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Drug Legalization Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

As the country was turning into the 20th century, drugs that were in the market were largely unregulated. There were medical remedies that often contained derivatives of cocaine and heroin. These were freely distributed over-the-counter without a prescription and without the consumer being much aware of which drugs were more potent and which were not. There was a caveat emptor attitude towards the use of medical tonics which could have led to the difference between life and death. This is what led to the war on drugs that led to the implementation of drug regulations. However, these drug regulations have since come of age and they need to be removed.

History of the war on drugs

The war on drugs began in the…. [read more]


Legalizing "Soft Drugs": Marijuana's Effect Essay

… Study findings reported a significant link between marijuana smoking and emotional problems. (Science Daily, 2008, paraphrased)

The study reported by Solowij et al. (2002) examined cognitive impairments among those who smoked marijuana. The study reported is a multisite retrospective cross-sectional neuro-psychological study in the U.S. between 1997 and 2000 among 102 daily users of marijuana. The study found that those who used marijuana "performed significantly less well than short-term users and controls on memory and attention." (Solowij, et al., 2002, p.1123) It is reported that on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, long-term users "recalled significantly fewer words than either short-term users or controls" although there was no difference between short-term users and controls noted. Long-term users are reported to have shown "impaired learning, retention…. [read more]


Drugs Marijuana in Depth Research Paper

… Among the specific interventions recommended by the National Institute for Drug Abuse (2010) include a rewards-incentive system in which a counselor provides a reward for stopping smoking. However, community organizations can offer the person activities that help take their mind off using the drug. There are many ways a person can replace the habit of smoking marijuana with creative and fun pursuits ranging from art and music to sports and dancing. My personal observation has shown that people who are physically active tend to use fewer recreational drugs than people who are more sedentary in their lifestyle. Therefore, a treatment program that includes some kind of physical activity will help. Additionally, yoga and meditation might help take the place of the calming effect that some…. [read more]


Why Government Doesn't Legalize Drugs Term Paper

… ¶ … government doesn't legalize drugs?

The story of drug legalization is a very long one; it has practically started ever since their prohibition in the United States through the Harrison Act in 1914, especially because they had been legal in the 19th century: "For most of the century, opium, morphine, and cocaine were legally and cheaply available without a prescription at drugstores and grocery stores and through the mail. And yet, far from being marked by drug-crazed criminals and drug-paralyzed workers, that period was a time of unprecedented economic growth and productivity." Even though, this problem seems to have reached its edge nowadays, as some recent events have proven the side effects of the fight against drugs: a high crime rate having as main…. [read more]


Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Term Paper

… Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

In this paper, I have discussed about the renowned drug control agency in the United States of America i.e. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). I have given a brief history of DEA in the first part and then I have given a detailed account of its responsibilities and mission. Later, I have given a brief account about how it stemmed out from FBN.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was established in 1973 so that it could work with other agencies in order to control the cultivation, production and the smuggling of the illicit drugs. The maximum efforts are directed towards international narcotics smuggling organizations. On the other hand, a part of it works for the elimination of drugs from interstate ("Drug Enforcement Administration…. [read more]


Drug Profile Drug Addiction Research Paper

… Hallucinogens alter mood and perception, and include such drugs as LSD, ecstasy, ketamine, and PCP. The most commonly used form of cannabis is marijuana, and can induce a sense of well-being and relaxation (Joseph, 2005). Advances in drug development have increased the availability of prescription medications. The prevalence of prescription drugs with addictive potential has consequently increased the probability for users to misuse these substances. Each drug class represents a variety of drugs that can cause psychological dependence, if not physical dependence, which ultimately instigates drug addiction.

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez,…. [read more]


Drug Abuse Is a Menace Essay

… The second step through which individuals can overcome drug addiction is being away from the substances. When the person is away from drugs and related substances, the chances of involvement are minimal. No one would take something that does not exist. Staying away from drugs will supplement the first step in the war against drug addiction (Rapaka, Rao & Wolfgang Sade-e, 2008).

The third step in fighting the drug addiction is through involvement in other relevant activities. These activities include sporting exercises, religious functions, and drug addiction seminars. These activities help in diverting the concentration of the drug addict from drugs and substances. Due to minimal time and contact with the drugs, drug addicts have little chance in consuming the harmful products. The final step…. [read more]


Legalizing Marijuana Term Paper

… Legalizing Marijuana

There is presently much controversy regarding legalization of marijuana, as the number of supporters for the cause appears to grow concomitantly with the number of people opposing it. The former however have appeared to gain an advantage in the recent years, as society becomes more and more tolerant toward the concept. Not only does the general public has trouble when it comes to accepting marijuana as being something normal, but it (at least in the U.S.) is also reluctant to accept a series of factors related to the history of the cannabis plant. Considering the steady progress marijuana supporters have experienced recently, it is very likely that the substance will become legal in particular U.S. states in the near future.

Most people are…. [read more]


Legalizing Marijuana it Costs Essay

… 2 million ounces to 28.8 million ounces. The important thing here is that there is incredible vagueness in calculating the actual size of the market. That ambiguity can have significant implications concerning the anticipated income generated from a tax, independent of the actual amount of the tax.

There are three types of micro level effects of marijuana legalization: 1. Personal effects, 2. Secondhand effects (family, friends), 3. Third party effects. Micro level effects of marijuana utilization entails the harmful effects of marijuana. Its personal harmful effects includes are both physical and mental. Its physical dangers include possibility for lung damage, or potentially lung cancer. (Anderson, D, M., Hansen, B., and Rees, 2012) It may affect one's mental state too by developing lack of motivation in…. [read more]


Drugs on the Economy History Capstone Project

… S. Department of Justice, 2010). Opiates were the primary drug of choice followed by marijuana and stimulants. A half of the admissions were taken to ambulatory facilities as opposed to residential facilities. Drug users react adversely to drugs including non-fatal overdoses. These individuals have to go to the hospital for medical attention. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) in 2006 posited that out of 113 million hospitals ED visits, 1.5% cases were due to drug abuse or misuse hence causing a massive strain on the healthcare systems (U.S. Department of Justice, 2010).

Cocaine, marijuana, heroine and stimulants abuse prompt these ED visits. The 2007 DAWN survey of 63 metropolitan areas indicated that 12.1 deaths per 100,000 persons were because of drug use. Their records also reflected…. [read more]


Drug Legalization of Drugs Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

Legalization of drugs

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The legalization of drugs of abuse has been an ongoing controversy in the United States for quite some time following the development of a widespread belief in the failure of the current prohibition regulations. It is not one that has found any significant resolution with strong arguments being made on both sides. There have been arguments made for the medicinal use of some drugs such as marijuana in the treatment of persons with severe and life threatening illnesses. Yet this is only part of the debate. While some proponents of prohibition claim that there will be a significant increase in drug use as the result of legalization, there are many reasons to doubt that a…. [read more]


Drug Tests and Government Benefits Research Paper

… There are valid reasons why the states would want to avoid giving benefits to people who are simply going to spend those benefits to buy illegal drugs. Still, the results in Florida showed that there do not appear to be too many recipients and/or applicants who use or abuse illegal drugs. If there were more abusers, there would have been many more positive tests. This is worth acknowledging, especially when there are millions of taxpayer dollars on the line and the states that enact these kinds of laws stand to lose much more than they would gain if the government decides that it will pull benefits and funding from them. Ultimately, it will be the people who truly need the assistance who will lose out.…. [read more]


Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Essay

… Organized crime syndicates engage in criminal behaviors that are independent from and ancillary to drug trafficking. These are the target behaviors that can be more readily criminalized than drugs. If drugs were legalized, organized crime syndicates would lose a considerable amount of revenue but they are already highly diversified organizations that require law enforcement.

A dismantling of current drug policies would make it so that supplies of popular drugs were made safe and regulated. The problems associated with drug abuse could be tackled at the level of healthcare, rather than criminology. Funding for law enforcement would be freed up and diverted towards actual criminal issues: ranging from white-collar crime to rape. As South (2007) points out, "although most public and political attention tends to focus…. [read more]


Drug Wars a Thin Essay

… S.-Mexican border but is more active in some areas of the border. These include the Mexican states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos, Michoacan, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas (Aguilar, 2007).

There are a number of different law enforcement agencies that dedicate at least some of their resources to participating in the drug war. According to Office of National Drug Control Policy (a U.S. agency that is run by the White House), law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Homeland Security summarizes the goals and processes of U.S. law enforcement in the drug wars as including the following:

Enforcement initiatives comprising multi-agency investigative, interdiction, and prosecution activities;

Intelligence…. [read more]


Drug Use Survey Term Paper

… Drug use survey that I am using is the Drug Data Summary provided by the White House Drug Policy initiative. (www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov).This survey and the facts it provides is of interest to me because it focuses especially on drug use as it pertains to young people.

Of most interest to me, is the fact that 15.9 million Americans ages twelve and above reported using an illicit drug "in the month before the survey was conducted." Further, twelve percent of the total population reported illicit drug use within the past year, while over forty-one percent reported some use of an illicit drug "at least once during their lifetimes." The most commonly used illicit drug is marijuana, followed by cocaine and various forms of hallucinogens. More so, thirty-seven…. [read more]


Drug Use and Abuse Research Paper

… The participants averaged 32 years of age and 59% were male; males were more likely to use alcohol, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and hallucinogens than females; moreover, males reported using alcohol, marijuana and hallucinogens at "…a significantly younger age than females (Shannon, 98). The reason the study was done in eastern Kentucky included the fact that eastern Kentucky has "…the highest prevalence group when examining illicit drug use other than marijuana" for individuals 12 or over in the United States (Shannon, 99).

The participants were solicited by placing flyers in public locations. Once the initial participants were selected (they had to have been injecting drugs in order to quality) they were then interviewed and asked to bring friends (that were also drug users)…. [read more]


Drug Use Essay

… Sure, parents are responsible for their children and for monitoring their teenagers for the signs of drug abuse but with prescription drugs, it may be difficult to know that the teenager is using. Unlike with marijuana smoking, there is no telltale smoke or aroma and the teenager might not even have bloodshot eyes. Even being drunk is easier to detect than being stoned on pills. Some parents do not even know their children had been using drugs for years, until something terrible happens. "Despite years using an array of drugs, Jay's mother said her son seemed normal," ("Teen Prescription Drug Abuse On the Rise"). Now that teenager is in a rehabilitation program.

Because prescription drugs are legal, readily available, and socially acceptable, a new approach…. [read more]


Drugs Past and Current Substance Term Paper

… In addition to abuse of illicit substances, teens have consistently demonstrated tendencies toward the use and abuse of tobacco and alcohol products.

The use of mind-altering substances increased considerably during the 1960s, when recreational drug use became "fashionable among young, white, middle class Americans," ("Thirty Years of America's Drug War," 2000). Prior to the 1960s, American mainstream culture did not encourage or support the use of drugs; since then, drugs have been glamorized and even promoted as a tool to enhance self-image. Drugs have also been touted as a means by which to rebel against established authorities. American culture continues to support, even encourage drug use by the ways it is portrayed in the media. The government's so-called "war on drugs" has not helped prevent…. [read more]


Drugs and Alcohol Issues Essay

… There are probably recovered substance abusers who can eventually learn to limit their consumption to appropriate levels and to appropriate circumstances while eliminating excessive consumption or consumption patterns that are problematic. Meanwhile, there are also probably other individuals who have had substance abuse problems whose addictive personalities and tendencies make it unrealistic for them to adopt any sort of flexible approach instead of the absolute abstention from those substances in the future.

Chances are there are both biological factors such as addictive tendencies as well as environmental and personal psychological factors that determine behavior and the relative ability of every individual to moderate alcohol consumption, for example. In general, people who developed substance abuse problems as ways of coping with unrelated problems may eventually be…. [read more]


Drugs and Pregnancy the Habit Research Paper

… Even though policy-makers advocate punitive as well as coercive measures having reasons of protecting the fetus, this approach has failed in obtaining such results. Having fear of being punished, women might fail to seek prenatal care. Also even if they are jailed, some may be still in a position to get the drugs on top of being denied medical care or prenatal care at the time of pregnancies, hence counterproductive if compared to the rehabilitative approach.

Narrow perspective on just use of drug during prenatal as the main fetus source of harm has also been noted to divert attention from the rest of the well-known and hypothesized causes of fetal harm, some of which go with illicit use of drug. Risk factors and influences, for…. [read more]


Drugs and Violence Research Paper

… In order to eliminate this problem from the society the authorities should first take into consideration the point-of-view of the victims. With the help of scientific approaches and proper law and order structure societies can eliminate this evil from the community life and can reduce the rate of violence against women, child abuse, gang wars and other crimes to a great extent. (Rosa, Lambert & Gropper, 1990)

References

Atkinson, A., Anderson, Z., Hughes, K., Bellis, M.A., Sumnall, H., & Syed, Q. Liverpool John Moores University, Centre for Public Health. (2009). Interpersonal violence and illicit drugs. Retrieved from Liverpool John Moores University website: http://www.who.int/violenceprevention/interpersonal_violence_and_illicit_drug_use.pdf

Centre for Substance Abuse Prevention, (n.d.). Alcohol and other drugs. Retrieved from Centre for Substance Abuse Prevention website: https://webapps.ou.edu/alcohol/docs/01factsheetonalcoholanddrugs.pdf

Friedman, A.S., Glassman,…. [read more]


Drug Abuse Individuals Who Use Essay

… Children of drugs addicts also have an extreme high risk of child abuse, through the extreme mood swings of a parent engaging in constant use. Infants born to mothers who smoke and use cocaine tend to have a lower birth weight and may experience developmental problems. Research has also shown that children exposed to stressful situations have a harder time adjusting in school and are more likely to drop out.

Children born to mothers who show no interest in them or motherly love have a greater chance of developing Psychogenic Dwarfism, due to emotional deprivation. Psychogenic Dwarfism can be seen between the ages of 2 and 15 years and is seen by decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, very short stature, weight that is inappropriate for…. [read more]


Drug Abuse the Findings Article Review

… Financial Despair

Addiction has a huge impact on the finance of a person. Based on the addict drug of choice, the financial ramification may turn to be radical and overwhelming, especial when one is addicted to some types of drugs like cocaine. Stocks plus the saving tend to vanish as time goes and it continues to any other liquid assets or disposable income as these items are sold in a bid to finance the heavy purchase of drugs. The outcome is that bills will not be paid, daily expenses will be stressful. Losing their jobs is inevitable as this sign and symptoms will be seen openly, (eHow Contributor, 2012).

Health Decline

When this addiction goes on for along time, it will be accompanied by health…. [read more]


Drug Culture Midterm Term Paper

… For His Son was also memorable, especially in the scenes that highlight the son's cocaine addiction and depravity, because of its commentary on the drug and beverage business. Ironically, the drink that the father creates for his son in the film is similar to Coca-Cola, which until 1929 still contained cocaine. Altered States is full of memorable scenes, however, one of the scenes that stands out among the rest is when Dr. Jessup arrives to a party being hosted by Arthur Rosenberg. When Dr. Jessup arrives, he appears to be bathed in bright light, which makes it appear as though he is entering into a sensory deprivation capsule and stepping into the darkness that is the party. Also memorable in this film are the chaotic,…. [read more]


Drugs and Addiction Prolonged Term Paper

… These are people with abundant knowledge regarding health benefits, which they would receive from eating healthy to stimulate their cognitive functioning. Nevertheless, the fact that there exists an easy way of going about the cognitive performance without getting sweaty or on diets makes the needs appeal appended on stimulants. This drug provides a quick fix, which makes it the best option for those looking for optimal performance without much of a struggle with diets and physical exercises. This is producing a society where competition is becoming null because of the unfair use of enhancers against the efforts of others. The ethical unfairness for people under the influence of drugs is the manner in which they promote a lower look on those who are not under…. [read more]


Drug Treatment and Prevention Program Essay

… We are a society of peers. We strive to make known our program of recovery, not individuals who participate in the program." (A.A., p. 1)

This position is also underscored by a core set of values in relation to the funding of the program. The counselor with whom I spoke noted that A.A. does not allow any outside funding because it wishes not to compromise its core values for any political or commercial imperatives. Therefore, the program is strictly supported by its own membership. Within the scope of this arrangement, the organization also takes precautions to ensure that its members aren't subjected to exploitation. The A.A. site supports the information provided by my interview subject. Additionally, it notes that the organization limits the amount of…. [read more]


Drug Policy American Research Paper

… The United States has spent a great deal of money on all phases of the "war" to try and make sure that drugs do not come into the county, or, at least, that they do not come into the country in the amounts that they have. Douglas Husak offers some figures associated with the war on drugs.

In 2000 the United States spent 40 billion dollars on prisons and jails.

By 2000 approximately 460,000 drug offenders were incarcerated.

About 58% of all federal inmates are incarcerated for drug offences.

Prison terms, for drug offences have increased from an average of sixty-two months to an average of seventy-four months from 1984 to 1999.

From 1980 to 1997, the number of non-violent offenders in state prisons tripled.…. [read more]


Legalization of Drugs of Abuse: Pros and Cons Term Paper

… ¶ … Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The topic of drug legalization is one of heatedly contested debate. Both sides of the debate have reasoning that has them firmly entrenched in their beliefs. This paper will review both the pros and cons of legalizing drugs of abuse.

Pros of Illicit Drug Legalization:

Proponents of drug legalization most often begin their debate with the statement that America's drug laws, as they currently stand, are ineffective. Programs such as "Just Say No" and "Zero Tolerance" have been unsuccessful (Linn, Yager & Leake). America, although fighting tenaciously, is losing the War on Drugs, and in fact, current drug policies have actually made the problem worse. A drug free America is simply unrealistic (Eldredge & McCollum). For this reason,…. [read more]


War on Drugs Term Paper

… Hence, it was here that many researchers studied the link between terrorism and drugs management not only within the Columbian and Latin American region but also in the United States (The Economist, 2001).

According to study conducted by Falcoff in 2000, in 1998 the Columbian government had huge profit margins from drug trafficking with figures reaching up to U.S.$236 million resulting from kidnapping, U.S.$311 million resulting from extortion and nearly U.S.$551 million resulting from drug links (Falcoff, 2000). The FARC organization alone earned huge percentages that year: 6% resulting from cattle rustling, % resulting from kidnapping, 36% resulting from extortion and 48% resulting from drug sources (Suarez, 2000). This percentage breakdown shows why more and more people are easily recruited by the drug agencies; they…. [read more]


Legalizing Activities Such as Recreational Term Paper

… The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while…. [read more]

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