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World War II Put-Off by Europe's Lag Term Paper

… World War II

Put-off by Europe's lag in paying off debts from the First World War, the United States remained committed to a policy of neutrality for the first several years of World War Two. Several issues led to American involvement in the war. First, collusion between Roosevelt and Churchill caused the United States to adopt restrictive trading policies with Japan. The eloquent Churchill apparently persuaded President Roosevelt to pressure Japan through sanctions: by prohibiting further shipments of steel, iron, aviation fuel, and other military essentials (Irving). A crippled Japanese army retaliated by the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 of 1941. Congress approved entry into the war the very next day. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United…. [read more]


World War II Essay

… [footnoteRef:18] [17: Geoffrey Parker, The Cambridge History of Warfare (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 451.] [18: Overy, pp. 4, 31, 76; Weinberg, p. 1.]

Keegan and Ferguson do not specifically mention the importance of World War I developments of tanks; however, they discuss of the extensive use of tanks during World War II.[footnoteRef:19] For the airplane, in particular, this was revolutionary: during World War I, the airplane went from a flimsy machine that was not taken seriously by military commanders to a dangerous means of reconnaissance, pursuit and strategic bombing.[footnoteRef:20] Weinberg and Overy both mention World War 1 developments[footnoteRef:21], though Overy's assessment of World War I aircraft is less congratulatory, essentially stating that the beginning of World War II saw inadequate airpower…. [read more]


European Economics After WWII Term Paper

… European Economics World War II

World War II was considered the biggest and costliest war in history in terms of both lives and money (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 2007). In a short period of six years, approximately 50 million died in battle or as a result of concentration camps, bombings, starvation and disease. Others were displaced and left to become refugees. Billions of dollars worth of property were lost along with artistic and architectural masterpieces. The War was so vast that it involved almost every country in the world. But the only two warring sides were the Allies and the Axis. The Allies or Allied Powers were the United States, Great Britain and the Commonwealth, China and the Soviet Union. The Axis Powers…. [read more]


Marshall Plan and Its Results in Greece Term Paper

… Like most of Western Europe in the post-World War II years, Greece
faced many challenges. Greece's problems were a direct result of the war
and occupation by the Axis Powers and a direct result of internal conflicts
between various factions vying for power within the nation. Between World
War II and a brutal Civil War, Greece's infrastructure, people, and economy
were nearly devastated by the late 1940s. The United States' famous
European Recovery Program, more commonly known as the Marshall Plan,
combined with the Truman Doctrine helped rebuild the shambles that was the
Greek government and nation following the stresses of excessive and violent
internal and external conflict.
The need for outside assistance was obvious to the western world in
the years following World War…. [read more]


European Security and Defense Policy Term Paper

… Possessing the most advanced technology was tantamount to being the lead nation. According to this line of thought, the United States of America controlled NATO, and played a leading role in European affairs by virtue of her technological preeminence. This technological preeminence was something that had to be preserved at all costs, for without it, America would be forced to give way. In the "alliance of equals," that was NATO during the Cold War; no nation could be permitted to hold a rank as "equal" as that of the United States. A classic example of this mindset is to be found in the following anecdote, from the pen of an eyewitness:

prime example of [this] behavior in my personal experience was U.S. reluctance to tell…. [read more]


Ottoman Empire in 1683 Essay

… Given its many domestic and international handicaps, the Ottoman Empire deserves credit for modernizing as much as it did. In 1800-1908, the powers of the centralized state increased greatly, and the number of civil officials grew from 2,000 to 50,000. Even Sultan Abdulhamid II, who lived in constant fear of assassination at his palace in Yildiz before being overthrown by the Young Turks in 1908-09, oversaw the construction of 10,000 modern schools during his 34-year reign (Quataert, p. 62). New ministries of health, education, commerce and public works came into being during the 19th Century, modeled after their European counterparts and staffed by bureaucrats trained in Western languages and methods.

For all his considerable flaws, Abdulhamid II was also skilled at playing the Western Powers…. [read more]


US Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Thesis

… U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Explain the origins of the containment policy after World War II. Also, explain the reasons for the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Even when the Soviet Union was an official ally of the United States, distrust of Stalin's USSR and communism as an ideology was pervasive in the U.S. Vocal critics of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal decried the legislation as socialistic, even though the New Deal was actually intended to offer a middle ground between classical economic theory and radical leftism. However, the defeat of Nazism and the expansion of the Soviet sphere of influence into Eastern Europe alerted President Harry Truman and the rest of the Western world that a new level of communist…. [read more]


Europe During Times of Military Exercise Term Paper

… Europe

During times of military exercise or industrial expansion, women pose a useful resource to employers in even the most sexually hegemonic of cultures. Politicians urge women to leave their spatulas and kitchen sinks to join the workforce under the heart-tweaking adage of patriotism and national spirit. "We Need You!," they proclaim in colorful posters and media spots. However, when the market resizes or the men return, those same politicians thank the women kindly for their work, and, with the threat of nationally high unemployment, send them clattering back to the kitchen with little justification for job loss other than patriotic gratitude and entrenched beliefs of social mores.

The modern working woman struggles to balance work and family, as the Second Wave of feminism propels…. [read more]


Social Implications of the Industrial Revolution Term Paper

… Social Implications of the Industrial Revolution

During the nineteenth century, the Industrial Revolution, which had its beginnings in England, spread across Europe and the Western World. The era of industrial capitalism saw the establishment of a new empire of machines and the rise of the factory system (Faissler & Hayes, 1966). The revolution in the method of power production, transportation, and communication left in its wake an upheaval in the life style and social fabric of society, which had never occurred before quite so rapidly, or radically, except perhaps, as the aftermath of protracted warfare or natural catastrophes and disasters (Faissler & Hayes, 1966). Some of these fundamental changes and their implications will be presented in this paper.

The Industrial Revolution brought about a migration…. [read more]


Union and Confederacy Essay

… Rise of the Union and the Fall of the Confederacy

The eve of the Civil War carried suspense because things were not as they seemed and things did not go as planned. The Union had the ultimate advantage prior to the outbreak of the war because the war would be fought mainly on southern soil, according to Davidson. Families and the general business of life would not be hampered by fighting, as it would be in the south. The Union's primary concern was ensuring they had enough economic resources, which they would have through taxes, which paid for 21% of the Union's expense and only one percent of the Confederacy's expense. (Davidson 435) This advantage was for the Union territory more than Union soldiers but…. [read more]


Battle of Antietam Sharpsburg Thesis

… Battle of Antietam

The research here examines an analysis of the Battle of Antietam utilizing primary sources as the main source of reference. It first examines the immediate background of the battle, and how the Confederate and Union forces set up for their confrontation at Antietam Creek. In a defensive position, General E. Lee placed himself west of Antietam Creek, with the Potomac to his backside. General McClellan came from the northeast down onto Lee's much smaller forces. What resulted was the bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War, costing thousands of soldiers their lives. In the end, Lee failed to defend his position, and lost his chance for a successful invasion of Maryland and retreated, forces decimated, back to Richmond.

Introduction

The Battle of…. [read more]


Khrushchev on the Cuban Missile Term Paper

… In late April 1962, while Khrushchev was vacationing at his dacha in the Crimea, he went for a walk along the beach one morning with Marshall Rodion Malinovsky, the Soviet Defense Minister. "Malinovsky pointed a finger out across the Black Sea. Even as they spoke, the general declared, U.S. nuclear missiles were across the water in Turkey, capable of destroying all Russia's southern cities. 'Why do the Americans have such a possibility?.' Malinovsky asked. 'They have surrounded us with bases on all sides, and we have no possibility or right to do the same'"

Just days before, U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey had become operational. From this moment forward, Khrushchev began to move forward with the idea of placing missiles in Cuba. Although he may…. [read more]


World Trade Organization (WTO Essay

… (Mengkui; Bingwen, 2006)

In comparison to the neighbor India which is a true democracy it can be seen that the political system in China is the base of its difficulties and not its cultural diversity. One of the factors that created the variance in culture is the vast geological differences that impose different life styles based on various resources. The geological position off resources and the fragmentation of the regions and the poor development of the infrastructure can hamper growth. There is a greater phase of urbanization in China now but this is lesser by the world level and there are vast regional and cultural differences within the Chinese towns that lend a distinct cultural ethos to the urbanization and functioning of organizations. (Mengkui; Bingwen,…. [read more]


Arab-Israeli War 1948 Thesis

… ¶ … Arab-Israeli War 1948

The war of 1948 is also called The War of Independence Arabs. The war began about December 1, 1947. This war is divided into the pre-independence period and the post-independence period. The pre-Independence period began shortly after the passage of UN General Assembly Resolution 181 which was supposed to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab State, and an international area including Jerusalem and a large area around it. The Jews were to get about 55% of the country. The plan was fragile, but it could perhaps have worked had the sides wanted it to work (Israel War of Independence, 2008).

But the Arabs rejected partition and called for a war to rid Palestine of the Jews. The…. [read more]


Post World War I Era Term Paper

… In the modern age, however, "man... is unable to keep pace with the progress of his own civilization." The result is a fragile, amoral, insecure society characterized by political instability, violence and cultural decadence.

For Ortega y Gasset, as for Freud, the human motivations that underlay the war and perpetuated it - nationalism, chauvinism, rivalry and ignorance - are the products of mass society, because the "mass man" sinks to the median level of the mass of which he is part; mediocrity is his natural condition, and he takes his political and social opinions and attitudes from those around him. The result is a mass society that behaves like an irrational animal, impervious to reason, logic, or appeals to higher morality. Freud describes this reversionary…. [read more]


PDA SIM II the Strategy Capstone Project

… PDA SIM II

The strategy for the second simulation derived on the basis of two main principles. The first is that the X7 has the highest potential upside, so sales should be encouraged by lowering the price. The second is that the X5 is going to be on the downslide by the time this year's R&D investment kicks in, so that investment is best put to other uses. The strategy used is as follows:

Year by Year Decisions: Pricing & R&D Allocations

Price $250

Price $250

Price $250

Price n/a

R&D %

R&D %

R&D %

R&D %

Discontinue-N

Discontinue? N

Discontinue? N

Discontinue? Y

Price $450

Price $450

Price $450

Price $450

R&D %

R&D %

R&D %

R&D %

Discontinue? N

Discontinue? N…. [read more]


Drug Wars a Thin Essay

… S.-Mexican border but is more active in some areas of the border. These include the Mexican states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos, Michoacan, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas (Aguilar, 2007).

There are a number of different law enforcement agencies that dedicate at least some of their resources to participating in the drug war. According to Office of National Drug Control Policy (a U.S. agency that is run by the White House), law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Homeland Security summarizes the goals and processes of U.S. law enforcement in the drug wars as including the following:

Enforcement initiatives comprising multi-agency investigative, interdiction, and prosecution activities;

Intelligence…. [read more]


Europe's Largest Bank by Market Value Term Paper

… ¶ … Europe's largest bank by market value, HSBC has significant competition on the global stage. It is currently the second largest bank in the world behind Citigroup. Although it has its strongest holding within Europe, it is behind its competitors within the United States and Asian sectors, where other competitors have gained an advantage.

From an overview perspective, there are two specific competitors on a global level that challenges HSBC, Barclays and Citigroup. Barclays has a market capitalization of 95.72 billion dollars, while Citigroup's total market capitalization is 267.85 billion. Citigroup continues to challenge HSBC for its core user base within Europe while expanding into the Asian sector. It stronghold is within the United States, where it has a dominant market position as the…. [read more]


Capitalism in Western Europe Essay

… ¶ … Western Europe that Capitalism first became Established

Capitalism is a concept that defies a simple definition. Yet, from the end of feudalism in the West, to the rise of mercantilism, and finally with the development of the nation-state and the origins of competition, there appears a more definitive system that defines capitalism. The question of why Western Europe established this system is complex. There are circumstances which lead to the proliferation of a capitalist Western Europe. There are also reasons why "the rest" failed or simply was not constituted to follow the mode that would dominate future economic realities.

By all accounts the West lagged behind or was almost an equal to the rest of the world in economic development until the 19th…. [read more]


German Unification Essay

… ¶ … German unification has been a success or failure depends upon defining a standard of success. For many Germans, as well as many interested observers from abroad, the standard is defined by an ideal of Germany as the demilitarized superpower of Europe, leading the European Union as a model of what the industrialized, democratic, capitalist state. By this standard, unification has failed. Since 1990, Germany has struggled with a host of economic, political, and social problems that have frustrated its citizens and dashed the hope that a unified Germany would combine the best qualities of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR), while eliminating the worst ones.

Closer and more careful examination, however, reveals that this is not the…. [read more]


Germany Years Before President Reagan Told Soviet Term Paper

… Germany

Years before President Reagan told Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev "Tear down this wall," the Eastern European communist bloc showed signs of crumbling. The wall that physically demarcated East from West Berlin since 1961 had become largely symbolic by the mid-1980s, and by the time the wall came down in 1989, thousands of East German residents had already made it across the border due to increasingly liberal travel and trade agreements between both sides. By 1989, Germans on both sides of the wall had been somewhat prepared for reunification; in fact, the West German federal constitution still referred to the five Bundesl nder subsumed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) as if the GDR was like a rebellious child that would eventually come home.

Met…. [read more]


History Showing the Living Conditions Term Paper

… Their talk frightened her, then made her incredibly angry.

I was fifteen years old when I began to hate people. I hated the white men who murdered Emmett Till and I hated all the other whites who were responsible for the countless murders Mrs. Rice (my teacher) had told me about and those I vaguely remembered from childhood. But I also hated Negroes. I hated them for not standing up and doing something about the murders. In fact, I think I had a stronger resentment toward Negroes for letting the whites kill them than toward the whites. (Moody 110).

Moody's experience is just one of many that caused the blacks in Mississippi and all over the south to finally revolt. They were free, but it…. [read more]


World Poor Thesis

… ¶ … aloud or in writing, making the reflective report exercise a valuable addition to the learning process. This reflective report recounts the events that took place during the research process for the study, "Identifying Marketing Opportunities to Combat Global Poverty," including a recollection of individual experiences, the personal feeling and learning that were experienced, as well as the group dynamics and learning that were derived from the experience. A review of lessons learned that can be used in future projects is followed by a summary of the reflective report entries in the conclusion.

Recollection of Experiences

Perhaps the overriding perception that emerged during the earliest phases of the research process concerned the extent of the problem of global poverty and how it affected the…. [read more]


Harvard Professor of History Term Paper

… He notes that the Japanese reached a high level of progress because it had a decentralized feudal system like that of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Their work habits were unlike those of other Asians. They centralized, nationalized and modernized their habits and institutions. (Gray) The Japanese people achieved industrialization quite fast because of sacrifice and the willingness of the Japanese worker to work long hours of monotonous labor. Their admirable qualities were geared to wage an economic war for progress - a collective commitment to modernization and the development of a work ethic and personal values that led to the famous Japanese economic miracle. It was their devotion to samurai values that did this. But Japan was not like any other Asian country,…. [read more]


Industrialization That Started in the Early Eighteenth Essay

… ¶ … industrialization that started in the early eighteenth century and in Britain and swept first Europe and then spread through North America and then most of the countries of whole world by the turn of the twentieth century completely changed the life style of the human kind. Domestic and international relations adapted to a new order that set the tone for globalization in an era that brought along better, faster and more effective ways of transportation, increased the migration of the working force to a level never seen before in the history of humanity and forced nations to change their policies regarding international relationships. Some historians considered that the technological changes produced by the invention of the steam engine and the mechanical means of…. [read more]


Negotiation the Power Term Paper

… Negotiation

The Power of Negotiation

During the Cold War, America and Russia existed in a state of constant diplomatic tension. Over the course of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union teetered on the brink of nuclear war. "The Soviets had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States. U.S. armed forces were at their highest state of readiness. Soviet field commanders in Cuba were authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if invaded by the U.S. The fate of millions literally hinged upon the ability of two men," the leaders of these respective nations ("An Overview of the Crisis," the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1997). But both President John F. Kennedy and Nikita…. [read more]


World Wide Web Search Optimization for Physician Term Paper

… ¶ … Wide Web is available around the world today, and consists of billions of pages of information and several pages are being added every second. As a result, billions of users are increasingly turning to the Web for answers, as well as recreation, shopping and even education. In addition, the healthcare community is increasingly turning to the World Wide Web to obtain information and to provide it to their peers and patients as well. One of the unfortunate consequences of the enormity of the amount of information that is available on the Web is the inability of many search engines to identify the precise information desired by the user. Indeed, a simple search might result in hundreds or even thousands (or tens of thousands)…. [read more]


Sociology: Changing Societies Book Report

… A union leader in Washington, D.C., isn't a miner, but miner's groups are his reference group because he identifies so strongly with their needs and aspirations.

Primary groups refer to groups where a person received his or her first important lessons about life and social realities - most often, a typical primary group is the family. Individuals develop their self-concepts and their sense of themselves in a primary group. In a secondary group, such as the HR department at work, a person is less emotionally connected, and feels less totally included in the group's values and actions. A secondary group allows for roles to be played in order to carry out that group's utilitarian functions, whereas in a primary group, one's role is pretty much…. [read more]


Attacks on Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Indications leading to the Attacks

Even though the attacks on Pearl Harbor and the World Trade Center have been portrayed as completely unexpected and unforeseen actions, both these events had been directed by apparent signs and signals that the United States had been confronting a looming danger (36). Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the relationship between the Americans and the Japanese had arrived at its lowest point (7). Not later than the summer of 1941, the government of the then American President, Franklin Roosevelt, had set economic sanctions on the Japanese government to compel them to stop their conflict with China. Historians have given reference to these sanctions as the contiguous reason of the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor. The Japanese government refused…. [read more]


Phoenix Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Phoenix Program Lessons to Iraq

Scope and Significance

Summation

The Phoenix Program in Vietnam

Lessons Learned from Phoenix

Applications for Iraq

Selected Bibliography

APPLICATION of PHOENIX PROGRAM LESSONS to IRAQ

It is not at all unusual to hear popular comparisons made between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq and though most experts see only a casual relationship still others see a comparison that is not only valid but is applicable to the utilization of historical Vietnam tactics and lessons learned from them to formulate reasonable resolutions to the Iraq War. In a collection of essays analyzing the similarities and differences of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars, ed. David Ryan demonstrates that the two wars are very similar in public sentiment…. [read more]

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