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Latin Amer Women Played Essay

… Azurduy dressed like a man in order to ruse her opponent. Azurduy was "remembered for wearing a man's uniform and leading a cavalry charge in which she personally captured the enemy flag, a feat that normally defined the superior male (Chasteen 111). Such women made a major mark on the history of Latin America without receiving any recognition in standard history textbooks.

In spite of this lack of recognition or respect, "patriot women became powerful symbols" of their nations (Chasteen 111). Few symbols are as powerful as that of Evita, Eva Peron. Peron is an Argentinian emblem, as much as steak. Latin American women like Evita or Azurduy are thought of as being uncommon. This is why their biographies are anomalous. Unfortunately, even biographers that…. [read more]


Latin "Coffee Is King Research Paper

… Coffee dropped from fifty percent to a mere seven percent of their legal exports. Thousands of farmers left the country, many more traded coffee for more profitable cash crops such as coca and opium. And now oil has taken the place of coffee as the number one legal export, even though coffee farmers persist to employ the most workers of any industry in Columbia (Frank, 2004).

"Coffee prices in South America peaked during the late 1960s to 1970s, a pound of coffee from the fields of Columbia sold at an average of $3 per pound. But by October 2001, the price of coffee per pound had dropped to $0.62 per pound. The Columbian market at the time was regulated by The Columbia Coffee Federation (FNC);…. [read more]


What Defines Latin America Term Paper

… Latin America unites all countries of Americas where Romance languages are spoken (languages which derived from Latin language). From geographical perspective Latin America includes territories where Spanish, Portuguese or French dominated during colonization era: Mexico, Central America, South America and Caribbean. French speaking territories in Canada (such as Quebec province) are not included to Latin America, due to a number of reasons, mainly cultural differences. Latin America consists of 20 states and dependent territories. Even though that traditionally Latin America is considered to be Spanish-speaking world, French and Portuguese languages are also spread. In common understanding, the word "Latino" is referred to describe people of Latin-speaking cultures, those who have common Spanish cultural heritage, including Spanish nation. In 1990 Latino National Political Survey respondents had…. [read more]


Latin America Revolutions Essay

… Half of General Jose de San Martin's army consisted of slaves "recruited from Buenos Aires and the provinces of Western Argentina," often offered as substitutes by upper class whites reluctant to share the burdens of military service.[footnoteRef:3] They fought in every battle to liberate Peru, Chile and Ecuador from the Spanish in 1816-23, and only a handful returned home, but usually not to the freedom that they had been promised. Some Argentine historians even commented anonymously that the whites were eager to put blacks in the forefront of battle in hopes of reducing the Afro-Argentine population, which is quite minimal today. Women also had no real role in political life after the revolutions, and the new governments assumed that their primary role would continue to…. [read more]


Latin American Terrorism Issues Research Paper

… United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

This group of terrorist is relatively weak and less active. Very few activities have been reported by this group. It has more than 32000 members dismissed. Thus, it remains inactive as a formal group. Despite of its less activities, many old members of AUC are engaged in criminal activities mostly drug trafficking, in newly emerging criminal organizations (known as BACRIM, BandasCriminalesEmergentes). This newly emerging group has more than 3500 and less than 6000 members. To cope with this situation, Colombian government has taken multiple steps and made new laws. These laws are being implemented properly in order to generate peace in the region. One of the unique and most effective laws made in this context is the thorough and…. [read more]


Nicaragua the Civil War Essay

… I understand where you are coming from, and you are not wrong to say this. However, I also believe that you are jumping to conclusions and making other illogical judgments based on what you have read. Just because America was wrong to have intervened in the precise manner in which they did, does not automatically render the Sandinistas right. They were both wrong, the Sandinistas and the Americans. That is what I was trying to argue when we were having our heated debate. The cause and effect relationship here is between the facts and our interpretations of those facts.

I was too emotional during our argument, because of my family background, to formulate my responses in a manner that was clear and coherent. Now, I…. [read more]


Colonization of Latin America Research Paper

… Latin America has seen the rise of colonialism in recent times. This has brought on some problems. Colonialism brought to Latin America the quick spread and influence of Christianity into the land, replacing traditional religions. European languages like Spanish, English, Portuguese, Dutch, and French have been introduced to the native people. With immigration from European countries and some Asian countries, millions of natives died and were killed due to the illnesses and diseases brought by the foreigners. Furthermore, a small minority of upper class control/controlled the vast majority of any colony or country's resources through generation of class societies.

Foreign invasion also brought division among numerous tribes from the result of European-generated borders. Lastly, much of the resources existent in Latin America were mined by…. [read more]


Indigenous People Were Conquered Term Paper

… " The social unit, then, was primarily based on cooperation and communality (INCAS (http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.HTM)."

The desire by the Incas to rule was strong but it was done by allowing those that they conquered to become part of the Inca "family." The biggest mistake that was made in the Inca existence was the fact that it was centrally run. It all went back to the Inca leader. This was proof of their desire to be "in charge" of all they conquered, and it also provided the Spanish with an easy access to conquer them. All the Spanish had to do was to destroy the leader and the first layer of protectors of the people and they would destroy then entire Inca empire. This is exactly what…. [read more]


Poverty Challenges in Haiti Research Paper

… A system of governance that highly relies on foreign aid and borrowings is what characterizes the nature of the Haitian government. Structural reforms undertaken since 1995 have not adequately measured their impact on distribution of resources and structural constraints of the economy.

Policies and deregulation programs rarely follow initiatives to strengthen the supply chains of resource allocation and distribution. Various social aspects of the Haitian society contribute to increased poverty levels. Social aspects that have an effect on the poverty situation may include cultural beliefs and perceptions towards formal education and health services. Cultural beliefs that do not allow education of women are a factor for the many illiterate women in the rural areas of Haiti. Early school dropout by young people is also an…. [read more]


Economic Geographies of Contemporary Brazil Thesis

… The infrastructure and service was provided for and controlled by the state.

However, this economic system has changed by wide and far and Brazil has warmed up to and embraced capitalism as many other countries have done. This is compliance to the world culture that is postulated in the polity theory. In the new economic system, the investors in Brazil are free to make their own investment decisions and choices according to the changes in the market trends and setting. This has been observed to work for Brazil and they continually borrow a lot from the Western countries in a bid to ensure that their economy is and remains to be strong and prosperous (Ted Goertzel, 2008).

Technically, the world polity refers to the political…. [read more]


Defends a Definition of Populism Term Paper

… The next section of the paper will discuss this idea further, with particular reference to two books, Wickham-Crowley's Guerrillas and Revolution in Latin America, and Radu and Tismaneau's Latin American Revolutionaries: Groups, Goals and Methods.

When non-specialists think of Latin America, most people think 'dictators', others think 'guerrillas, and revolutions." As we will see, dictators are often confused with populist leaders, and populist leaders, according to some definitions, share some of the same characteristics of those generally attributed to guerrilla leaders, for example, they fulfil three conditions: I) their personal style is paternalistic, personal and charismatic; ii) they are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban workers and middle sectors; iii) their political program is reformist (Coslovsky, 2002).

These…. [read more]


Post Colonial Latin America Research Proposal

… ¶ … colonialism in the current Latin America

The aspect of colonialism shares a lot of features across the nations where it was practiced be it in Asia, Latin America or in Africa. It is not to claim that colonialism was the same but is a system that shared grounds in terms of the economic effects, the social effects as well as the psychological effects and also the timeline of its emergence and the decline after the World War II. There are several sub-systems that came alongside the colonial systems within the colonized regions that changed the face of those regions and the trends forever like the capitalism systems which are the main focus of this paper. It is therefore the deliberate effort of this…. [read more]


Comparative Politics Development in Emerging Economies of Latin American Countries Term Paper

… ¶ … Economies of Latin American countries

Comparative Politics

Latin America includes conceptually Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and South American countries. In this culture is home to around 500 million people who speak mainly Spanish and Portuguese. The largest metropolis in Latin America is Mexico City with around 19 million.

Among the ten largest cities in the world belongs to the Brazilian metropolis of Sao Paulo and the Argentine capital Buenos Aires. In Latin America, according to studies by the World Bank, especially in Brazil, the country is in a dynamic economic growth of around five percent a year. Many countries in Latin America will benefit because of the good relations with China from the economic boom of the People's Republic.

China has now…. [read more]


Illicit Arms Trade in South and Central Research Paper

… ¶ … illicit arms trade in South and Central America and how that affects U.S. Foreign Policy regionally and globally. In Central and South America, the drug trade and the arms trade are completely linked. The problems of drug trafficking and the illicit arms trade are phenomena that are essentially related. It is practically impossible to deal with each issue separately.

As illicit trades, they account for the largest sectors of the black market.

They generally use the same routes, although arms production and the demand for illicit drugs are found in the industrialized countries like the U.S., whereas illicit drugs production and the demand for weapons are found in the so-called developing world such as in Central and South America. The war in Columbia…. [read more]


Neoliberalism in Latin America Reaction Paper

… Neoliberalism

According to Benjamin Keen, author of A History of Latin America," neoliberalism is the "policies of privatization, austerity, and trade liberalization dictated to dependent countries by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank as a condition for approval of investment, loans, and debt relief (1996, xi). Neoliberalism stands in opposition to Keynesian economics; one goal is to shrink the size of government and encourage direct investment from foreign countries. This political and economic philosophy has taken hold in many Latin American countries over the past few decades, with mixed results. In his article, "Neoliberalism and Democracy in Latin America: A Mixed Record," author Kurt Weyland explores in detail how neoliberalism took root in Latin America and the positives and negatives for democracy in…. [read more]


Latin American Women's Cultural Decision in Labor Force vs. Procreation in Past vs. Present Research Paper

… Latin Women and Vocational Empowerment Issues

Women have achieved great strides in modern societies, especially when compared with the historical role of females in ancient societies, and even in relatively modern-era societies. One of the most important aspects of female empowerment relates to the incorporation of females into the modern workforce. The greatest documented increase in female empowerment in this area was in American society immediately after the Second World War, mainly by virtue of the extent to which female labor was required during the war effort to replace the positions vacated by males involved in overseas military conflict. That conflict was, in retrospect, a watershed event in the progress of females during the 20th century.

In Hispanic societies, specific social and cultural attitudes, beliefs,…. [read more]


Spain and the Christianization Essay

… Here again, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi suggest that this policy was likewise intended to benefit the natives to which it was applied, but it is reasonable to suggest that this method was also used to exploit rather than benefit.

Other events followed in the 19th century that would serve to Christianize America is far different ways than the Spanish sought. For instance, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi report that with independence from Spain "came the Protestants" and their religious dogma which "brought new ideas, not only about the meaning of Christianity, but also about how the church and society ought to be organized" (p. 95). In addition, the mid-19th century witnessed some important political events that would serve to shape the manner in which America was Christianized in…. [read more]


Simon Bolivar Term Paper

… He believed he could get its independence and then work for a way to consolidate it with Venezuela in the future. Once New Granada had been liberated, Bolivar once again turned his attention to Venezuela and also to Ecuador (Bushnell & Fornoff, 2003). The two-pronged attack was successful over time. In the end, Bolivar created what was then called the Gran Columbia, which included much of Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, and northern Peru (Bushnell & Fornoff, 2003). That was not enough for Bolivar, who then turned his attention toward the liberation of the rest of Peru (Arana, 2013). That took some time to accomplish, but did take place. When it occurred, the Congress of Upper Peru created the Republic of Bolivia (Harvey, 2000). Bolivar is…. [read more]


Private Property and the Commons Essay

… 175).

Diffuse authority at the local level in 16th-century Spain eroded its capacity to effectively organize across the many jurisdictional levels to achieve a truly liberalized state. As Spain strove to modernize, it pressed to continue a culture of absolutism, while at the same time attempting to reconcile with the liberalism practices in the towns and cities. The conflict was manifested by:

"persistent and sometimes successful efforts to limit the autonomies of noblemen and the reach of its towns' democracies (efforts that were most successfully applied in Castile)…While clearly absolutist measures were applied forcefully in Castile (where they had to overcome the armed resistance of the slighted nobles and burghers of towns with customary privileges)" (Abercrombie, 1996, p. 100).

Conclusion

The civilizing initiatives to privatize…. [read more]


America Popular Music Essay

… America Popular Music

The objective of this work is to discuss popular music in America today as well as to examine today's musicians. This work will historically place today's music in context and will discuss the style of music of today.

Popular music, "...reflects a kaleidoscope of contributions, a cross-fertilization of styles and a blending of dreams. It could hardly be otherwise in this nation of immigrants." (Starr and Waterman, nd) Just as America is the melting pot of many nations the many and various forms of music that traveled with people as they immigrated to America is integrated within the fabric of American music. Starr and Waterman state that the United States "is a perfect musical laboratory: take people from every corner of the…. [read more]


Chicano Studies Essay

… Life of William Hickling Prescott. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1864.

Who were "La Gente de Razon"?

The thirteenth century is marked by a historical event whereby the "La Gente de Razon" marched and were called la gente de razon, la gente del Quinto Sol in the history of Mexico. These "La Gente de Razon" were the decedents of the ancient Mexicans, those have emerged from Aztlan-Chicomoztoc a mythological vicinity of Mexico. The literal meaning of the Aztlan-Chicomoztoc is the Land of seven caves or Land of the Heron Feathers. This is regarded as the place from where the life had begun. This entire movement was considered to be the beginning of the modern world Mexicans and the Chicanos (McElroy 161).

In the ceaseless search of…. [read more]


Threat Assessment South America Term Paper

… Number of lives lost due to battles was stated as one thousand in 1999, and FARC continues to enhance its assaults in current years. (Conflict in Colombia) Before Colombia's May 2002 presidential election, FARC increased its radical assaults on infrastructure in cities. (FARC, ELN, AUC)

b. Successes and failures, including signature or defining events.

The FARC vowed to upset the economy and initiate a series of killings over government followers. (Colombia's Civil War: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC))

III. Ideological and material support

a. Other organizations in support of, or affiliated with, this group.

FARC has joined hands with The National Liberation Army (ELN), a Marxist cluster that draws its earnings through abductions and forced. Of late, the ELN is making attempts to solicit…. [read more]


Define Economics Research Paper

… Models enable experiments. For instance, economists can manipulate interest rates to understand their impact or test to see if fiscal stimulus packages will produce the desired results in the economy. The model allows for more definitive statements to be made about causality (Stapleford, 2012).

There are downsides to models, however. They rely on assumptions which are often not based in reality. If the assumptions are incorrect, the conclusions drawn for models will also be invalid (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009). Thus, it is an important task of economists to constantly refine models and compare them against actual data. By adjusting models in areas that underperform under this comparison, improvements can be made to provide strong insights and intuition into how the world works (Funderburk, 2012).

The debate…. [read more]


America at War 1865-Present Essay

… The following year, the economy would collapse, and Hoover would show his impotency at dealing with domestic problems, and the man who had ran against the Wet-ticket candidate, would finally repeal the 18th Amendment in 1932, as the number of jobless reached into the tens of millions.

The economy would continue to dwell in the sewers despite FDR's Alphabet programs, designed to put Americans back to work with social and environmental jobs. However, the real jobs would be in manufacturing for the war machine -- and that would come with America's entry into World War II following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. Under Roosevelt, America became known as "the great arsenal of democracy" -- an insightful use of terminology (Jarecki, 2008, p. 37).

The…. [read more]


America One Enduring Aspect of American Identity Term Paper

… America

One enduring aspect of American identity that appears to be emerging in the twenty-first century is that of constant change. The United States of America might have reached the limits of its geographic expansion when it annexed Alaska and Hawaii, the forty-ninth and fiftieth and final states. However, the identities of Americans have been and remain in a state of continual flux and flow. As Huntington points out in Who Are We: Challenges to America's National Identity, the nation-state notion has held sway in America since the eighteenth century. Before that, residents were colonialists, natives, or slaves. Identity was linked to religion in many cases, or alternatively to culture or linguistic heritage. Since the Revolution and the dawn of the modern nation-state, the United…. [read more]


America in 20th Century Essay

… America in the Twentieth Century

The American Age

Social, Political, and Economic Justification

From landing a man on the moon to cloning a sheep to gaining a position of hegemony in the world, the twentieth century was a time of stardom for the United States. Rising up from a mere thirteen colonies only two centuries earlier, the United States was young, but was beginning to prove itself as one of the most powerful voices in the world. Today, the United States is most definitely one of most powerful states in the world, if not the most powerful state, though that power is constantly challenged as the twenty-first century begins to move into the age of coalition. Its voice is the voice that the world hears;…. [read more]


Definition of Latin America Essay

… Latin America is a geo-cultural region that loosely incorporates the Hispanophone and Lusophone nations within North and South America. The U.S. And Canada are typically excluded, as are Caribbean nations that do not speak Spanish. Even though the U.S. is not considered to be part of Latin America, Miami is nevertheless said to be the capital of Latin America, as a city with immigrants from all over the region, and the hub of trade between Latin America and the northern markets (Booth, 2001). The sobriquet is not a stretch either. Latin America is defined by its relations with the Spanish during their conquest of the Americas (and the Portuguese in Brazil). Spanish is the predominant language, Catholicism the religion, and all areas have colonial Spanish…. [read more]


Latin Gender Issues Term Paper

… One major objective of this administration is to enhance the female educationally related policies. In regard to women's employment, examples of totally diverse opportunities have presented themselves for those prepared technologically. Information technology for example is an extremely broad labor opportunity and the generalizations of male dominance or female incapability are overshadowed by educationally obtained skill sets. There are less gender related consequences when it comes to the information revolution. Talent is appreciated by all. In many scenarios, computer-aided production invites women to take advantage of the opportunities. The key is to establish legislation that will promote the necessary educational goals for both men and women. Through educational objectives, our nation will become a more powerfully-based entity that is economically and politically prepared for the…. [read more]


Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

… Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions with several examples to demonstrate why. Another important point made by Bailey concerns the creativity of these artworks irrespective of the artists' origins, a point once again supported with examples from the historical record. To determine how other curators have interpreted these two primary issues through the exhibition of colonial Latin American works, this paper provides a review of Painting a New World: Mexican Art…. [read more]


Poverty in Developing Country Essay

… Peru: Current Development Status by POVCAL and Capabilities Analysis and Future Recommendations

Though far from the most poverty-stricken and underdeveloped country in South America, Peru is certainly a country in need of further economic growth and development and has long had a sizeable portion of its population living at or beneath the country's poverty line. As of 2006, the last year for which complete and comprehensive data is available, nearly half -- forty-four percent -- of the nation's population was surviving on less than $1.25 in 2005 purchasing power parity dollars, the measure currently used by the World Bank as a global estimate of the poverty line (CIA World Factbook 2010; POVCAL.net 2010). Though the unemployment rate that the country is experiencing during the global…. [read more]

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