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Civilizations Have Often Resulted Essay

… Other meetings between cultures were peaceful in nature. Trade routes in particular became conduits for the exchange of goods, ideas, knowledge and technology. The records of Marco Polo and his visit to the Orient with his uncles provides a glimpse as to how these exchanges worked. That Polo became friends with Kublai Khan illustrates that the exchange was at a high level.

Venice was one of the leading cultural and technological centers of Europe at the time and one of its wealthiest cities. China was a world leader in a number of technological fields, so they had much to offer each other. There is a case to be made that the Venetians did not make major contributions to China, but that China did make contributions…. [read more]


Western Civilization? Define Its Major Components Term Paper

… ¶ … Western Civilization"? Define its major components and discuss its political and geographical reach.

Western civilization is a phrase used to usually pass on to most of the civilization of European derivation and most of their offspring. It includes the wide; geographically build inheritance of communal standard, moral values, customary society for example religion and particular relic and knowledge as shared in the Western field of power. The East West comparison is occasionally disapproved as relativistic and illogical. It can be complicated to decide which people fit into which group. In some ways it has developed out of use or has been distorted or illuminated to fit more in accurate uses. Although, it is openly descendent from educational oriental and occidental, the changing use…. [read more]


World War I, or the Great Term Paper

… World War I, or the Great War, began as a conflict in Europe, due to the military alliances, rivalries and expansion goals of these European nations. The conflict, which broke out in August of 1914, eliminated the four great monarchial empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany and Turkey. It also shifted power from Europe to the United States and less so to the Soviet Union and Japan. Campaigns took place throughout Europe, as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and the Dardanelles. There were also naval fights in the Indian Ocean and off the Falkland Islands. German colonies were destroyed in Africa and the Far East.

The impetus for WWI was building for a long period of time; it included the competing European…. [read more]


Western Civ the Concept of Western Civilization Term Paper

… Western Civ

The Concept of Western Civilization

The idea of a distinct separation between two consuming world cultures which are demarcated first along geographical lines, and thereafter across ethnic, racial and religious lines, is one very much tied to the historical power structure that has tended to dominate the globe. This is an informal power structure pursuant of the imperial aspirations of Western European nations during the middle centuries. When the influences of Christianity, feudalism and modernist academic thought began to denote a self-proclaimed centrality of progressive civilized thought in such contexts as post-Roman Empire France, England and Spain, a concurrence of exploration into the so-called Orient initiated a new point of distinction. To the Europeans, the Asian cultures newly encountered in modern China, Japan…. [read more]


Western Civilization Developments in Civilization and Control Term Paper

… Western Civilization

Developments in Civilization and Control of Water Supply in Western Europe until the Seventeenth Century

The idea of who controls water and water supplies is not normally associated with developments within a society. However, because water is such a necessity for survival and the flourishing of a society as a whole, it becomes an important symbol for the status and health of any society. By tracking the development of Western Europe in correlation with the development of irrigation and water control systems, one can see how they are so intimately related. At times, it is the development of society which affects how and who controls that society's water. Other times, it is the inventions and control of the water itself which in turn…. [read more]


Civilizations Term Paper

… The political and military dominance that Roman Empire achieved over conquered states was dependent on the geographical advantages it had in attacking other states while defending itself through improvisation in natural barriers. The Roman Empire was established on the foundations laid by Greeks and thus it was Greek use of symbols and things that influenced the Roman more than any other factor. Vast expansion of the Empire was due to the diverse geographical location but this also caused the fall of empire as the geographical stretch spread too far (Adams et al. 2012, 5-50).

3. What was the function of religion in these ancient civilizations? How did it help to shape them, or how was it shaped by them? Compare and contrast the religions of…. [read more]


Western Civilization the World Term Paper

… They were, of course, still thinking that by crossing the Atlantic they would reach Asia, oblivious of the fact that between Europe and Asia there was this huge piece of a whole continent. Columbus had reached before. Vespucci was the first one to realize the mistake and call the territories he had reached a New World. His name gave the name to this New World and regardless of the detractors or supporters of his merits in this huge discovery, he will forever remain known as the man who gave the name to the new continent called America in spite of the fact that the first who actually thought and proved that the earth was round was Christopher Columbus.

As previously said, there were hundreds and…. [read more]


Western Civilization Scholasticism Was a Method Term Paper

… Western Civilization

Scholasticism was a method of learning initiated in medieval universities in the 12th century which lasted for approximately four centuries. The main aim of scholasticism was to find an answer to a certain question through a specific method of inquiry. This method consisted of selecting a certain piece of writing by a renowned scholar which would become the object of investigation. Scholars would read it thoroughly and critically, and ultimately clearly formulate the theories of the author. Other documents could also be used. The final step of the inquiry consisted of identifying the points of disagreement and contention between the sources which would be written down and known as "sententiae." The critics of scholasticism argued that practitioners of scholasticism were only compilers of…. [read more]


Western Civilization 1917, Workers, Soldiers and Sailors Term Paper

… Western Civilization

1917, workers, soldiers and sailors from Petrograd rebel against the Czarist government. The Red Guards occupy the key buildings, main government institutions and surround the Winter Palace, headquarter of the provisional government. Thus, the Great Socialist Revolution began.

In 1945, George Orwell writes a satirical allegory of the Russian Revolution, particularly directed at Stalin's regime. Many events and persons, especially from Russia, but not only, have a correspondent in the book. Also, the book is a political analysis of regimes instituted trough revolutions and maintained through fear.

Throughout the history, some group always seemed to be "more equal than the others" as Orwell states in his book. Examples from history are numerous.

The French revolution, based on the ideas of "Liberte Egalite Fraternite"…. [read more]


Western Civilization the Old Persian Term Paper

… 11. The people of Brazil speak Portuguese. Why? Where did Columbus land on his first voyage? What is the approximate location in longitude and latitude of Santiago?

Brazil was settled by Portugal.

Columbus landed in the Bahamas.

Santiago, Chile: 33 28' S. Lat. And 70 45' W. Long.

12. a. Why did the King of France consider the Hapsburg a greater threat than the Ottoman Turks?

b. What was the largest Kingdom in Europe in 1560?

c. What does this map tell you about the possible difficulties a leader might have in unifying Germany?

a. The Hapsburg Empire virtually surrounded France with Hapsburgs in Spain, Germany and the Netherlands, while the Ottoman Empire was comparatively remote.

b. The largest kingdom was the combined kingdom of…. [read more]


Western Civ. V The Philosophes Believed Research Paper

… Western Civ. V

The philosophes believed that moral values and the value of life itself are enshrined in natural law and that therefore the best way to discover them is to use the scientific method.

How did the romantics' view of nature differ from that of the philosophes? In what ways does William Wordsworth's poem, "The Tables Turned," express this romantic outlook? (Although we emailed the poem to you, we have also put it on the third page of this assignment.) According to romantics like Wordsworth, how was the meaning of life to be found?

Romanticism began as a reaction -- not so much against anything tangible, more as a result of prevailing tendencies and moods. In music it was a way to expand Classical…. [read more]


Western Civilization - World War One Essay

… Western Civilization - World War One to the Present Era

The events that lead to the outbreak of World War One are hauntingly familiar. Preexisting strife between Austria-Hungry and Serbia was sparked to fire with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austria-Hungry throne. Ferdinand's assassin was a Slavic teenager, Gavrilo Princip, a nineteen-year-old member of the terrorist organization the Black Hand (Duffy 2007, "Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1914"). Although the Serbian government claimed that it did not officially sponsor the Black Hand's terrorist activities, and Ferdinand was no JFK, Austria Hungry saw the assassination as an opportunity to further its influence in the Balkans, a spatial region already taught with ethnic and nationalistic violence (Duffy 2007). In fact, Duffy asserts…. [read more]


Western Civ Athens and Sparta Helped Term Paper

… Western Civ

Athens and Sparta helped define the geopolitical landscape of the ancient Greek world. Located on the Peloponnesian peninsula, Sparta rested on a relatively isolated geographic position that fostered its insular foreign policies. Throughout Spartan history, the city-state remained largely self-contained except for its appropriation of the Messenian agricultural region and the enslavement of its people (Hooker, 1996, "Sparta"). The Spartans did not enjoy as fertile an agricultural region as the Athenians. Spartan governments were decidedly more autocratic than those n Athens. Although both were monarchies at some point, the Athenians practiced democratic forms of government and its major lawmakers were elected officials. Spartan leadership was oligarchic, including two kings who ruled for life. Sparta also cultivated what can be called a military rule,…. [read more]


World War I And World War II Term Paper

… World War I and World War II

World War I was also known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars, a global military upheaval, which occurred from 1914 to 1918 (Wikipedia 2006). It claimed millions of lives and is said to have helped shape the modern world. It was fought between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and won by the former. The Allied Powers, or Allies, were led by Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. The Central Powers, on the other hand, were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Much of it occurred on the Western Front within systems of opposing manned trenches and fortifications from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. It…. [read more]


Non-Western World by Western Powers Thesis

… The acquisition of more colonies would help the Western powers to attain the world power status or join the league of world powers because such measures would promote empire-building throughout the world. Actually, colonies provided additional human and material resources that kept European powers in their game of world powers. There are several examples that show that European imperialism was influenced by the need to join the league of world powers and acquire this status. First, France sought to acquire more colonies, especially in the western and northern parts of Africa in order to regain its status as the largest European power. Since France was the largest power in Europe before Germany, the acquisition of more colonies was considered as a means of mitigating Germany's…. [read more]


Economic Development of Eastern Essay

… The relative success of Western Europe's economic policies following World War II is evidenced by the stark distinction between the economic development of East and West Germany following the war, because while the former was dependent upon, and controlled by the Soviet Union, the latter had access to the definitively more well-off Western Europe, and as such was able to expand its economy much more rapidly and freely. This is why, for example, West Germany had no problem cutting off all economic ties to East Germany in 1951; "the inner German trade was much more important for East than West Germany," because the East depended heavily on the importation of crucial materials such as steel, coal, and iron, while West Germany had a much broader…. [read more]


History Western Civilization a Book Essay

… Wages for workers were able to increase because of the plague's devastating effects, and the plague is also responsible for allowing Europe to develop from an economic standpoint, in response to its lack of laborers.

Istanbul

The city of Istanbul has a fairly lengthy history that has played a significant role in the formulation and foundation of Westernized society. It was originally known as Constantinople, and was at various times the capital of the Holy Raman Empire as well as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. When it was the capital of the latter empire, it was known as Byzantium, largely due to the fact that the eastern aspect of the Roman Empire was also referred to as the Byzantine Empire. Because of where…. [read more]


Civilizations the Topic Is Religious Essay

… The sources typically contain material from scholars, a mix of their writing with the occasional primary source evidence. For this subject, however most of the source material is going to come from historians. Thus, taking extensive notes from the readings is going to provide me with the best insight into this subject, wherein I develop a high level of understanding of the topic through the readings. In this case, the readings on the Persian treatment of those under their rule will be combined with an understanding of their religion in order to form theories about religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. There is not going to be any quantitative data as part of this methodology, as the issues being studied do not lend…. [read more]


Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

… The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and immortality.

Of course, things have changed in the more than two thousand years since Alexander's time. In recent centuries, the way of the warrior has lost something of its old luster, and would-be conquerors have found it increasingly essential to justify their ambitions by other means. So, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries we have the concept of the White Man's burden, and the idea of the Western Powers bringing enlightenment and civilization to the benighted races of the Earth. Still more recently, however, even…. [read more]


Perceived Superiority of Modern Western Term Paper

… So, too, did architecture reach monumental heights. Since ancient times, people have erected massive stone structures with incredibly intricate floor plans and engineering design principles, such as the Egyptian pyramids and Babylonian ziggurats. The ancient Greeks and Romans perfected architecture with their marble temples and coliseums. These buildings not only pleased the eye; they served specific functions and were designed using math and science. Concrete, an invaluable construction tool, was invented in ancient Rome.

Writing and literature developed with the Mesopotamian cuneiform characters and the production of the first epics, like the epic of Gilgamesh. Language soon became a major source of recorded history, and eventually scribes wrote on paper instead of stone tablets. Still, recorded systems of alphabets like the Egyptian hieroglyphs form one…. [read more]


Western Civilization Prosperity in England Term Paper

… The Scientific Revolution played a vital role in giving focus, once again, to the importance of the human mind and experience in generating change and development in human society. Through the Scientific Revolution, philosophers during the 16th and 17th centuries were "enlightened" to the importance of reasoning and sensory experience in obtaining knowledge. There occurred a deviation from the common notion that knowledge is acquired simply through faith and belief alone, which strongly reflect the teachings of the Church. Thus, the Scientific Revolution brought about social change by allowing individuals to use their ability to reason and experience their everyday realities in life.

Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau's philosophies between the periods 17th-18th centuries illustrate the instrumental important of human or Man, in the progress…. [read more]


Western Civ Explain the Theory and Workings Term Paper

… Western Civ

Explain the theory and workings of mercantilism.

Essentially the beginnings of globalization, mercantilism consisted of a set of practices that expanded opportunities for colonialism and wealth-creation. One of the ideas behind mercantilism was bullion: a nation's wealth being measured in hard currencies such as gold or silver. Mercantilism was therefore closely linked with nationalism and the creation of more centralized governments that would regulate trade. Trade was of the utmost importance but nations sought to balance trade by not importing more than they exported. To achieve this, many nations would stimulate domestic industries including agricultural production. A goal of mercantilism was to create economic strength and self-sufficiency (Rempel). However, colonialism was also a key component of the mercantile mentality. Colonies not only provided…. [read more]


Western Civilization the 1947 Truman Doctrine Term Paper

… Western Civilization

The 1947 Truman Doctrine is a quintessential example of Cold War confrontation because it typifies how both rivals oftentimes only indirectly confronted each other through their involvement in local conflicts worldwide. In helping Greece and Turkey resist Communist aggression locally, this doctrine made clear America's intention to oppose Communism worldwide through economic aid to countries trying to prevent its spread within their borders.

In 1948 the Marshall Plan followed, which allowed the U.S. To provide financial assistance towards rebuilding Western Europe after WWII. One major reason for this plan was that economically strengthening Western Europe would enable it to not fall prey to Communism. Another Cold War incident known as the Berlin Airlift occurred in 1948. When the U.S.S.R. effectively banned all road,…. [read more]


Western Civilization Final Term Paper

… Western Civilization Final

The history of the Roman republic and then empire represents one of the most important segments of the history of the world. It represents the first elements of the organization of the state. However, at the same time the development of the system of government pointed out the different means through which a community can evolve from a political point-of-view. From the early days of the republic to the late years of the Empire, the Roman state and its institutions were a representative example for the political development of a form of government.

The history of the Roman Republic must however start at the moment in which the first settlings of what would later be the Roman Republic. Therefore it is rather…. [read more]


Huntington's Clash of Civilization Confirm Thesis

… According to Djilas (2006, 49) his is assertion is that the world is comprised of multiple civilization because each country has become bi or multi-cultural mainly due to globalization and using religion as a criteria for classification cannot be sufficiently substantiated. Huntington also made an assumption that the world is not highly un-secularized, that every corner of the world is highly religious, an assumption that his thesis has failed to prove to be correct.

The claim that western civilization is trying to antagonize other civilization by advocating for democracy is faulted because countries in other civilization are already democratic states like South Korea, Turkey and Taiwan, while in the western civilization there are still constitutional monarchies in some of the countries.

Conclusion

The objective of…. [read more]


Historical Relationship of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Literature Review

… Western Civilization

MESOPOTAMIA

Historical and Geographic Background -- The word Mesopotamia is Greek and means "the land between two rivers," in this case, the Tigris and Euphrates river systems. This area is considered to be the cradle of civilization, in that it is one of the first verifiable areas of organized urbanization and domestication of plants and animals. Modern scholarship has extended the actual area of influence for Mesopotamia as far north as parts of Southeastern Turkey and parts of Khuzestan, forming a much larger area of influence for organized civilization (Dlott, 2007). The Sumerian period (from the indigenous peoples: Sumerians and Akkadians) dominated the Middle Eastern region from approximately 3100 BC to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. During this period, of course,…. [read more]


Clash of Civilizations and the Georgia Conflict Research Proposal

… Clash of Civilizations and the Georgia Conflict

In the first line of his monumental article "The Clash of Civilizations," Samuel P. Huntington asserts that "world politics is entering a new phase."

That new phase is nothing simple, but is rather new method by which the international community will be organized. For centuries, the nation-states have been the primary actors in world politics, the entities between which war has been waged. Before this, the world was organized around feudal communities such as those that were primary during the Middle Ages. The treaty of Westphalia, which ultimately established the nation-states, was a defining moment in the organization of world politics until the modern era. However, Huntington's declaration suggests that culture will become a more important component in…. [read more]


Harmony Why Did Harmony Develop Essay

… The results were more tangible and therefore warranted study. In the case of capitalism, wealth accumulation allows for individuals to be successful and provide for both their families and society. Harmony is therefore needed to help foster growth within the civilization (Erhardt, 2008). The ability to produce this document is a direct result of western harmony; teams of individuals, working together, in unison had to find scientific solutions to a problem. In this instance, it is a method to seamlessly and effortlessly transpose concepts in a digital form. The same concepts apply to the industrial revolution all the way back to the original colonization of America. In all instances, harmony was needed from a vast amount of individuals to product a tangible, scientific result. This…. [read more]


Cold War Has Brought Renewed Term Paper

… It was simple. Divide the world as it had been prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union but replace the Soviet threat with the Islamic threat. This is what many political theorists did but, as has already been pointed out, such characterization is short-sighted and inaccurate. There is no monolithic Islam world. The Islam world is diverse and there is no unified civilization which is rising up and organizing to defeat the influences of the Western world (Eksteins).

Whether or not the clash of civilization theory holds true will be determined by future events. There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue and there is substantial evidence to support either argument. The reality is that only time will provide the answers. Somehow…. [read more]


Science and Culture Non-Western Cultures Essay

… Science and Non-Western Cultures

While the way of "doing science" in Western cultures is based on the Greco-Roman tradition, while borrowing as much as possible from other countries, the Middle East in particular (algebra, astronomy, etc.), it still remains tied to a more Western paradigm of reductionism and linear thinking. The history of science is, in fact, written from a Europeanized perspective, and "does not recognize different types of civilizations or cultural science. It has represented Western science as the apex of science, and maintained its monopoly" (Sardar, 2000, 53). In fact, even inventions that were taken from other cultures and incorporated into Western technology still get little or no credit from the Western Scientific mind. China, for instance, had a number of scientific advances…. [read more]

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