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Women and the Union: Struggle Essay

… Indeed, their environment and lack of choice appear to have removed all hope.

Separate organizing, then, has the advantage of targeting specific situations, such as those suffered by the women immigrating to the United States. It offers a targeted and focused movement of women with a common interest at heart. Women like those in the Indian factories, for example, can unionize and form committees to force those who hold power over them to at least grant them rights to basic human dignity while they are working.

On the other hand, the collective force of global unions should not be underestimated. The inherent advantage of this is the power of numbers. Women who are unable to motivate or unionize themselves, for example, can be assisted by…. [read more]

Women the Sphere Essay

… Friedan formed the National Organization of Women in 1966 in the spirit of gender role liberalization. Although it would be later criticized for its narrow focus on the experiences of only white housewives, The Feminine Mystique nevertheless altered the tenor of gender politics in the United States. A series of no-fault divorce laws, coupled with greater awareness of the issue of marital rape, were practical signs that the politics of gender were changing to bring women out of the bedroom and into the boardroom.

Ironically, and perhaps sadly, Friedan's later work "rejects sexual politics and sexual equality in favor of a revalorization of motherhood and the nuclear family, leaving public institutions essentially unchanged," (Buechler, 1990, p. 122). It more as if motherhood needed to be…. [read more]

Women's Suffrage the History Research Paper

… As the 1890's came about, the advances made by women were beginning to be cut back, and women were being silenced once again.

The next main push for Women's Rights came with the creation of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) which was formed on October 10, 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst. Women at this time were faced with ridicule from politicians, and "the press responded to suffrage movement with what amounted to a press blackout." (Jorgenson-Earp, 1999, p. 20)

The WSPU was formed to combat the fact that Women's Rights issues were being ignored by those in power, and they decided to use militant tactics. And the very first militant attack came in 1905 when two women burst into the Free Trade Hall in…. [read more]

Women Historians United States Historian Arthur Schlesinger Term Paper

… Women Historians

United States historian Arthur Schlesinger stated that historians' silence about women made it seem that half of the American population had not had any impact on the country's history. "Any consideration of woman's part in American history must include the protracted struggle of the sex for larger rights and opportunities, a story that in itself is one of the noblest chapters in the history of American democracy," he wrote in 1935.

Because of the male domination of history, and the lack of women writers, many events and people of the time were forgotten and received little or no recognition for their efforts.1 However, what if the situation was different? What if women historians did have the opportunity to be on par with their…. [read more]

Women's History Term Paper

… Women's History

Phyllis Schlafly wrote "What's Wrong with Equal Rights for Women" as a call to women to maintain the status quo. Her point is that women are already privileged beings in this country, and that it is foolhardy to lose that status, simply because a group of radical women wants equal pay and opportunities. She is resentful that the women's movement tries to speak for all American women, and disagrees with the opinion that women should be treated as equal to men. She feels that to portray women as downtrodden is fraudulent.

The piece supports the traditional role of the female, who was expected in the past to only raise children, keep the house clean and have a meal ready for her husband when…. [read more]

Women's History Term Paper

… As a result, these middle class women established more than 400 houses that helped working class women, rich or poor, organize for better working conditions and pay increases.

These types of social activism drew more women into large national organizations that were all headed by white middle to upper class and highly educated women. These groups began to tackle all types of problems. The General Federation of Women's Clubs was established in 1890 as an association of reading clubs but later became a very powerful lobby against poverty caused social conditions in urban slums as well as new child labor legislation. Other groups like the Women's Christian Temperance Union attracted almost a million members and they fought a broad range of women's labor rights.

There…. [read more]

Woman's Suffrage Women Term Paper

… With the efforts of the NAWSA, woman's suffrage was making headway in the West, but most of the East remained dead set against it. One theory for this dichotomy was that frontier conditions undermined traditional gender roles and that women, having proven their ability to conquer difficult conditions and do "men's work," were rewarded with the vote. Other historians believe that western politicians found it expedient to enfranchise women for a variety of other reasons. For example, Mormons in Utah hoped that the votes of women would help tip the balance of power in their favor in their ongoing power struggle with the non-Mormon population, consisting largely of miners, railroad construction workers, cowboys, and prospectors, who tended not to have women with them.

For whatever…. [read more]

Women of the South Term Paper

… Through the story of Lizzie Neblett we see one woman's frustration with these tasks - she describes her 11 slaves and all the problems she has with them, her anger at her husband and how she doesn't want to be pregnant again, how she must ask a neighbor for help to 'manage' her slaves and how her life as a 'lady' really is turned upside down when her husband leaves for the war.

Women...displayed their new self-absorption and self-interest in a growing reluctance to continue to yield their loved ones to the Confederate army... As Mary Bell of North Carolina bluntly proclaimed to Alfred in July 1862, 'I think you have done your share in this war' (240 -1)

In one part of the book…. [read more]

Women in World War II Research Paper

… [10: "Women in World War Two." History Learning Site. 2011. Web. Dec. 2011.] [11: Campbell, D'ann. "Women in Combat: The World War Two Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union." Journal of Military History. 57. 1993. 303. Print.]

The Royal Air Force employed women in a department called the Women's Auxiliary Force (WAAF). Like is the ATS women were primarily tasked with domestic chores. The only time that women were allowed to fly planes was in transporting the vehicles from the factories to a military base. It was reported that the women flyers had fewer crashes than the male pilots. Yet women were not allowed to train as pilots in order to fly missions. Many of these women who…. [read more]

Women First Wave Susan B. Anthony Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Women

First Wave

Susan B. Anthony was born in 1820 on February 15 in Adams, Massachusetts. Her family followed the Quaker tradition, and was also involved in activism. This affected her deeply, and her sense of justice and moral zeal were developed early in life. When Susan grew up, she entered the teaching profession, in which she worked for fifteen years before becoming active in temperance. This led to her involvement with the women's rights movement and the suffrage in 1852. In 1900, she successfully campaigned for the admission of women to the University of Rochester. Throughout her life, she remained an active force of inspiration for many. Susan died on March 13, 1906.

Alice Paul was born on January 11, 1886, also…. [read more]

Women's College Term Paper

… In contrast, I am struck by how institutions like Name College generally graduate women with math and science degrees at 1.5 times the rate of women at co-educational colleges and universities. Furthermore, students at women's institutions pursue doctorates in math, science and engineering at much high rates.

Obviously, schools like Name College are doing something right. I believe that your institution provides an excellent grounding in the sciences and an atmosphere that makes it conducive for young women to learn. It is therefore no surprise that in survey after survey, institutions like Name College rank in the upper tiers in terms of quality education as well as the number graduates who go on to graduate school. Many more conquer the worlds of politics, commerce, art…. [read more]

U.S. Women in 1930S-1940s Term Paper

… Obstacles to employment are giving way."

To keep the economy moving, the government actively sought to recruit more women into the workforce. In 1941, it took Congress a record two weeks to set aside federal funds for child daycare, so more women could direct their labor to the war. Through this program, wealthy children received education while poorer children received medical and other therapeutic care. To accommodate the mothers' working hours, these programs were open from 10-12 hours a day, six days a week. The day care program also provided work for unemployed teachers and child development experts.

Though this period seemed to usher in new opportunities for women, most of the female laborers were fired by the end of the war, as the men…. [read more]

Women in Abusive Relationships Research Paper

… 47). For the person going into counseling, there is a whole field of service that needs to be filled, and that is working with abused women, Morris explains. The abused women needs direct guidance in order to locate a job that suits her skills and experience. For example, the counselor must be able to direct the abused woman to apply for positions she is competent to do, and to "reframe" the woman's skills she may have forgotten about during the nightmare of her abusive environment. But the counselor should not leave the abused woman with an "open-ended research" for career options because that may be "overwhelming"; there should be a "targeted" approach to specific job skills and employment opportunities (p. 48).


The abuse that…. [read more]

Women's Right to Vote in the 19th Century Term Paper

… Women Suffrage 19th Century

However novel it may appear, I shall venture the assertion, that, until women assume the place in society which good sense and good feeling alike, assign to them, human improvement must advance but feebly," (Wright). Fanny Wright may have presaged the deplorably slow progress the women's rights -- and women's suffrage -- movements would make throughout the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although the Declaration of Independence of the United States heralded a new era of democratic self-rule, both it and the Declaration of the Rights of Man excluded females from its blanket ideas. Moreover, the democratic ideals espoused in the French and American Revolutions did not apply equally to blacks, who were slaves in the United States until…. [read more]

Public Roles of Women Term Paper

… Conduct books for women concentrated on the virtues of modest restraint and domestic subordination, contributing to the differentiation of public and private spaces for men and women.

These manuals perpetuated the thinking that there were two sets of rules for men and women regarding everything from morals and sexual conduct to fashion. Women of the 18th and 19th century were not free to dress as they pleased but rather were corseted and covered beyond our wildest imaginations. Layer upon layer of material and hoops kept a woman "under cover," only to be seen by her husband. Obviously, the principles of Puritan piety and virtue held fast for women during this time period.

The early 17th century was a time of transition when women were viewed…. [read more]

Women's Rights in the Twentieth Century Essay


Women's Rights in the 1920s:

In many ways, the achievement of female suffrage in 1920 after a long campaign for that right by women's groups beginning before the turn of the 20th century was the most important foundation of all the other rights and privileges that American women were to secure subsequently. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Supreme Court also struck down minimum wage laws that provided for lower minimum wages for women and the women's rights movement began another half-century-long long campaign for the right to reproductive choice through birth control and elective abortions that were illegal in most of the country.

In theory, women in states where abortion was illegal had the right to obtain abortions in states…. [read more]

Odd Women by George Gissing Term Paper

… ¶ … Woman

In what ways do Monica Madden and Mary Barfoot function as "foils" to Rhoda Nunn? Please find specific details and pertinent passages from the novel. This information should primarily be in chapters 1-17.

Over the course of the Odd Woman, its author George Gissing presents several contrasting models of ways for women to construct their identity in the world. The novel deals with the 'oddness' of women forced to work to support themselves, in contrast to the dominant middle class ideologies of the day, regarding feminine existence. Of course, there were many real-life 'odd women' like Rhoda Nunn, Mary Barfoot, and Monica Madden. But according to the dominant doctrine of the time, that of the separate spheres, women were not 'supposed' to…. [read more]

Thomas Dublin, New England Farm Essay

… This strike, as well as successive ones in 1836 and similar protests throughout the 1840s for a 10-hour work day, is endemic of Thomas Dublin's explanation of how New England farm women responded to the poor conditions in the textile mills. They did so by forming a tight-knit community that was concerned with the welfare of the collective, and not the individual. This notion is reinforced by the close quarters in which the women were forced to live, and was also reinforced by the large amounts of time they had to endure together on the job. All of this time together enacted a sense and spirit of community, that was initially manifested in palpable terms during strike of 1836, in which at least 800 men…. [read more]

Sappho in "That Fellow Strikes Essay

… The physical attraction the speaker feels may even out do the way the fellow feels about the girl. The speaker states, "My ventricles, my sternum and stomach" are fluttering. A "flame runs radiating under / my skin." Her desire is experienced with multisensory input: suggesting that the speaker is identifying so fully with the fellow on the couch that she imagines making love to the woman beside him. After all, the speaker "quickly" sweats and shivers as well as "vibrates." Then she "suffers such a fever / As death should follow." The speaker refers to the orgasm as a little death. Except for the "fellow," the speaker deliberately leaves both herself and the object of her desire gender-neutral.

Unfortunately for the speaker, the object of…. [read more]

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Term Paper

… Women in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"

Immediately, one is confronted with the apparent centrality of women in the society of Sir Gawain. King Arthur and his court are seen celebrating together, and the Queen stands before all as the representation of all chivalric excellence at the forefront of this otherwise all male society of knights. As one is respectful to the king, one must also be respectful to the queen -- if not more respectful, to show one's homage to Arthur.

However, although powerful images women may be symbolically important in the society of the poem, this does not mean that women are truly powerful players in courtly life. Rather, the female body is used as a 'test' of the homage a knight…. [read more]

Europe Women's Suffrage Most Countries Research Paper

… Austria had only a small-scale campaign for women's suffrage in the 19th Century, and women were allowed only very limited participation in local and municipal elections, though male proxies.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Brigitta Bader-Zaar, "Women in Austrian Politics, 1890-1934" in David F. Good et al. (eds). Austrian Politics in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives (Berghahn Books, 1996), p. 62.]

In Germany, the first women's rights association was founded in 1865 by Louise Otto-Peters, who had also advocated equal rights for women during the failed democratic revolutions of 1848-49. During the same era, the industrialization of Germany led to women working outside the home for wages for the first time, often in industries where they earned far less than men, although according to laws passed after…. [read more]

Woman Hollering Creek the Real-Life Essay

… All Cle-filas can possibly hope to understand is the fact that she is in pain and her husband has caused that pain. Her role in the home is one of passivity and acceptance and, most importantly, unquestioning obedience. If her husband is disloyal to the fidelity of their marriage and violent with his bride, then that is just something she has to deal with. This was the general belief of the day, that if the wife got injured by the husband, it was between the two of them and no one outside of this dichotomy should have the information or be anyway involved in the dispute. Either that or it was believed that the little woman has inevitably caused her husband's dissatisfaction and so it…. [read more]

Latin American Women's Cultural Decision in Labor Force vs. Procreation in Past vs. Present Research Paper

… Latin Women and Vocational Empowerment Issues

Women have achieved great strides in modern societies, especially when compared with the historical role of females in ancient societies, and even in relatively modern-era societies. One of the most important aspects of female empowerment relates to the incorporation of females into the modern workforce. The greatest documented increase in female empowerment in this area was in American society immediately after the Second World War, mainly by virtue of the extent to which female labor was required during the war effort to replace the positions vacated by males involved in overseas military conflict. That conflict was, in retrospect, a watershed event in the progress of females during the 20th century.

In Hispanic societies, specific social and cultural attitudes, beliefs,…. [read more]

Abuse of Women Has Grown Term Paper

… There seems to be a common feeling of shame among abuse victims.

Paula Spencer also dismisses the abuse when she says, "I envied them. And sometimes I hated them. They didn't know how lucky they were with their real accidents" (Doyle, p. 38). She sees other women at the hospital and wishes she had "real accidents" as they had. It seems that abused women do not feel that they have the right to call it abuse unless someone else validates it as such.

When one does leave, what compels her finally to get out of the abusive situation?

When one does finally leave an abusive situation, it is often out of care for another, often a child. One may see the impact that the abuse…. [read more]

Lives of Women Term Paper

… Women still had a long road ahead of them, but they did make gains in education during this time, and education became more respectable, even for upper-class young ladies. Usually it was their fathers who decided to send them on to college, their mothers often had little say in the matter.

In conclusion, women in Victorian times and beyond were expected to conform to society's mores, which did not include rights for women. If a woman stepped outside the norm, she did not "fit" in polite society, and she was often ostracized and abandoned by those around her. Women were not supposed to have public lives; only private lives within the home, and with close friends. Those who attempted to mesh public and private lives…. [read more]

Unruly Women of Paris Term Paper

… In fact, it is suggested that women were among the first to be aware of troops in the midst of Montmartre because they were so accustomed to rising early to take care of the daily chores of homemaking, such as making breakfast.. (26-27) The troops arrived in silence, but it was the women of the commune who woke first to sound the alarm. From quite early in the struggle, the commundares (as they came to be called) numbered women as amongst their strongest advocates, defending the wounded leaders against attack and acting as advocates during negotiations.

Even during the time, the women's relative parity in the ranks of the commune was used to condemn the ideals of the commune. The Paris-Journal of the time said…. [read more]

Role of Women in Oedipus Essay

… Her behavior is even more laudable as a consequence of the numerous suitors stressing her. Jocasta only needs one man in order to forget about Laius.

Penelope's husband, Odysseus, is one of the most praised Greek heroes, while Laius is renowned for his shameful behavior and because of his unethical temperament. Along with Penelope, Athena, Calypso, and Helen of Troy all demonstrate that they are above Sophocles' image of women. Their courage and their character in general promote the belief that women were indeed capable of much more than one might have been inclined to think. Homer's position is most certainly surprising, considering that "The Odyssey" was written several centuries before "Oedipus the King." Women in "The Odyssey" are not submissive characters that are only…. [read more]

Women, Earth, and Creator Spirit Term Paper

… In the end, Johnson calls for a profound reworking of the interaction between the earth, women and the third member of the Trinity. To Johnson, this new emphasis could revitalize the Christian community, and create a new recognition of the creator spirit in the Christian community.

Overall, Johnson's thesis is thought-provoking and often disturbing. As a woman, I am particularly struck by Johnson's vision of change and her positive perspective of how a reshaping of mankind's essential beliefs can make for a better future. While Johnson clearly defines the problems of environmental destruction and the marginalization, she goes far beyond laying blame for the current state of the world. Instead, in Women, Earth, and Creator Spirit, Johnson creates a hopeful and positive vision for our…. [read more]

Gender Roles in the Workplace Term Paper

… Friedan and others convinced women that social fulfillment was to be found in returning to school and attempting to take on roles in the workplace traditionally dominated by men. During the Second World War, the National War Labor Board had recommended that male and female workers with the same job received equal pay. Although it was largely ignored at the time, this egalitarian idea gained weight in the early 60's.

In 1963, congress adopted the "Equal Pay Act," which forbid employers to pay men and women different wages for the same position. During the progressive era, women that had successfully lobbied for suffrage also had introduced minimum wage laws for women workers. The Supreme Court declared these laws unconstitutional, and John F. Kennedy created the…. [read more]

Women's Movement Term Paper

… On May 21, 1919, it was passed, 42 votes more than necessary being obtained. On June 4, 1919, it was brought before the Senate, and after a long discussion it was passed, with 56 ayes and 25 noes. It only remained now that the necessary number of States should ratify the action of Congress. Within a few days Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, their legislatures being then in session, passed the ratifications. One after another the other States followed their examples, Tennessee being the last of the needed 36 States to ratify, in the summer of 1920, to exercise their right of suffrage. On the evening before President Wilson made a strong and widely published appeal to the House to pass the bill it was passed…. [read more]

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