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Political Science: John Rawls Term Paper

… Justice isn't necessarily about "fairness," in Nietzsche's world; it's in part about "reactive feelings" to an injustice. "The last sphere to be conquered by the spirit of justice is the sphere of the reactive feelings!" Nietzsche puts forward. He continues:

When it really happens that the just man remains just even toward those who have harmed him ( ... being just is always a positive attitude), when the exalted, clear objectivity ... Of the eye of justice and judging is not dimmed even under the assault of personal injury

Then, Nietzsche concludes, when these above-mentioned truths are present, "this is a piece of perfection and supreme mastery on earth -- something it would be prudent not to expect or to believe in too readily." And…. [read more]


Political Philosophy I Pick Essay

… More precisely, socialism is a doctrine based on the community, on the common good and the notion of social equality. In an era in which market competition together with the free trade that was moving across the continents, the role of social equality in a populous country was essential. Therefore, there was a need for unity at the level of the ideals and ideas that would drive the nation forward with due regard for the notions described by the communist doctrine. Thus, the idea of national heritage and the development of the sense of belonging to something greater than the local community was essential and Mao pointed it out in a very benefic manner for him and the Communist Party. The role of the Communist…. [read more]


Mothers -- Transitioning From Welfare Annotated Bibliography

… More of a focused, scholarly study investigating the effects of employment on lower-income single black mothers and their preschool children. Over 1/2 the mothers were employed within the two years of the study, with generally positive feedback coming from their quality of life index, self-perception, and even relationships with their children and their child's performance in school. The study is robust, and shows that over the long-term, investment in jobs actually reduces dependency on welfare-based programs.

Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html

Compiled by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education, this publication is an excellent background to governmental ideas and programs focusing on moving individuals from welfare…. [read more]


Political Science International Political Economy: Realist, Liberal Research Paper

… Political Science

International Political Economy:

Realist, Liberal, and Marxist Perspectives

The current international order is in a state of flux. As economics becomes ever more global in scale, nation states struggle to maintain their independent powers and spheres of influence. The more than three hundred year old Westphalian order has been replaced, to a significant extent, by a system of international organizations, and an international political economy that has attempted to coalesce around a single hegemon. Through agreements such as Bretton Woods, the United States established its currency as the world's reserve standard. The petroleum that fuels the globe's industrial powerhouses is, by and large, bought and sold in dollars. The United States, despite enormous declines in industrial output, and a move toward a post-industrial…. [read more]


Issues in Social Welfare Term Paper

… Social Work

The Beginnings of Social Work as a Profession: From the late 19th century to the Early 20th century

The Field of social work has developed on two models of service, social activism and casework. Trace the development of these models. Compare and contrast their goals and methods of practice. What impact has this dual model system had on the development of Social Work as a profession? Select a historical period when one model was the predominant practice method and discuss how the economic, philosophical and governmental variables effect the emergence of that practice model.

Social work aims to treat the individual in the context of society. In other words, the field of social recognizes that all people and all 'cases' are different, and…. [read more]


Political Science Touch of Class Term Paper

… The rich would grow richer, while the poor, and the not-so-rich would alike grow poorer.

Thus, the proposals for the Tax Reform Act of 1986 divided Americans according to class lines. Their particular allegiance varied accorded to where they lived, in what business they were employed (or not employed), what they believed to be the purpose of government, what they hoped to obtain from government, and even their historical affiliations. A clever alliance of military-industrial-oil interests with a mass support based in the also very "Christian" home of the New Economy - the South and West - provided the impetus for the sweeping changes in American tax law. By and large, the opposing interests were cast as throwbacks to an earlier time. A call to…. [read more]


Illegal Immigration and Welfare: Ethics the American Essay

… Illegal Immigration and Welfare: Ethics

The American ideal is one predicated on self-determination, "pulling one up by their bootstraps" is the national calling for the United States. The American public, by and large, value the welfare of their fellow citizen; however there are a variety of philosophies expressed as to how best to provide for this welfare. There are those that view it as the responsibility of the family unit and community organizations. Still others render it the duty of the Federal government through a variety of national welfare programs that take taxpayer's dollars and provide assistance to those individuals deemed "needy." In deed the question is not should people be offered assistance the question is how do we pay for it? The purpose of…. [read more]


Pure Policy: The Kantian Inquiry Term Paper

… (If George Bush's Republican and religious fundamentalism were said to be a system, it would be that of Lebiniz.)

The Kantian inquiry systems strike a balance between the two. These systems attempt to give multiply data and factually-based views a nature that is still complementary to a kind of ideology. These inquiry systems thus are capable of taking in data empirically, but still provide an effective framework by which to structure the data ideologically and cognitively. The Kantian inquiry system is neither purely ideological, but it offers more vision than merely crunching numbers.

Welfare Reform

For instance, one of the problems plaguing welfare reform in this country is the Lebinizian problem that often individuals are judged punitively in terms of why they are on welfare.…. [read more]


How Is the Politics of Difference in Nursing Socially Constructed and Maintained? Essay

… ¶ … Politics of Difference in Nursing Socially Constructed and Maintained

The politics of difference and nursing

The significance of the politics of difference

The issue of diversity and the 'politics of difference' have assumed an important and compelling part of modern discourse in many fields and disciplines. This interrogation of difference extends along the axis of culture, ethnicity, gender, race and many other trajectories of diversity in modern society. As Colleen Varcoe (2004) states;

Diversity is a broad yet powerful idea that encompasses the ideas of difference and complexity. Multiple forms of diversity are important in nursing and health care, yet it is often only "cultural" diversity that comes to mind and commands attention. (Varcoe, 2004)

Vaecoe makes the important point germane to any…. [read more]


Personal Philosophy of Life Applied Essay

… ¶ … Personal Philosophy of Life Applied to My Profession

The Intersection of Human Rights and Modern Healthcare

My philosophy of the equal rights of all persons applies directly to the current national controversy over national healthcare reform. Because this relates to my profession, it is a topic that interests me personally. My position on the various issues themselves is a function of my philosophical beliefs about what is fair and equitable in American society. Specifically, my philosophical perspective addresses the inequity of allowing unrestricted profit from healthcare services and health insurance and the entire fee-for-service model of medical reimbursement upon which American healthcare is dependent.

The Fundamental Ethical Problem with For-Profit Healthcare Services

Profiting from Pain and Disability

In principle, I believe that the…. [read more]


Issues on Social Welfare Term Paper

… ¶ … Era -- Shift in Philosophy

The Progressive Era was a campaign for economic, political, and social reform in the United States that began in the late 1800s and ended when the United States entered World War I in 1917 (Campbell and Dore, 2002). The Progressive Era caused a major change in philosophy that was partly a response to the disparity between rich and poor. Americans during this era sought economic, political and social reform on a variety of issues.

In 1800, the United States was a young nation in the midst of a major shift in government. Explorers and settlers were establishing new territories and manufactories were implementing new machines and methods for textile production (Campbell and Dore, 2002). Most Americans lived and…. [read more]


K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Research Proposal

… From what? Boring stuff." (2011)

Robinson states that the instance of ADHD "has risen in parallel with the growth of standardized testing. And these kids are being given Ritalin and Adderall and all manner of things. Often quite dangerous drugs to get them focused and calm them down. But according to this attention deficit disorder increases as you travel east across the country. People start losing interest in Oklahoma. They can hardly think straight in Arkansas. And by the time they get to Washington they've lost it completely." (Robinson, 2011) The model of education is a system of education "…which is modeled on the interest of industrialism. And in the image of it. I'll give you a couple examples. Schools are still pretty much organized…. [read more]


Neoliberal Economic Models the Future Essay

… Such a piecemeal introduction would allow for artificial intrusions to the marketplace in ways that could be far more damaging than current ones in that they could introduce more government interference that already exists.

Trade liberalization (which is also generally known as free trade) assumes that government at all levels (but especially the federal level) does not intentionally affect or unbalance the flow of imports and exports across its borders. This means that the government supports (or requires) neither subsidies nor tariffs.

The World Trade Organization is the primary enforcing agency of such an economic perspective in the world today and it is not coincidental that such an agency must exist on the super-national level. Nation-states are under considerable pressure to protect their own industries…. [read more]


Socialism Is a Highly Charged Term Paper

… "In Great Britain, where orthodox Marxism had never been a powerful force, the Fabian Society, founded in 1884, set forth basic principles of evolutionary socialism that later became the theoretical basis of the British Labour party." ("Socialism ") Though there was conflict from the very beginning the power structure of the parliamentary system was challenged and the results were to be felt for a long time. As with most nations involving themselves in the socialist ideal the biggest rift was of coarse the deemed necessity for complete social upheaval in a revolution or the need for the maintenance and redirection of the current system to create changes that would better serve the people and therefore better reflect socialist ideologies.

For Mr. Powell, the difference between…. [read more]


Welfare Mess Term Paper

… ¶ … drive debates around new and existing immigration policies in the United States. The paper also has a secondary objective of presenting aspects of the present immigration policies that may need reform. Immigration is a response to a stimulus of the philosophy of push and pull. All immigration or migration, whether it occurs on local, national or international scales happens because of some combination of underlying factors that pertain to the philosophy of Push - Pull. Push factors are impelling reasons to leave a country such as demographic growth, living standards, economic opportunities, political repression or war. Even natural hazards or disasters help people decide to leave their host countries. Pull factors represent the attraction of a receiving country such as the United States.…. [read more]


Current Welfare System Temporary Aid for Needy Families TANF Term Paper

… ¶ … welfare system (Temporary Aid for Needy Families (TANF)

Introduction to Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF):

The erstwhile welfare reform law Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act -- PRWORA of 1996 after amendment came to be known as TANF which is a block grant program intended to make significant reforms to the welfare system of the country by converting welfare into a program of temporary assistance. (Administration for Children and Families: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program) TANF is a federal program of financial assistance to children and their families with low-income. TANF was an important transformation in welfare policy in the philosophy as well as the mechanics of the law. The families who are covered under TANF include the present…. [read more]


Socrates' Decision-Defense Before We Begin Term Paper

… The only other option that the state had given him was that of death. He therefore felt it was wiser of him to choose death and thus obey state's orders instead of leaving philosophy and displeasing God. By preferring death to abandonment of his life's purpose, Socrates could practice what he preached that was obedience to state without giving up philosophy.

Therefore he felt the best thing he could do was choose death and leave the world with honor. Escape was simply out of question because running away disgracefully had no place in his beliefs or philosophies.

He was of the view that two wrongs did not make a right and thus stuck with his decision even when Crito had made all arrangements for his…. [read more]


Ideal Society Plato's Republic Versus Sir Thomas More's Utopia Research Paper

… ¶ … Society: Plato's Republic vs. Sir Thomas More's Utopia

Plato's the Republic is founded on justice and harmony as the hallmarks of its society and in the choice of its philosopher-rulers. This concept reflects in all its practices surrounding government and leadership, military, citizenship, education and religion. In contrast, Thomas More's Utopia revises the restrictiveness in the Republic by eliminating authority and norms, drawing from the same, but inaccurate, assumption that the human being recognizes and possesses goodness and will work for it collectively with others in society. Utopians mistakenly believe that an unrestrained, pleasurable existence is the good life.

The ideal society is a natural preoccupation, especially among philosophers. Plato saw that society as inherently and unavoidably founded on justice for its social…. [read more]


Machiavelli Locke Rousseau and Nietzsche Essay

… ¶ … solutions to current public problems, it is important to understand what major political philosophers from the past have said. Such understanding gives perspective that may not be available when merely weighing problems from the limits of today's major lines of thinking. In this essay, a brief debate will be imagined between Locke, Rousseau, Machiaveli, and Nietzsche, regarding issues having to do with climate change, healthcare reform, the war in Afghanistan. All of these issues have been in the news in recent days, as reflected in the Wall Street Journal.

Climate Change: The countries of the world are coming together this week in Copenhagen to undertake discussion regarding international efforts to manage climate change. Business has expressed strong concerns regarding proposed rules for carbon…. [read more]


President Obama's Second Inaugural Essay

… And we must be a source of hope to the poor, the sick, the marginalized, the victims of prejudice."

However, as well as rhetoric, Obama honored the principle that great speakers must support their ideas with analysis and facts. Even in an inaugural address, which tends to be characterized by more high-flown rhetoric than other political speeches, Obama fused information about the steps he would take to reform the country in his second term with his vision of America -- and more subtle jabs at the frequently-used buzzwords invoked by his political rivals. "The commitments we make to each other through Medicare and Medicaid and Social Security, these things do not sap our initiative. They strengthen us. They do not make us a nation of…. [read more]


Truths by Mortimer Adler Term Paper

… That's what this book does best. It takes the ideas and ideals of our country's fundamental beliefs and dissects and synthesizes them.

Although he does this very well, it is almost overkill in trying to formulate some final conclusions about the principles that are the foundation of our country. His sense of modern philosophy is based on classical thought patterns, some of which may not be fitting for the twenty-first century.

Some of his other writing also attest to his devotion to changing generalized education-based principally on the Socratic method coupled with lecturing and skills instruction.

Historically, we have all been taught that the ideas and ideals that our country was built on and that are examined in this book, created the solid foundation for…. [read more]


TANF Time Limits the Temporary Research Paper

… Rawls stipulated that that very basic principles of justice must be set, the constitution to codify these guidelines must be put in place, laws will then be enacted based on this constitution and then judges/administrators will then implement these laws as enacted by duly elected Congress-people and signed into law by the President (Rawls, 1985).

A lot of that framework is already in place in the United States but some of the execution and interpretations that are being done relative to TANF and other simply programs sometimes border on the atrocious. However, as it relates to needy mothers being abused by the system, there is entirely too much top-down and simply ignorant rules being made. It is noble to make sure that rules and guidelines…. [read more]


Proletarianization and Professionalization Politics of Educational Reform Essay

… Proletarianization and Professionalization

Politics of Educational Reform in Alberta and Teacher's Struggle against Proletarianization

In the 1990s, Canadian educational system went through a series of reforms. The province of Alberta, under the leadership of Premier Ralph Klein and the Progressive Conservatives, took a lead role in implementing these reforms. The reforms were rooted in neo-liberal and neo-conservative ideologies and aimed at reducing costs for public education, maximizing economic returns, adopting managerial structure of corporations for educational institutions and schools, and increased workload for teachers. These reforms were introduced mostly as a top-down policy with little, if any, consultation with teachers and teacher associations. But Alberta's teacher associations -- Alberta Teachers' Association (ATA), in particular -- took a persistent stance, mobilizing teachers and struggling against new…. [read more]


Single Black Mothers and Poverty Term Paper

… ¶ … African-American Mothers and Poverty

The Social Welfare Aspects of the Great Society and the Welfare Reform Act of 1996

The Great Society: Goals and Implementation

Background and Purpose of the Great Society

Actual implementation

The Social Challenge: Needed Assistance Wasn't Available

Welfare Reform Act, 1996

Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs

This paper reviews two approaches in social work to single African-American mothers and poverty. The first approach, practiced during the "Great Society" era of the 1960's and 1970's, focused on state-provided welfare, housing and other assistance for single African-American mothers and their families. The second era, starting with the Welfare Reform Act of 1996, focused on integrating poor African-American mothers into the workforce, and providing support services to insure that those…. [read more]


Conservatism the Strengths and Weaknesses Essay

… Robin goes so far as to claim that the control over the public by conservative rulers signals how "the real subject of their deliberations is the private life of power" (10). There is no way of countering this conviction; conservatism is built on the unequal distribution of power, and those in the lower strata of society will not enjoy the same degree of privilege as those with power. To this end, Agre (2004) contends that "Conservatism is the domination of society by an aristocracy," and while this description is blunt, it is not incorrect (n. pag.). Moreover, Agre (2004) argues, "Conservatism is incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. It is a destructive system of inequality and prejudice that is founded on deception and…. [read more]


Assassination of President Mckinley Term Paper

… Rugged and confident in his schemes, Roosevelt was tiles in his fight for the underdog pushing the nation to become one of the forefront empires of its day and righting its wrongs. Averse to corruption and invincible to enemies, Roosevelt waged a mighty war against enemies of the people on both a domestic and foreign field.

He was also the nations' first modern president. He advocated for women's rights. His undergraduate thesis at Harvard, for instance, was on this topic.

Said Roosevelt:

"Much can be done by law towards putting women on a footing of complete and entire equal rights with man - including the right to vote, the right to hold and use property, and the right to enter any profession she desires on…. [read more]


Life Experiences. It Include Explanation Essay

… High-tech equipment and groundbreaking research institutions exemplify American superiority in the medical field. However, much of the expertise that the United States claims ownership of is Asian in origin: Indian and Chinese professionals aiming for residency in the United States. The immigration debate becomes tangled up in the medical debate, and then the nativist nationalists shout out the solution-oriented pragmatists. Americans have much to learn from the risks Asian countries are willing to take in brain-draining specialized talent.

Uwe E. Reinhardt said "economists love to disagree, and they argue about everything. But at these conferences, the one thing they all agree on is that the American system is a huge mess. In healthcare, the United States has become the bogeyman of the world" (Reid 44).…. [read more]


U.S. History Term Paper

… The populace buys little beyond sustenance items, so the economy is not stimulated and the manufacturing plants do not hire people, thus ensuring a vicious spiraling cycle downward. Keynes suggested that the government spend at a deficit, and so Roosevelt did, through his works programs and its structured tiers of relief, recovery, and reform.

The first phase gave people immediate relief and hope and stopped the depression-creating spiral of money hoarding. The National Recovery Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and Public Works Administration program gave people jobs. Recovery was provided through agricultural and business regulation such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, to ensure that bank runs did not occur again. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration provided farmers with subsidies, so they would no longer have an…. [read more]


Public Administration Mind Map PA Research Paper

… Wilson requires administrative leadership to separate from politics (Trottier, Van Mart & Wang, 2008). To this theory, an effective administrative leader creates politically neutral and technically competent administrative systems that create democracy in an organization (Van Mart, 2003). Though the theory's dichotomy is no longer in use, it has a vital influence on Frank Goodnow's scientific theory and the classical approach of Fayol Henry, Urwick and Gulick.

However, Wilson's theory has considerable implications on modern administration. This is because it requires administrators to have clear characteristics and objectives for the systematic execution of the law. For Wilson, the administrative leader maximizes on effectiveness, economy, and efficiency in public business. Moreover, Wilson contributes to the comparative approach of public administration. In this approach, the leader takes…. [read more]


Bartoleme De Las Casas Research Paper

… Advocate and Radical

Yet, not everyone agrees with his being given such a title. The situation as he described it was not always so utterly black and white. While there were certainly abuses on the part of the conquistadors, they were not always motivated by malice. Oftentimes they were the effect of indifference, ignorance, and lack of consideration. All the same, the abuses were inexcusable, and the missionaries constantly sought to balance the desire of the conquistadors to "erect" New Spain with the welfare of the natives, whose lives were put at risk in the process. In one way, De Las Casas represents the fight to secure for the natives the kind of life the Spaniards sought for themselves. In another way, De Las Casas…. [read more]

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