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Youth Smoking Rates and the Risk of Disease Research Paper

… Smoking and Disease Risk

In 2015, the U.S. Census Bureau (2014) predicts that 17 million adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17 will be residing in the United States, compared to 250 million adults aged 18 and over. The rate of tobacco use among high school students in the U.S. is estimated to be 6% based on data provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014). This rate reflects students who smoked cigarettes at least 20 days out of the last 30; therefore, there are close to a million high school students who are frequent tobacco users. The percentage increases substantially if less frequent use is considered, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. By comparison, nearly 19% of…. [read more]

Heart Disease and the Elderly Essay

… " (Young, nd) In the elderly silent heart attacks occur without the well-known crushing pain or pressure and may present in the form of heartburn, shortness of breath, fainting or confusion and sometimes with no symptoms at all.

Age related changes in the heart include the following:

Decreased Heart Rate Response

Longer P-R Intervals

Right Bundle Branch Block

Increased Atrial Ectopy

Increased Ventricular Ectopy

Altered Diastolic Function

Aortic Sclerosis

Annular Mitral Calcification (Schwartz, 1999)

Cardiovascular Disease related changes include:

Sinus Pauses

Second and Third Degree AV Block

Left Bundle Branch Block

Atrial Fibrillation

Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia

Decreased Systolic Function (Ejection Fraction)

Aortic Stenosis, Aortic Regurgitation

Mitral Regurgitation, Stenosis Systolic Hypertension Diastolic Hypertension (Schwartz, 1999)

VI. Treatment of Heart Attacks in the Elderly

The treatment of…. [read more]

Smoking Essay

… This does not only not work, but it is also ultimately unfair and flies in the face of American values and must be stopped. It is ironic that for a country that was founded upon tax revolt, it is becoming one that supports sin taxes as a stealth way to raise money by punishing a captive audience that is addicted to a product that is otherwise totally legal to use. Unfortunately, what has been demonstrated is a very petty and paternalistic determination to change the peoples' behaviors and lifestyles of the country. This has not worked in the past. In the opinion of this author, it is doubtful that it will work now in the present day either.


Adda, J., & Cornaglia, F. (2005).…. [read more]

History of Smoking Term Paper

… g., smokeless tobacco)?

However, despite the considerable negative publicity the industry has garnered since the Surgeon General's Report, the logistical difficulties of smoking, and the decreased cultural acceptance of the product (the 1990s lawsuit against Big Tobacco even inspired a major motion picture called The Insider), smoking still persists. Amongst adults "an estimated 42.1 million people, or 18.1% of all adults (aged 18 years or older), in the United States smoke cigarettes. Cigarette smoking is more common among men (20.5%) than women (15.8%)" (Adult cigarette smoking in the United States, 2014, CDC). Cigarette smoking is declining: from 2005 (20.9%) to 2012 (18.1%) (Adult cigarette smoking in the United States, 2014, CDC). But this should not be cause for complacency. In fact, use of smokeless tobacco…. [read more]

HIV Risk Prevention: Educating Minority Term Paper

… In conclusion, it would be advantageous to use the TRA for this project since studies have shown successful outcomes with this theory in past HIV / AIDS prevention programs. By providing appropriate knowledge or information, eventually the performance of a given behavior will be influenced. This HIV / AIDS prevention program will be education for seventh to eighth grade students in HIV / AIDS with the intent to change belief leading to a change in behavior. The TRA can provide a workable theoretical framework that has been used successfully in the past with HIV / AIDS education.


This study will attempt to answer the following questions:

Can an interactive school-based HIV / AIDS prevention/education program for multiethnic urban seventh and eighth graders increase…. [read more]

Smoking History Term Paper

… Such advertisements thus have a major impact on the people, especially in the youth to initiate smoking. (Cigarette Ads Influence Teen Smoking)

Effects of Smoking

The influence of cigarette smoking has entailed fatal injury to even more number of people than that resulted out of AIDS, automobile accidents, homicides, suicides, drug overdoses, and fires collectively. It decreases the life expectancy by 15 to 25 years, and is considered to be only avoidable cause of death. In one analysis only 42% of male lifelong smokers attained the age of 73 in comparison to 78% of nonsmokers. Smoking may even more hazardous in women. The smoke is considered to be the most hazardous element in the cigarette. Breathing in of smoke infuses tar into their lungs. Tar…. [read more]

Youth Violence Essay

… Similar to the tobacco industry that relies on the inability for the scientific community to prove cigarettes cause cancer (Cantor, 4), the entertainment industry relies on the inability to show that violence in the media causes youth violence, so it will not lose advertising revenue in violent programming aimed at children (Bushman and Anderson, 479). With such strong adversity, the scientific community will have to keep proving causality to try and break through the concepts to the general public.

Prominent members of the entertainment industry have gone as far as proclaiming that violence in the media helps reduce violence in the real world. Grace Johnson and Alfred Hitchcock have been quoted saying that media violence acts as a release for viewers and prevents future violence.…. [read more]

How Forgiveness Effects Human Health Thesis

… S. structuring an eighteen-step procedure of forgiveness. It listed the following development.

  • Assessment of psychological defenses.

  • The resistance of annoyance; the point is to liberate, not dock, the annoyance.

  • Acceptance of disgrace, when this is suitable.

  • Consciousness of harm.

  • Consciousness of cognitive practice (rerunning the scene frequently in one's brain) of the wrongdoing

  • Consciousness that the offended group might be contrasting self with the injurer.

  • Consciousness into a probably distorted 'righteous world' vision. [Issue of justice]

  • Transformations of heart/adaptation/original insights that old declaration plans are not functioning.

  • A readiness to discover forgiveness as an alternative.

  • Assurance to forgive the wrongdoer.

  • Restructuring, during role taking, who the offender is by screening him or her in background.

  • Compassion in the direction of the wrongdoer.

  • Consciousness of…. [read more]

Human Papilloma Virus Essay

… The following statistics reveal necessary information pertaining to the prevalence of the infection among teenagers in UK. The data indicates those females are more inclined towards having infectious diseases and develop cancers. The contributing factor chart identifies important information of the factors involved in transmission and development of the virus initiated diseases.

Rates of HPV related cancers



Cervical cancer


Anal cancer



Vulva cancer


Vaginal cancer


Penile cancer


Oral cavity



Pharynx (excluding nasopharynx)



Factors contributing to cervical cancer (cofactors)

Smoking prevalence (%)

women 31.1

Total fertility rate (live births per women)


Oral contraceptive use (%)


HIV prevalence (%), adults (15-49 years)


The following statistics reveal necessary information pertaining to the prevalence…. [read more]

Effects of Smoking Ban on Students Research Proposal

… ¶ … Smoking Ban on Students

The implementation of tobacco-free environments in school is now a common trend in most parts of the world and this follows a recommendation by the Center for Disease Control (CDC, 1994). This recommendation was one of the tools that was aimed at controlling smoking among the youths thus it was a strategy that targeted the youths and included the prohibition of smoking within the school premises or property including at events that involved schools even when taking place away from the school (CDC, 1994). It not only restricted students but also school personnel and visitors were included in this bracket provided they were within the restricted zones and events. This policy has however been defined differently from one region…. [read more]

Risk Factor Prevention Term Paper

… Risk Factor Prevention

Risk factor and population

The risk factor addressed in this paper is the use of Tobacco. Tobacco is a plant with a substance called nicotine tartrate. Tobacco can be chewed, smoked and snuffed. Tobacco is associated with the onset of the most heart and lung diseases such as heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, mouth and larynx cancer among others. Tobacco being a health risk is propagated by its addictive substance nicotine (Derek Yach, 2000).

Current statistics in Cleveland indicate that the teenagers aged between 14-18 are more at risk of tobacco use and most of them are nicotine dependent especially those of minority groups (native Americans represented by 4% of the population, the blacks also at 4% and the…. [read more]

Prevalence and Prevention of Stroke in the United States Thesis

… Stroke Prevention Prevalence in U.S.

The purpose of this work is to develop a clear picture of the epidemiology of stroke, in the U.S. The rising incidence of stroke and stroke risk behaviors has placed stroke high on the list of priorities, with regard to disease prevention and treatment and costs the nation billions of dollars a year to treat and deal with. Not to mention the human toll that stroke takes on individuals and families. The reduction of stroke events in the U.S. is unlikely to occur, across the board, and may in fact be at risk of increasing as a result of behavioral risk and an overall reduction in the number of people insured in the nation.

Strokes of all types are the…. [read more]

Asthma and ER Utilization Term Paper

… Asthma is more prevalent among African-Americans. The incidences were almost twenty two percent higher than Caucasians. On average, in every state in American, blacks suffered from asthmatic attacks almost eight percent more than whites did. The Hispanic population also suffered a greater number of attacks. (CDC, 2001)

Geographic disparities play an important role in the negative impact of asthmatic attacks. In poorer states, where more residents have difficulties in accessing health care have a greater incidences of asthma. Climatic conditions and states with greater polluting industries pose a greater risk for complaints with asthma. The states of Arizona, District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming have higher percentages of asthma complainants than…. [read more]

African-American Woman Living With AIDS Term Paper

… African-American Women Living With AIDS

The year 1981 marked many historic events in the world but none as tragic as the discovery of 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS was first recognized as a disease when clinics in the larger cities in the United States such as New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco first saw young men who were homosexuals with Pnemocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma which was quite unusual for young adults who were not know to be immunosuppressed. The first report appeared in June 1981. This disease was first believed to be a homosexually transmitted disease but soon it was recognized that this disease was being transmitted among drug users as well. It wasn't long however, until it was understood that this…. [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Approaches Term Paper

… Thus it is a very important public health function to remove these differences. For this purpose, providers and services must be stationed in underserved minority community areas to expand and maintain the efforts. Partnerships must be built up at all levels, and these include public and private providers: public health department, hospitals, MCH programs, Ryan White programs, health centers, free clinics, universities, and school-based health care programs. All of them must work together so that other communities are inspired to take up the challenge. This will build up partnerships between national organizations representing racial and ethnic minorities, physicians, State and local health departments and State governments. Straightforward measures like blood pressure checks cannot eliminate such health disparities - the difficulties are far more complex and…. [read more]

Environmental Tobacco and Asthma Research Paper

… The study also showed that the children exposed to Environment Tobacco Smoke are likely to become smokers (Larsson, Frisk, Hallstro-m, Kiviloog, & Lundba-c, 2001).

Another study conducted to determine if environment tobacco smoke has any effect or role in the development of asthma in children was done during 1999 -- 2000 by collecting information from a survey that was conducted in the population of children. The results of asthma symptoms were applied to the sample which was exposed to tobacco smoke.

The study helped to determine that there was a strong relationship between smoke exposure and risks of asthma. This relationship was direct and positive. Almost 15% of the cases having asthma reported the cause as exposure to environment tobacco smoke and smoking during childhood.…. [read more]

Smoking a Social Problem in Canada Term Paper

… ¶ … incontrovertible evidence surfaced in the late 20th century that cigarette smoking is a direct agent of cancer and numerous other health problems, governments at the local, state and national level have attempted to curb cigarette smoking. They have attempted numerous efforts to curb smoking, many of which not only has placed financial, social and political strain upon cigarette manufacturers but also increased revenue streams for the government. The Canadian government in particular has reaped the benefit of taxation upon cigarettes and utilized such resources to produce anti-smoking literature in an attempt to teach the national populace on the dangers of smoking. Governments have focused on financial curbing of cigarette manufacturers not out of revenue potential motivations, but rather because of the extremely high…. [read more]

Smoking in Elderly Term Paper

… ¶ … conventional wisdom that ciggerette smoking severely affects the health of individuals has permeated American society. However, there has been no rapid decline in ciggerette smoking within the past five years despite tremendous efforts by the national media and government to curb smoking. This problem is especially pravelent among elders, who are shown to be the least likely to quit smoking despite the tremendous health problems that it imposes. Of the top sixteen causes for death among the elderly, eight are related to smoking. Smoking among the elderly is a persistent problem, medical surveys have shown that elderly and disabled medicare patients who smoke say they are "worse physical and mental health than patients who have never smoked." By quiting smoking, numerous problems associated…. [read more]

Risk and Resilience: Accommodating Article Review

… This does not have to mean immediate acceptance of failure from the child. Rather, it should be used as a tool to determine how the educational system may be able to assist the child in choosing their own optimistic path to a more successful portion of America's society and workforce.

To assist students in a poverty setting, the characteristics in which a school holds can significantly benefit the outcomes for at-risk students. In 1979, a study of three thousand poverty students found that high academic standards, incentives and rewards, appropriate feedback and praise, teachers with positive behavior, and chances to experience responsibilities, successors, and problem solving skill development directly related to a student being able to have good academic capabilities, despite their poverty status (Downey,…. [read more]

Nursing Supervised Smoking Cessation Plan: Methodology Term Paper

… ¶ … Nursing Supervised Smoking Cessation

Plan: Methodology, Anticipated Acceptance and Anticipated Results.

According to the American Cancer Society (2010), smoking causes 419,000

deaths annually. It is the number one most preventable factor that results in deaths

and disability from cancer of the lung, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and bladder

In addition it contributes to stroke and heart attacks (2). It is instrumental in respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchitis

It may cause a decrease in physical fitness and elevate serum cholesterol levels (2).

It is habit that effects 19.1% of the population according to the CDC (2007) which is decreased in incidence by 1% from previous data collected by the CDC (2004) of

%. The prevalence is moving down in the…. [read more]

Teen Smoking Behaviors Current Consequences Research Proposal

… ¶ … Teen smoking behaviors

Current consequences of the problem.

Importance/Benefits of the Study

Dependent variables:

Extraneous Variable

Scoring answers

Qualification of researchers


This business research proposal is about a campaign to stop smoking at the age at which teens are most likely to start, in middle school. The program will be aimed primarily at white teens, as black teens are much less likely to start smoking at that time.

This business research proposal is for a non-profit organization, but the problems will be attacked in a businesslike way, with market research.

Individuals begin their habitual behaviors early in their teenage years. Although the cigarette industry in the United States has been barred from using advertisements that appeal directly to teens, there are nevertheless…. [read more]

Prenatal Care and Health Care Access Term Paper

… ¶ … prenatal care and health care access on infant death outcomes in five public health districts with the highest and lowest rates of infant deaths in georgia

Infant rate mortality in Georgia is extremely high and is an indicator of the overall poor status of health among women and children in this state. Between 1990 and 2000, it is reported that Georgia was among the states with the highest rate of infant deaths. In 1990 the infant morality rate in Georgia was at 12.4 deaths for each 1,000 live births and decreasing to 8.5 per 1,000 in 1998. The infant death rate among the white population is 6.1 per 1,000 while the African-American population was stated at a much greater rate of 13.5 per…. [read more]

Cigarette Smoking Kills Essay

… The ratio of fats within the bloodstream can become increased fourfold in the course of smoking several cigarettes in succession (CDC, 2011).

Tar from cigarette smoke is deposited as a viscous, sticky substance on the internal membranes of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, and lungs. Twenty cigarettes smoked per day over the duration of a year will result in the deposition of over two hundred grams (one cup) of tar into the smoker's body. Cigarettes with reduced tar content have been tried and proven ineffective, as their lowered tar content becomes balanced by the tendency of addicted smokers to inhale the smoke more deeply, as well as hold it in their lungs for longer periods of time. In some cases, these modified habits with reduced-tar cigarette…. [read more]

Public Awareness and Human Diseases Term Paper

… Public Awareness and Human Diseases: Obesity

"Will Toucan Sam go the way of Joe Camel?" asserts a New York Times article exploring the new guidelines that the federal government has proposed that could change the way that the food industry advertises cereal, soda, various snacks, fast food meals, amongst other things (Neuman, 2011). This government initiative indicates that obesity is as dangerous to the youth of America as smoking, a truly alarming thing that is being expressed by the federal government. Though, it seems the obesity alarm being sounded by the government does not go without validity. According to the Center of Disease Control, between 1980 and 2000, obesity rates have doubled among adults, making 30% of the adult population in the United States obese…. [read more]

Prevent AIDS in the Gay Term Paper

… In New York City, Syphilis rates in men increased from 2.8% in 2000 to 6.9% per 100,000 people in 2001. Gay men were amongst the more number of cases. The number of Syphilis cases rose from 22 in 1999 to 116 in 2001 in San Francisco. But the primary investigation reveals that the figures may even rise higher in 2002 (Altman, A7).

A multi-faceted selection of factors at interpersonal, personal and at the society levels add up to the high sexual thrill seeking of adolescent men. Most of the young gay men think that AIDS is the disease for the older people and feel it is safe to have unshielded sex with other young men as the statistics says that the bulk of AIDS cases…. [read more]

Participant's Experience: A Qualitative Research Research Paper

… 2). The form and body image signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa comprise weight loss that is unquestionably dramatic (no medical reason), feeling fat, in spite of being underweight, fixation on body image, severely dangerous of appearance, and refute the fact of them being way too thin (Healthguide, 2001-2010, sec. 2).

What are the causes of anorexia nervosa?

Social pressures are what is said to play the dominant force for the reason of anorexia nervosa. A lot of the cultural standards of feminine beauty over the years as mentioned above have gone through the changes and the media has endorsed extremely slim models and celebrities. If a young person were to turn on their television and look at the shows or videos on MTV or…. [read more]

Smoking Is a Factor Term Paper

… Teenagers who breathe tobacco smoke generated by family and friends are far more likely to take up smoking themselves. (SWAT, Pg 3)

Certainly there have been many studies linking disease and death to second hand smoke, but what about those who do not make the choice to smoke but are still breathing in nicotine and tobacco smoke. The use of cigarettes by pregnant women can have dire effects on their unborn children.

Carbon monoxide - the same chemical which comes out of an automobile exhaust pipe - and extremely high doses of nicotine interfere with the oxygen supply of the fetus. Studies indicate that nicotine easily penetrates the placenta and becomes concentrated in the fetal blood, amniotic fluid and breast milk. These factors may contribute…. [read more]

Tobacco Industry Research Proposal

… Tobacco Industry: Where Business Meets Ethics

Whether they like to puff up each night before bed, live in the smoking section, and have a jeweled case for their cigarettes, or they walk out of their way to avoid the smoker in the parking lot and would rather sleep in a hotel lobby than a room filled with the stench of smoke, people have an opinion about smoking. Economically, the tobacco industry is one of the largest in the United States, with a history as American as Uncle Sam's. Just as America's citizens and visitors have come to associate the country with Indiana's wide corn fields and the brown cotton pants of the South, tobacco once was both the cash crop and cash itself of the…. [read more]

Infant Mortality Term Paper

… Each year up to $9.7 billion is expended for treating infants suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome. Similarly every year the health care department spends more than 500$ million for treating infants suffering from intra-uterine cocaine exposure. Asides these, birth complications that arise due to smoking incurs an additional $2 billion in expenditure. [Centers For Disease Control and Prevention]. If enough awareness is created by means of active counseling programs to stop alcohol and substance abuse during pregnancy we would not only be saving the precious lives of infants and preventing many serious problems like cerebral palsy, autism etc. But also be saving a huge chunk of money that could be allotted to improve other areas of maternal care.

Government Initiatives

The Healthy Start Program

Several…. [read more]

Adol Health Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:25] [25: Robert Blum. "Trends in Adolescent Health in the United States -- 2008."]

Of all the environmental, social, and political factors associated with teen health, poverty might be the most important. Poverty is positively correlated with many of the health problems experienced by American adolescents. Blum, for example, found that poverty, life-style, and risk-taking behaviors are influencing the morbidities of youth.[footnoteRef:26] Adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to be insured, and 9.8% of all American teenagers are uninsured.[footnoteRef:27] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 7% of American teenagers have no regular source of health care services such as a primary care physician.[footnoteRef:28] [26: Robert Blum. "Contemporary Threats to Adolescent Health in the United States."] [27: Centers for Disease…. [read more]

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