to Masters, "The nurse using Leininger's theory plans and makes decisions with clients with respect to these three modes of action. All three care modalities require coparticipation of the nurse and client working together to identify, plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care with respect to the cultural congruence of the care" (2012, p. 69).

In increasingly multicultural treatment settings, Leininger's three basic modalities provide a valuable framework wherein nursing professionals can explore the potential effects of cross-cultural differences on the therapeutic relationship. In this regard, Masters points out that, "Leininger developed the sunrise model,…. [read more]

Nursing and Care Theories Two Term Paper

… Paley investigates the way in which the care paradigm is constructed from caring philosophies, such as Watson's, phenomenology, and holism while defining a radical skepticism oriented toward the paradigm (Paley 2002).

It does not seem that Paley and Watson differ tremendously over their particular definitions of humanity, although the role of the human soul and the spiritual element of caring which Watson folds into her philosophy, even in its most nondenominational iterations has no place in Paley's position. On a social level, Paley takes exception to the concept that humanity is bound together out of a particular connective moral obligation and suggest that any conceptualization of such is actually predicated upon a system which elicits favoritism (Paley 2002).

The problems with this system, from Paley's…. [read more]

Nursing Theory Essay

… According to the author, it is the work of charge nurses to ensure that the nursing environment and systems are functioning to their optimal ability and efficiency. Hence, there is a continuous need to assess staffing according to patient volumes and acuity. While nursing is therefore assumed to indeed be a caring science, there is also the practical aspect of leadership, where efficiency and effectiveness must be ensured in order to ensure the economic survival of the care facility.

This is another aspect of Ray's theory that is generally ignored by Watson and other theorists that promote the caring aspect in favor of all else in the nursing profession. According to Ray, a realistic nursing theory should also include aspects of the economy and the…. [read more]

Nursing -- Caring, Empathy Essay

… The care that is given to a patient should occur "…within the framework of a relationship between the nurse and the patient," which closely resembles the meaning of reciprocity. A relationship does and should exist, not in the traditional definition of "relationship" of course but there should be an important and sincere "interchange" and it must be based on meeting the care needs of the patient and the patient's family as well (Lachman, 114).

A list of the Steps Taken by Nursing to Develop and Implement an EBP

A questioning approach is always recommended as nurses work towards the development of evidence-based practices. What works and what doesn't work - those are pragmatic questions that are taken into account during the development of a practice…. [read more]

Nursing Professional Boundaries Essay

… Role Development and Role Boundaries

The nurse leaders draw professionals from the best utilizing the most appropriate management theories to develop an individual management style and performance. In addition, the nurse leader will act with the assumption that nurses and other professionals wish to attain competence, which if they receive the motivation, they will achieve it, in addition to higher performance levels (Huey, 1994). Advanced nursing practice is applicable to various specialized sectors of clinical nursing, nurse-midwives and nurse practitioners. Another role development option for nurses includes nursing administration and education roles. However, in role development, it is also to keep in mind the professional working limits in order to achieve quality healthcare services.

Dynamic Professional Boundaries

The past century has witnessed the growth and…. [read more]

Nursing Concept Theoretical Research Paper

… Overall, we can delineate Peplau's theory into seven major templates (roles) that form the basis of the nurse-client relationship and are strategic for Watson's applications:





Meets and gets to know patient just as one would meet and learn about a new person; asking about life situations, providing a climate that builds trust, and establishing rapport.

Allows for the patient to feel important, and for the nursing professional to see the client as more than a chart full of data.


Answers questions for the patient, interprets medical tests and jargon, gives information on treatment and tests, takes the mystery out of medicine.

Part of trust-building as well; many patients are frightened of terms and procedures, but are far less anxious once…. [read more]

Theories Currently Being Term Paper

… Using Piaget's theory, it is the role of the nurse to help the patient assimilate information about their condition, and about their surroundings. Additionally, the nurse may need to recognize patients who need encouragement to become active participants in their own assimilation of information. One the other hand, nurses also must play the role of the healer, combining the 10 carative processes with the creation of a transpersonal relationship with the patient to create a relationship in which the nurse helps the patient heal from the inside. Using the Watson theory, they must be able to develop a caring, nurturing, encouraging and authentic relationship with their patients that helps the patients to seek spiritual, emotional, physical, and psychological healing. By combining these and other nursing…. [read more]

Watson Human Care Theory Term Paper

… These stages graduate to various instances of anger, denial, bargaining stages, depression, and acceptance. Essentially, Watson theory facilitates the various stages leading to the crucial stage of acceptance (Brunjes, 2012).

A patient not aided by Watson theory will stick predominantly on the third stage of depression. This stage challenges any effort of collective medication. I will be required to apply Watson theory while interacting with various psychiatric levels of the dying patient. This prompts me to understand the various stages facing the patient during the general healing process. In fact, I will be able to redirect the psychiatric stages so that acceptance comes first; the oxytocin factor is primarily responsible in relieving anxiety, digestive problems, restless, insomnia, and hormonal conditions (Crockett, 2009).

Despite gross hardships…. [read more]

Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Research Paper

… 32). The evaluation will help in developing a complete scientific rationale for nursing intervention to enhance quality of care.

Ethical Dilemma:

Ethical issues and dilemmas have become common in the nursing profession because of global developments and changes in the modern health care system. These issues and dilemmas require guidance in making ethical decisions in nurses' daily experiences and practice. Since the development of this field necessitates practice to be based on theory, nursing theory is usually used to enable nurses in ethical decision-making (Noureddine, 2001, p.2).

An example of an ethical dilemma recently faced in nursing practice involves a patient who asked for some paracetamol tablets because of pain in his legs. However, the patient does not have any pain but is attempting to…. [read more]

Applying Watson's Nursing Theory Essay

… Nursing is a divine profession, taking care of each other irrespective of backgrounds and looking after the needs of several pateints is nothing but an impression of morality and dignity. Nurses are the partners of patients in their bad times and hence, they must imply those techniques by which the pateint gets motivated towards restoring health. Nursing promotes inter-personal learning which could be beneficial in order to serve the pateints best. The only minor contrast between Handerson and Watson is that the former described nurse as a helper while the latter desrcribed nurse as a partner to the patient. Overall, the three articles describe different sides of the same mirror.

The three theories have a wide scope in the nursing practice and are widely accepted…. [read more]

Nursing Timeline Week 2 & Essay

… This affirmed the idea that nursing is something that is both emotional and related to 'caring,' but is also based upon empirical, rational science and therefore deserves to be respected within the medical profession. Orem's theory was also patient-centric in the sense that it viewed the patient in an empowering light. "Nursing is required when an adult (or in the case of a dependent, the parent) is incapable or limited in the provision of continuous effective self-care" (Dorothea Orem, 2012, Current Nursing).

1974: Betty Neuman publishes her Conceptual models for nursing practice. Neuman's Systems Theory integrated other modalities of understanding the world and human nature beyond that of theoretical nursing practice. Neuman made a persuasive case for nursing as a highly scientific, rigorous disciple. Neuman's…. [read more]

Nurse Perspective the Profession Essay

… The many different job opportunities for nurses shows that in this career there is much variety. Nurses are needed everywhere and this career allows its members to choose from many different options in many different types of settings as well.

The nursing work day is another positive aspect about this career that I feel has drawn me towards this profession. I appreciate the ability to work long or short shifts, or working on weekends or weekdays. Nursing shifts are often long and hard, but this is the type of workplace scenario that I am most comfortable working within. Since people need healthcare everywhere there are people, I know that I am always needed somewhere as well. Hospitals are just one place where nursing occurs but…. [read more]

Caring Is Important to Human Essay

… The vulnerable populations are those people with greater risks of developing health problems. According to the centre for disease control and prevention, the homeless youth face various health risks from the environment they live. They do not have a proper diet; they involve themselves in risky sexual behaviors and drug abuse. The environment also exposes them to harsh conditions of weather and violence among themselves. By using the tools of analysis, nurses and medical practitioners can help the vulnerable population out of their problem. Tools of analysis can help to develop a sense of self-awareness to the vulnerable homeless youth. Beck depression inventory tool can enable the homeless youth determine the risks of depression they face. Daily hassle and Calgary family model can help homeless…. [read more]

Watson's Nursing Caring Theory Term Paper


The theoretical base of Dr. Jean Watson's Nursing Theory or 'Caring' in nursing is expressed best by Dr. Jean Watson who states that:

This outer world of medicine and hospitalized orientations to ethical dilemmas and humane human practices has seemingly stripped nursing of its heart and soul as well as its language knowledge, and voice. Yet, the irony is that the Self of nurses, the Self of systems and even society can no longer survive. This is the time, if nursing is to survive, to bring forth its voice, heart and soul and informed moral actions to attend to sustaining and flourishing of human caring work in our world. This is a moment whereby nursing can locate itself in a Caring…. [read more]

Watson's Theory of Nursing Florence Term Paper

… The major strength, and appeal, of Watson's theory is its emphasis upon a universal philosophy of caring, rather than a situational specific theory. This allows the model to be applied in any, indeed in all, areas of nursing practice. In recent years, the desire of the medical and nursing professions to develop an increasingly holistic approach towards health care has led to the growing application of Watson's theory of caring. The present popularity of the 'science of caring' has caused nursing scholars, such as Marriner & Tomey, to observe that, "nursing journals concerned with the delivery of nursing care contain increasing numbers of articles that reference Watson, and incorporate the importance of caring as an essential domain of nursing" (1994, p 156). The theory has…. [read more]

Watson Theory of Human Caring Research Paper

… Watson Theory of Human Caring


Values and Assumptions

The theory of human caring by Jean Watson involves caring actions by nurses in their interaction with others (Fawcett, 2002). Its values and assumptions have a metaphysical, phenomenological-existential and spiritual slant, based on Eastern philosophy. Its values include a deep respect for the wonder and mysteries of life and the power of the human being to change; high regard and respect for the spiritual or subjective nature of each person to grow and to change; and a non-paternalistic scheme to help the person or patient acquire greater self-knowledge, self-control and self-healing, whatever his or her illness. Its assumptions relate with human life, nursing science and nursing processes. Jean Watson's concept of human life draws…. [read more]

Transcultural Nursing Model Trans-Cultural Term Paper

… According to the theory, the provision of a supportive holistic environment helps in enhancing the caring process. This is where a nurse should offer patient privacy, safety, and comfort. In order to enhance the quality of nursing, human needs should be addressed. Based on the Maslow's pyramid of human needs there are different levels of the needs, which vary in significance.

Watson classifies the needs into biophysical, psychophysical, and psychosocial needs. The classification places psychosocial needs as the higher. Similar to the Maslow's theory these needs include the need for affiliation, achievement, and self-actualization. The lover order needs include but not limited to the need for food, ventilation, and activity. According to the Watson Caring Model, a human being should be viewed as a person…. [read more]

Advanced Nursing Ethics and Values Term Paper

… ¶ … Nursing Ethics and Values

Advanced Nursing Ethics and Values

The application of the concept of care ethics presented to assist registered nurses identify if they are practicing its use efficiently. Following a fundamental meaning of caring, consisting of Watson's caring concept, the advancement of the concept of principles/ethics of care will be outlined in brief. A study will be utilized to provide the aspects of ethical concept, confidentiality and practical restrictions.

Importance of ethical theory -- Caring

Many registered nurses have actually been exposed to Watson's caring concept, however numerous are not familiar with the principles of care concept advancement that started in moral psychology along with Gilligan's work (1982). Nurture is important for human advancement, and is primary and most importantly intended…. [read more]

Nursing Theory Analysis Essay

… Transactions have occurred when goals are attained" (King, 1992, p.23). The nursing practice occurs in a sequence where nurse-patient interpersonal relationships or dyads happen. While transactions continued between patients, nurses and family, it can be predicted whether the goal will be met or not or to what extent (King, 1997).

Thus goal attainment presented by King is described as a process of reaction-interaction-transaction, where the perceptions, interactions and communication between nurse and patient are the major factor that play key role in this process. The TGA denotes that patient's have different view points and opinions as compared to nurses besides the fact that they continuously interact with each other. In her theory, King emphasized that nursing professionals access data about patients' perceptions so as to…. [read more]

Nursing Organizations One of the Important Changes Research Paper

… Nursing Organizations

One of the important changes in nursing is a result of national nursing organizations influencing public policy development. Nurses, being 'in the trenches' of America's healthcare, are not only aware, but uniquely qualified to make appropriate recommendations in national policy. It is the nursing organization's role to analyze, lobby, and disseminate information to move healthcare policy forward; not only to satisfy its member nurses, but the advocating of healthcare principles as a whole. There are clearly numerous external forces driving healthcare policy -- not all of them appropriate for the improvement of patient care. However, the nursing organizations as a whole tend to use collaborative efforts to influence policy and change public views on certain aspects of modern healthcare. For instance, the National…. [read more]

Watson's Theory of Caring Term Paper

… ¶ … Watson's Theory of Caring

Theory/Clinical Articles

Barker, B. & Reynolds, B. (1994). A critique: Watson's caring ideology. The proper focus of psychiatric nursing? J. Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. (32)(5):17-22.

In this article Barker and Reynolds critique Watson's theory of caring under two main arguments. First, they state that the conceptualization of care has a limited clinical utility in psychosocial contexts because psychotherapeutic traditions already incorporate concepts of helping. Second, they argue that in Watson's theory of caring, the use of caring language delimits any utility that the "caring" construct might possess, and that Watson's conceptualization of caring is an inappropriate focus for psychiatric nursing. They counter-argue that historical precedents exist for many of the propositions upon which the science of caring is…. [read more]

Professional Practice Model: Jean Watson Research Paper

… Summary and Conclusion

This study has conducted an evaluation of the caring behaviors in the work of Jean Watson and has defined what the caring behaviors really mean. This study has further examined the application of this model of nursing in the organization and stated plans for institution of this model of nursing in the present organization.

Works Cited

Gessner, G. (n.d.) Nursing Model: Jean Watson's Caring Theory. Georgetown University. Retrieved from:

Lachman, VD (n.d.) Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Ethics, Law, and Policy. Retrieved from:

Model of Professional Nursing Care (2013) Winter Haven Hospital. Retrieved from:

Overview of Jean Watson's Theory (n.d.) Vanguard Health Systems. Retrieved from:

Professional Nursing Practice Model: Philosophy of Care (2013) Piedmont…. [read more]

Iconic Nursing Leader and Theorist Essay

… He had a forlorn expression on his face so I sat down next to him and let me say what was on his mind. You could say this was absolutely a caring moment -- and the husband opened up to me about the sixty years he and his wife have been married. He also said the two had never been apart except for the time when he served in World War II.

As he covered some of the good times he and his wife had shared together, tears were trickling down his face. At that point I touched his hand and I began to shed some tears as well. His opinion was quite different than the daughter and her fiance. He wanted his wife to…. [read more]

Caring Essay

… It did, and he is now pain-free and has full use of his tongue and faculty of taste (Gross 2011). Although 'caring' alone is not reflected in this case -- the chef's surgery also reflected advances in medical technology -- it does embody the related concepts of tailoring treatment to a patient's individual needs. This is contrary to, for example, simply recommending that a patient get a preventative mastectomy, based upon her family's history of breast cancer without talking to the patient first and examining her personal perceptions of the risk.


Caring is rooted in specificity to the patient's needs. It involves taking time, whether it is the time to learn the patient's name and engage in carative behaviors such as touching and talking…. [read more]

Nursing Malpractice Literature Review

… Nursing Malpractice

Introduction- Modern nursing is a rewarding, but challenging, career choice. The modern nurse's role is not limited only to assist the doctor in procedures, however. Instead, the contemporary nursing professional takes on a partnership role with both the doctor and patient as advocate caregiver, teacher, researcher, counselor, and case manager. The caregiver role includes those activities that assist the client physically, mentally, and emotionally, while still preserving the client's dignity. In order for a nurse to be an effective caregiver, the patient must be treated in a holistic manner. Patient advocacy is another role that the modern nurse assumes when providing quality care. Advocacy is the active support of an important cause, supporting others, or speaking on behalf of those who cannot speak…. [read more]

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