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Xerxes, King of Persia Term Paper

… ¶ … Xerxes, king of Persia, one of the most notable figures of the Great Persian Empire. Xerxes is best known through history because of his implications as a military leader and strategist that lead the Median Wars and the Persian invasions of Greece with great cleverness and order.

However, in order to understand the life and deeds of Xerxes, we must first state the circumstances in which he raised to power and that influenced his later preoccupations. The research must involve the Persian Empire and the problems that led to their conflict with the Greek city-states that were involved in the Median Wars during the V century B.C.

First we will refer briefly to the Persian Empire, its raise and evolution, and its relation…. [read more]

Herodotus and Samuel Old Testament Term Paper

… Herodotus Sam

Views of kingship, visions of prophesy, versions of democracy: The Greek and Hebraic -- the Old Testament vision of Samuel vs. The father of history Herodotus' Histories

Herodotus, the Greek "Father of History," provides a secular rather than a sacred interpretation of why historical events transpire, over the course of the historical events leading to and during the Persian Wars. This point-of-view may be contrasted to the moral gloss of provided the author of the Hebraic book of Samuel. In the Hebrew Bible God's prophecy is conveyed to the alleged author, the prophet himself. God's words seem both to foresee and foreshadow what will occur, as well as to convey a predestined cast to the events that transpire, given the Israeli people's demand…. [read more]

Battle of Marathon Term Paper

… Battle of Marathon: Strategy and Significance

The Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. between the Athenians and the Persian army remains one of history's most famous battles. Despite being hugely outnumbered, the Athenian army managed to repel the Persian ranks and force them to flee back to their ships and eventually back to the lands from whence they had come. The Athenians managed to accomplish this without the help of the Spartans, whose helps they had desperately been awaiting but whose religious worship of the god Pan did not allow them to reach the battle in time. The Spartans promised they would pray for the Athenians, and said that Pan would send a disease to strike the Persians. In the course of the battle, the…. [read more]

Alexander the Great Term Paper

… Alexander the Great

There is not much more that can be said about Alexander the Great. He has been the subject of countless books, several movies, and hundreds of years of speculation. People have varying opinions about Alexander. Many doubt that he should be referred to as Alexander the Great, because he destroyed so many civilizations and cultures that had prospered for years before his reign. Others believe that he deserved the moniker because he expanded the Greek empire into territories far beyond those it controlled prior to his reign. In fact, Alexander was credited with conquering the known world. Therefore, even though opinions vary, there is little doubt that Alexander the Great had a tremendous impact on the world, and that his impact continues…. [read more]

Dark Age and the Archaic Term Paper

… Spartan males were raised to be warriors and Spartan females were raised to be subservient and serve Spartan males. Examining the system, it is clear that Spartan women suffered from systemic political gender discrimination, but it is equally clear that the rigid gender roles deprived Spartan males of many of the aspects of life generally considered critical for happiness and good mental health. In fact, the Spartan ideal for manliness was one of physical perfection, so that imperfect male infants were left to die or placed into slavery. This is one way where Spartan males were placed to a much higher standard than Spartan females. Males were also deprived of significant maternal contact and comfort; they were raised by wet-nurses and they were not shown…. [read more]

Ancient Greek History the Persian Wars Term Paper

… Athenian Greeks vs. The Persian Empire Army

At the beginning at the fifth century B.C., the city states of peninsular Greece allowed themselves to embrace their own selfish separatist ideas, confident that no outside enemy threatened them. The northern Illyrian tribes, from where the Achaeans and Dorians once came, ceased their attacks on Greece. In the south, the power of Egypt continued to decline. In the west, Rome and Carthage were only on the eve of their existence. But danger lay in the east. The Persian Empire, now at the height of its power, was advancing west. Already the Greek cities of Asia Minor had been conquered. The Persian army crossed the Bosphorus straits into Thrace and conquered Macedonia and the islands of Lemnos, Chios,…. [read more]

Battle of Thermopylae Term Paper

… Thermopylae


In 480 B.C.E., the great and mighty Persian Empire became embroiled in a series of wars with the Greek city-states (polis) in what some historians consider "one of the most profoundly symbolic struggles" in Western civilization. In essence, these wars between the Persians and the Greeks would help to decide "the viability of a new direction in Western culture" led by the Greeks and their devotion to democratic ideals and principles. In contrast to the ancient Greeks, the Persian Empire was a world of god-like kings in which the priests "stood guard over knowledge" and where emperors "treated even their highest-ranking subjects" as nothing more than slaves and second-class citizens. However, these differences between the two opposing forces did not…. [read more]

Herodotus Is Called First Historian Term Paper

… Themistocles was sure, a great man and he was such kind of a person who is always necessary in all tragic and uneasy times. We was an embodiment of all Greeks' wish to live in their own country, free of foreign invaders and sure, no Greek wanted some barbarians (I have to admit that Persians were not that developed as Greeks were) to be masters of their country, their lives and lives of their wives and children. Themistocles was a usual man but he had talent and important features of own character to become a national leader in such complicated period of Greek history but I also have to mention that events helped him to gain what he gained. All historical events depends on strong…. [read more]

Men Are the Focal Point Term Paper

… Women are the focal point in the Offering to Isis, located in the tomb of Nefertari. The Queen is offering valuables to two goddesses. Images depicting mythology were prevalent during the period in which this piece was constructed. This image is clearly one-dimensional. However, vibrant colors are used instead of the natural limestone coloring in Darius' sculpture. The wealth associated with Nefertari is demonstrated in the gold jewelry around her neck and in her hair. Like the Darius piece, the characters resemble each other, except for their dress. The shapes of the faces are styled almost identically in the two pieces. Both of the pieces depict subjects in profile. They both have the same angular features. Even the subject matter in both of the works…. [read more]

Christians and Romans to the Emperor Publius Term Paper

… Christians and Romans

To the Emperor Publius Diocletian, I, Patricius, son of Gaius Valerius and grandson of Septimus Valerius, who lived and died in service to the Senate, send my greeting and my salute from my little desk in my home near Sais, in the Delta.

The waves of persecution have reached the shores of the Nile. In this place of extreme contrasts between paradise and desert, a miracle and testimony of God's mercy to the world, another less noble, less divine, contrast has become rife. It is the contrast of a nation teeming with foreigners of every tongue and religious persuasion setting aside one group to receive the full weight of all the vilification and hostility which the other groups can produce. That this…. [read more]

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Term Paper

… This is the first documented example of imperialistic rule and expansion in history. Aristotle noted: "After the Athenians had gained their empire, they treated their allies rather dictatorially, except for Chios, Lesbos and Samos. These they regarded as guardians of the empire, allowing them to keep their own constitution and rule over any subjects they happened to have."

(Constitution of Athens XXIV)

The allies were mostly treated as subjects in the massive Athenian Empire. Athens made all the rules and others were expected to comply. One controversial order was the use of Athenian coins: "If anyone in the cities strikes silver coins and does not use the currency, weights and measures of the Athenians, but foreign currency, weights and measures ... exact penal retribution"

(Klearkhos…. [read more]

Histories of Herodotus Term Paper

… C.E. Although the Histories were written in the traditional epic form, being a strong beginning, an even stronger middle and a powerful climax, its structure suggests that Herodotus was relying upon true events instead of fiction. This clash between the Persian Empire and the Greeks is told masterfully, and is generally broken up into three parts. The first three books concentrate on Persia's westward expansion by conquest until it was adjacent to Greece; the next three deal largely with resistance by Scythia, Ionia and Greece to Persian imperialism, a time when Athenians vanquished the Persian king Darius at Marathon and succeeded in repelling the Persians; the final three books cover Persia's repeated invasion of Greece ten years later under Xerxes and the empire's defeat at…. [read more]

Peloponnesian War Term Paper

… History Of the Peloponnesian War: Failure and Accomplishment

War, regardless political motivation, geographical expansion, euthanasia, national defense, or any of several other reasons, brings to both sides involved consequences that change history forever. Civil wars, global wars, or nation-to-nation wars are fraught with devastation that inflicts untold misery on the citizenry of all entities involved. Before discussing the events of the Peloponnesian war, a situation that has now been archived in history journals, it is extremely important to discuss the overall consequence of any war, regardless of nature or time. Upon reviewing, and digesting, that which is presented below, one will surely conclude that any act of war is a mark against civility followed by a legacy of emptiness.

In order to garner an understanding…. [read more]

Earth and Its Peoples: Chapter 4 Political Questionnaire

… Earth and its peoples: Chapter 4

Political Theme

a) Who had political power?

The primary locus of political power was initially located in Persia, given the strength of leaders such as Darius and Xerxes. However, despite the fact they were relatively resource-poor, gradually the Greek city-states begin to grow in influence.

b) How did leaders get power to govern?

Political systems were relatively diverse at this time, in terms of comparing the Greek city-states and Persia. Iran was led by a dynasty of monarchical leaders. Many of the city-states were led by kings, by oligopolies (as in the case of Sparta), or democracies (in the case of Athens).

c) How did people or groups maintain or keep power?

Power was either maintained by force, as…. [read more]

Persian Wars BCE Essay

… Miltiades led the initial Athenian strike against Darius' invasion, routing the enemy and decimating its ranks. When Darius died and his son Xerxes took the throne, another Persian attack was launched. Xerxes built a bridge at the Hellespont, and approached a pass through the mountain range called Thermopylae. Leonidas, who was the king of Sparta, took three hundred Spartans with him to defend the narrow pass. Other city-states lent Greeks, raising the number of defenders to four thousand. For two days they held the pass against the Persians. But a Greek traitor revealed an alternate route that allowed the Persians to bypass the defense and attack from behind. The three hundred Spartans and seven hundred Thespians refused to retreat, even though there was time. They…. [read more]

Abraham to Jesus Essay

… Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, begins to attack Judah. Ezekiel preaches that the attacks are a punishment from God. Babylonians destroy the Temple

Siddhartha founds Buddhism.

500 BC: Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon and allows the Jews to return to Judah. The Temple is rebuilt.

490-80 BC: Persia invades Greece. The Battle of Marathon. Greeks repel Persians. Xerxes leads the Persians in a second invasion. The Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. Greeks defeat the Persians at sea and then at land.

478 BC: Esther is made queen of Persia and saves the Jews from persecution.

460-400 BC: The Peloponnesian Wars: Athens and Sparta at war.

Sophocles pens Oedipus Rex. Socrates begins teaching. The Parthenon is built in commemoration of the Greek victory over Persia.

333-2 BC:…. [read more]

Battle of Platea the Persian Term Paper

… Persian troops who were unwilling members of captured cities may have been more of a hindrance than an asset. It is certain that at least some would not want to see another city fall under harsh Persian rule.

The Battle of Platea shows that it is not only he who has the greatest numbers to have the advantage. Rather, a small group of well-trained, highly loyal troops can be of more advantage than a big bulky army of individuals. The Persian army was big and impressive to look at. They wore flashy clothing and lot so of jewelery, but it also contained a lot of extra baggage in the way of loyalty and unseasoned fighters. Tactics were based on numbers alone. The large army of…. [read more]

Ancient Egypt's Economic Growth Research Paper

… During the Middle and Second Kingdom timber started making its appearance as one of the Egyptian imports. This was provided mainly from trade with Byblos that gave Egypt a quality type of timber not found in its own country. The Middle Kingdom also built trade relations with Syria, Palestine, and other countries and colonized Nubia which gave them a great source eof gold, ebony, ivory and other resources.

This Middle Kingdom reign was at first successful in repelling the Bedouins who had infiltrated the country during the First Intermediate Period but precipitation again however into floods and internal conflict (aggravated by influx of foreigners in the region) led once again to economic collapse of the Second Intermediate Period during the later 13th and 14th dynasties.…. [read more]

Aristophanes Acharnians, Knights, and Clouds Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:13] The reason why Aristophanes chose this sort of metamorphosis presents some clear political and social nuances. As it relates to politics this morphing reflects the common man (the farmer) coming to the realization that he does have political power that ought to be exercised. The Athenians may have believed at the time that the enemies of the state were all they had to be concerned about, however, the framer demonstrates that the polis must also be concerned with the interest of their citizens. Failure to do so may force citizens to make agreements with enemies of the state. The plot simply brings to fruition the adage the enemy of my enemy is my friend. In this case the farmer and Sparta shared a common…. [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.