"Sexuality / Gender" Essays

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Caste and Gender in India Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … hijras & Dalits and explain their marginalization

Here, you need to explain to the reader why these two groups are marginalized. Particular ideas of sexuality, gender, and caste are used to justify their continued marginalization and ostracization. Why is it that hijras and Dalits are feared? Why are they segregated from others in Indian society?

The Dalits and hijras have long been marginalized in India. Though they remain marginalized, historical changes and structural factors such as the shift from colonial rule to the formation of the state of India; social movements; and government reservation policies have led to a growing visibility of the discrimination that these two groups face, which have opened up new areas for activism and collaboration.

Both Dalits and hijra are marginalized and stigmatized for different reasons. The Dalits have been historically stigmatized due to their professions. The hijras, on the other hand, have been stigmatized due to gender proclivities. Whilst the Dalits have largely gained acceptance in Indian society since social constructs change, the hijras threaten the conventions of humans who are unable to place them in specific gender roles causing their discrimination to continue.


Dalits are a variety of castes from all over S. Asia, speaking a variety of languages and practicing a variety of religions. The origin of the name "Dalit" in Sanskrit means "ground," "suppressed," "crushed," or "broken to pieces." In fact, part of the repertoire of names given them include Panchamas ("fifth" varna), and Asprushya ("untouchables").

Dalits received their name due to their menial professions which included leatherwork, butchering, or removal of rubbish, animal carcasses, and waste as well as garbage disposal, clearing the streets, latrines, and sewers. Historically, therefore, Dalits were excluded from Hindu social life which included segregation and their prohibition from entering a temple, or a school and being compelled to say outside the village. Great care too was taken to prevent accidental encounter between Dalits and members of other castes.


The hijras are distinguished due to their being males who have feminine tendencies. This includes dressing in female clothes, assuming feminine gender identity, and adopting peculiar feminine roles and behavior. The hijra history is long dating back to the Kama Sutra period. Many of them live in guru-led small communities for survival (Nanda, 1986).

Born with male physiology, some undergo an initaition called nirwaan which refers to removal of penis, testicles and scrotum. When they have relationships, many do so with 'normal' males, although most of these relationships are perpetrated secretly. Some hijras may even marry, although their marriage is not recognized by law or religion (ibid).

Persecution to hijras has always been intense. Authorities during the British Raj attempted to eradicate hijras seeing them as unnatural and although the law was later repealed, the Act against castration lingered. Hijras were also placed under the British Criminal Tribes Act (1871) which subjected them to monitoring and compulsory registration.

Historical changes and structural factors

While discrimination against Dalits and hijras is not new, tell the… [read more]

Gender Dysphoria in Children Thesis

Thesis  |  17 pages (5,712 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Gender and Sexuality: Gender Dysphoria in Children

Gender Dysphoria in Children

Gender is not an absolute or guaranteed condition in the human experience, and even young children can experience some confusion concerning their perceptions of what gender they should be based on powerful family, cultural and social influences. This confused sense of whether "I am a boy" or "I am… [read more]

Engaging in Gender Role Incongruent Behavior Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,456 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Gender and Sexuality

Gender Norms and Sexuality

This paper examines societal response to women who violate gender norms. To examine these reactions, the author engaged in three behaviors that are typically identified as male behavior: chewing tobacco in public, engaging in a football game with a group of males, and changing a tire while a male companion stood by and… [read more]

Differences in Gender Violence Rape Based on Race Sexuality Gender and Class Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Gender Violence (Rape) and on race, sexuality, gender, and class

The problem of gender violence in general has attracted a wide debate and concern in equal measure for a long time among many players, both active and armchair, in the campaign against the vice. This has been mainly due to its high prevalence which needs to be addresses urgently.Historically, the… [read more]

How a Print Advertisement Represents Gender and Sexuality Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (955 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Gender in Ads

An advertisement for Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans depicts a shirtless man bent over some kind of table or bed. His torso is featured prominently and comprises the bulk of the photograph composition. A woman with wet hair buries her chin in the small of his back, attempting to pry his Calvin Klein jeans off. Her mouth is open as if she intends to bite the man's buttocks; she therefore appears filled with passion and desire. He, on the other hand, appears to perceive the woman as a nuisance. His brow is furrowed while he glances back disinterestedly at the woman. The man appears to be saying, "What are you doing?" His left arm is extended forward and his right is used for leverage, and it looks as if he would try to get away from the hungry female. The woman's head, neck, and right forearm are showing: otherwise her body is cut out of the composition.

Although the man appears to be disinterested in the woman behind him, their bodies are linked together as their heads are shown forming a straight line, hers nestled snugly in the curve of his lower back. The predominant image is of the man's body, though. He is the figure that possesses the primary sexual power in the picture; she lusts after him because of it. Viewers' eyes will be drawn around the composition, switching from his head to hers, following the natural lines of his erotic form. The diagonal line created by their connected figures allows the eye to roam freely and explore the spaces and shapes created by the two bodies. His left arm and hand and his right bent elbow also form a straight line that point the eye towards the women's head, and the line continues with her right hand. Moreover, he looks back at her, and the viewer's eyes want to catch what he is looking at.

Contrary to the assumption that the man would hunger for the female nibbling at his behind, the advertisement depicts a self-contained man. The tension between the male and female is likely pointing to a homosexual underpinning. Without displaying overt homoeroticism, the advertisement does subvert traditional norms of gender and sexuality. His lack of interest in the passionate female behind him is most likely due to his sexual preference. The male form is featured in the advertisement precisely to emphasize male sexuality. The male possesses the considerable bulk of sexual power in the photograph: so much power that the woman behind him grabs for it. The advertisement suggests that Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans make a man irresistibly sexy. Both men and women will desire him.

The position of male and female forms in the photograph subverts traditional heterosexuality, too. Typically a man is shown lusting after women: she is chased and initially resists and fends off…… [read more]

Genders and the Differences Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,002 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sociology - Gender & Sexuality


Define and distinguish sex and gender:

Sex refers to the range of physical and physiological elements of the biology of sexual relations. Gender refers to the learned elements of the social and psychological elements of sexual relations. To illustrate the difference, the distinction between male and female from a sexual perspective is that males are sexually attracted to females and vice versa. Males are physiologically designed to impregnate females through sexual intercourse while females are physiologically designed to bear children produced through sexual reproduction.

According to that view, males are not sexually attracted to or romantically interested in other males and females are not sexually attracted to or romantically interested in other females. However, gender does not always coincide with sexuality or sexual orientation. For example, many individuals are not sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex. Instead, they are sexually attracted to and romantically interested in members of the same sex. Furthermore, gender encompasses a much broader range of human behavioral variation than strictly sexual issues. Specifically, while gender identity issues are most commonly related to the distinction between heterosexual and homosexual orientation, certain individuals maintain a completely heterosexual sexual orientation, but still identify with the opposite gender. Typically, a male might be sexually attracted to females exclusively, but consider himself to be female, despite his biologically determined gender assignment. 2. Explain Gender Schema theory and its effect on sex-based behavioral characteristics.

Gender Schema Theory describes the extent to which human gender-based social behavior is determined by the prevailing norms and expectations within human societies.

For example, within a given society, the beliefs about what attitudes and behaviors are associated with masculinity and femininity play a crucial role in shaping the development of those corresponding characteristics in the personal development of the individual.

In one society, providing food for the family, primarily through farming and foraging might be a social role associated with females. In that case, females would naturally come to identify with this responsibility through the socialization process. In another society, providing food for the family, (whether through farming or hunting), might be a social role associated with males. In that case, males would naturally come to identify with this responsibility through the socialization process.

Likewise, if specific attributes or behaviors are associated with one gender or the other in society, part of the socialization process includes the development of a personal identity of the individual that corresponds to those social expectations. For example, in many societies, males are expected to be strong, protective, independent, and logical; females, meanwhile, are expected to be weak, vulnerable, dependent, and emotional.

According to the gender schema analysis, young children begin to absorb these social messages and expectations very early and continue to develop personal characteristics based as much on these social influences as on any element of biological gender assignment.

3. Explain Social learning theory and its effect on sex-based behavioral characteristics.

Social Learning Theory suggests that many aspects of… [read more]

Homosexuality Japan in Japan's Progressive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Homosexuality Japan

In "Japan's Progressive Sex: Male Homosexuality, National Competition, and the Cinema," Jonathan M. Hall (2000) connects the "gay boom" in Japanese cinema with Japanese gender construction, gender norms, and Japanese nationalism. By framing male homosexuality as a reflection of heterosexual female desire, Japanese filmmakers reflect but also substantiate cultural values and social norms. Gay male sexuality is appropriated,… [read more]

What Can We Learn From Other Cultures That Can Help US Better Understand Our Sexualities? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,123 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Cultures Can Teach Us about Sexuality

Sexuality is an interesting concept, and when examined clearly has a relationship to cultural rules and norms. What is considered acceptable and appropriate sexual behavior varies significantly according to cultural rules, though some sexual taboos and norms seem to cross cultural lines. The fact that cultural norms impact what sexual behaviors are… [read more]

Midsummer Bottom's Up in a Midsummer Night Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (924 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Bottom's Up in a Midsummer Night's Dream

Despite the simplicity -- indeed, the very baseness -- of much of its humor, a Midsummer Night's Dream is actually one of Shakespeare's more complex plays on several levels. The three distinct plots and their varying levels of intersection can lead to a great deal of confusion to an unfamiliar reader or audience member, the language itself often runs sentences that are long and convoluted even by Elizabethan standards, and the themes of sexuality, gender, and free will are complex enough to be interpreted in several conflicting ways. It is also one of Shakespeare's most hilarious comedies, with jokes that range from the aforementioned baseness and vulgarity to utterly delightful witticisms and turns of phrase, often form the most unlikely (and unsuspecting) of characters. The overall result is a full-bodied and yet strangely cerebral play whose text demands performance for even the slightest semblance of focus, purpose, meaning, and true understanding.

It is true that the play is quite complex and depends heavily on tricks with language for both its comedy and its philosophy; "it would be a mistake, however, to regard the interwoven strands which make up the tapestry of the comedy as being predominantly literary and intellectual" (Riverside 251). Enter Bottom the Weaver, along with the rest of the Rude mechanicals. These Athenian craftsmen are trying to form an amateur acting company to perform at the Duke's wedding, and Bottom quickly becomes the group's center, largely through his own doing. Bottom is a very earthy character at the heart of what is an essentially earthy play, full of the motives of nature (as rendered by the genitals) and acting with the freedom that can only exist within the boundaries of the human spirit.

Ambition and hedonism, in that order, seem to be Bottom's sole motives in the play, and in this he is representative of the other characters and the play as a whole. Shakespeare uses this character and the vulgarity associated with him to make this explicit, rather than couching these motives in more poetic terms as he does for both the lovers and the fairies (to a degree). His comment towards the end of the play that "Man is but an ass if he go about t' expound this dream" pretty much sums up the entirety of the action for the bulk of the characters; the story is highly unbelievable to any that have not witnessed its full machinations (i.e Puck and the audience) (Riverside 275, IV. i., 206). His overt pursuit of each of his desires -- the various roles in the play, the glory he wants the play to achieve, and even his enjoyment of the pleasures Titania offers (though this is more implied) -- shows him to…… [read more]

Girl and Great Falls Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Moreover, the authoritarian voice assumes that the narrator is "bent on becoming" a slut (477). The maternal voice almost preprograms the narrator to become a slut. Her sexual identity is formed through mixed messages. She is told she is "bent on becoming a slut," but she must fight that so-called urge with socially acceptable behavior.

Richard Ford describes gender role differentiation and social identity formation in similar ways as Kincaid, addressing the key issues of sexuality, gender role rituals, and parent-child conflict. In "Great Falls," Ford's protagonist Jackie tells the tale of his parent's break-up, of his mother's affair and his father's response to it. Through his eyes, the reader ascertains how Jackie develops his sense of self and especially his notion of male identity. While Kincaid focuses on female gender roles and norms, Ford focuses primarily on male gender roles and norms. However, the two authors simply broach the same subject from different perspectives.

More so than Kincaid does in "Girls," Ford focuses on the parent-child conflicts and parent-child relationships. The protagonist Jackie describes mainly his relationship with his father but he also recounts his relationship with his mother. Jackie also forms an attachment to the man who his mother has an affair with: a male role model who is like the alter-ego or counterforce to his father's role. Jackie and his father seem to get along great: they go hunting and fishing together and Jackie seems to spend a lot of time with his dad. Their bond is not openly emotional, however, as is evident in their reactions to the mother's affair. When Jackie meets Woody, he notices how masculine he appears, describing the veins and muscles in his arms in a way that he never did for his father. Jackie even goes so far as to say, "I wondered how I would ever get to be like him, since it didn't necessarily seem so bad a thing to be," (344). Jackie has two central male role models, unlike the narrator of "Girl," who has an indeterminate number of female role models.

Like Kincaid, Ford describes gender-based social rituals. In the case of "Great Falls," the protagonist describes typically male gender-based social rituals such as hunting, fishing, and working on airplanes. These male rituals characterize Jackie's father as well as his alter-ego, Woody. Through these male social rituals, Jackie forms his sense of self and realizes his differentiation from women. Because Jackie is male, he knows not what social rituals drive females, except for the fact that his mother tells him, "I like a domestic life, is all," (Ford 348). Jackie's response, a simple "I didn't see what she meant by that," demonstrates the great gender divide that is evident in "Great Falls" as much as it is in "Girl" (Ford 348).

As with "Girl," sexuality is a key component of "Great Falls." The name of the man who Jackie's mom has an affair with is Woody, a sexually symbolic name. Furthermore, Jackie's formative experience, the break-up of… [read more]

Non-Traditional Families Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  4 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Non-Traditional Families

The two scholarly articles critiqued in this paper bring very different perspectives into view. They offer very different conclusions. And yet they are linked in the sense that they investigate and evaluate family success vs. family failure vis-a-vis the raising of children. Essentially, the Wu / Martinson piece goes into great detail, using empirical strategies to investigate how… [read more]

Man Who Fell in Love With the Moon Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (2,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Man Who Fell in Love With Moon

If there is anything true about history, it is the saying, "what comes around, goes around." In fashion, for example, the same styles weave in and out of different eras. To the younger people, the fashion is new and exciting; to the older ones, it's nothing new. Modern fiction mimics the values and… [read more]

Family, Friendship and Love Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


None of these authors are suggesting that alimony should be immediately terminated on the strength of this argument. At least however, alimony should be terminated within a reasonable period of time when a newly divorced woman is able to secure work for herself.

Gay rights is a further issue that has enjoyed considerable attention in recent times. The most prominent issue is that of gay marriage. Mohr suggests that distinguishing between genders in order to define marriage is absurd, and that love and commitment should be the distinguishing factors. Human beings who are inclined to be together should thus not be deterred from doing so legally as a result of their gender.

It has been seen above, in the case of Russell especially, that values based upon biblical teachings have become somewhat arbitrary as opposed to being accepted without question. Thus homosexuality has increasingly been accepted as part of the diverse society, rather than condemning the phenomenon as perverse.

Finally, it is the opinion of numerous authors within the readings that parents should be absolutely honest with their children regarding the above issues. In terms of sexuality, for example, Rusell demands that children should be told all that they wish to know about sexuality, with the result that they will grow up without the sexual dysfunctions imposed by negative religious and moral views usually established at childhood. This should also be the case regarding gender and gay roles, as well as rights. If a child is a girl for example, she should be taught that her place in the world will be the result of her actions, rather than decisions and norms imposed by society. Russell especially calls for honesty between parents and children. Children for example should never be made to feel ashamed for being curious about sexuality.

The traditional in the above views thus differs significantly from the conventional. Conventionally, children are taught that sex outside of marriage is morally wrong. However, the new philosophy suggests that sex improves with practice, and that young people should be allowed the opportunity to experience sex before marriage in order to improve the experience within marriage. The relationship between parents and children has also evolved to become more open and honest. Whereas children in the past were mostly ignored and/or imposed upon to adhere to strict discipline, this is no longer the case.

The implication of the new set of morals appears to be both beneficial and detrimental. It depends on how the transition between the traditional and the new is handled. To ensure a more functional society, I believe honesty between parents and children relating to all of the above issues is crucial. It is also important to cultivate tolerance in order to ensure that the social fabric stretches rather than breaks as time and technology…… [read more]

Ellen Degeneres Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Her honesty spurred others to look closely at their lives, and it made television history.

Socially, it seems that many Americans have become more accepting of alternative lifestyles and less judgmental about the people who admit they are gay. However, the gay community still has a long way to go to be fully accepted in a country where there are still numerous homophobics. There are those who decry the lifestyle for religious reasons, and those who decry it for personal reasons. However, America is a society that has blended populations for decades. We are supposed to be a society that will accept anyone into our country. DeGeneres states she is not "political," but her acknowledgment turned into a political crusade for gay rights that continues today in the continuing fight for acceptance with gay marriage laws. Economically and socially, gays are a force to be reckoned with, but they are still unable to gain enough political backing to create new and updated laws in the country. Ellen DeGeneres came out of the closet at a time when it was fairly safe. However, her impact on the acceptance of gays is extremely important. Her life proves that gays must take chances to be accepted in society, but that society is slowly becoming more accepting, and will probably continue to grow more understanding in the future. Today, it is not so controversial to admit you are gay, but it is still not nearly as acceptable as gays would like it to be. There are still prejudices and laws working against gays in America, and if people continue to mistrust and misunderstand the gay lifestyle, gay rights will continue to be an issue of concern and prejudice in our country.


Carstarphen, Meta G. And Susan C. Zavoina, eds. Sexual Rhetoric: Media Perspectives on Sexuality, Gender, and Identity. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Editors. "Ellen DeGeneres Bio." WarnerBrothers.com. 2004. 19 June 2004. http://ellen.warnerbros.com/showinfo/bio.html

Gross, Larry. Up from Invisibility: Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Media in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Hillier, Linda. "Ellen's Bio." Personal Web Site. 1997. 19 June 2004. http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/1777/biog.html…… [read more]

Politics of Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes Lysistrata Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Gender and Sexuality

New Criticism: Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes' Lysistrata

Aristophanes' Lysistrata is one of the eleven plays penned by the playwright that has survived over time. The original performance of this production occurred in classical Athens reportedly in 411 BC

Lysistrata is considered a comedy; an account of one woman's unique goal and desire to end the Peloponnesian… [read more]

Correlations Between Gender Sexuality Violence and Pornography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gender Porn

Gender, Sexuality, Violence and Pornography

What is the relationship between pornography and violence against women? How has technology affected this dynamic?

According to our reading, both in the texts by Renzetti et al. (2012) and Jensen (2007), pornography can carry significant implications regarding gender roles and hierarchies in our society. In particular, these texts point to the notion that the content of our pornography is a reflection of specific gender-role patterns and that these patterns generally cast the male as dominant and the female as subordinate. Indeed, not only do many of the scenarios described in Jensen's text imply that women exist only to satisfy the desires of men, but there is also cause to interpret from pornographic content that this submission even extends to a lust for violent treatment. According to Jensen, even in scenarios where women do not appear to initially desire male sexual attention, pornographic content inclines us to believe that "any woman who does not at first realize this can be easily turned with a little force" (p. 56)

2. How has access to pornography, it's level proliferation and the intersection of pop culture and pornography impacted definitions of masculinity and femininity? How has it impacted definitions and expectations of sexuality and sexual desire?

In many ways, the technological proliferation of pornography has had a detectable social impact. With the internet, the availability and accessibility of pornographic content has grown exponentially. So too has the opportunity for exploitative behavior to proliferate without any regulatory oversight. As a result, increasing variety and extremity of pornographic acts may be found with the ease of a search engine. Among other factors, this has increased access for younger online users, helping to stimulate an understanding of male and female interaction as being inherently sexualized and fetishized, Jensen warns.

3. Why is Jensen anit-porn? What is your opinion?

Jensen (2007) makes the case that sexuality has long been a context in which the male impulses to subordinate and subjugate…… [read more]

Gender, Sexuality, and Identity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Thus, rather the man stands as a martyr to philosophy, willing to die for the state whose protection he assumed, a state that allowed for him to teach for much of his life. A citizen, even in disagreement with the law, argues Socrates, may willingly engage in acts of civil disobedience and disobey the laws of the city. However, the citizen must also willingly assume the consequences of doing so, even if those consequences are death.

SECTION D: Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale -- Question 8:Cheat nature?

Ironically, the commander of Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale says to the main character that one cannot cheat nature, in the sense that the commander believes that feminism and a liberal democracy runs antithetical to what is natural, namely the natural subordination of women to men. Yet he himself is attempting to cheat nature and produce a child, when his own wife is barren, and with a woman who is not simply married to another man, but whose own child has been taken from her, an indignity not even many animals 'in nature' are subject to suffer. Even in the framework of the novel, characters like the commander find ways to follow their natural instincts, as he takes his mistress, not in the regimented and ritualistic way prescribed by his fundamentalist faith, to a kind of brothel-like establishment. There, women who are lesbian are forced to serve men -- but also engage in what feels natural to them, sexually, on their 'off' hours. Even the handmaidens, 'naturally' try to protect their skin to keep their beauty and find ways of dreaming about a life outside of their current plight -- as exemplified in the carved Latin 'don't let the bastards get you down' on a piece of furniture, as well as seek more effective political means of resistance. Even though the Bible is under lock and key to prevent competing interpretations (or of women engaging in reading) transgressions seem to naturally take place in all characters lives take place, even in the lives of the leaders of the land. The commander sees male sexual desire as natural, in contrast to female sexual reticence, while the handmaiden sees her love of her child as natural, in contrast to her own mother's feminism. Overall, the book suggests there is no 'natural' that is stable, and no nature to cheat.

SECTION F: The Sermon on the Mount by the Gospel according to Matthew: Persecution Question

Jesus teaches the sermon as a radical religion teacher, a man spurned by his current religious society. Thus Jesus asks Christian followers to endure the onslaught of a world that is incapable of understanding their true Christian philosophy and calling. Piety is not an act of public ritual and demonstration, performed for social validation, with social exuberance in a large ritual community. Rather, for clandestine members of a small sect of Christians, piety is a secret and private act. The inner person or soul, in Jesus' estimation, is vastly superior to… [read more]

Sexuality Is Defined, Expressed Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Because Trish is female and expected to have a lower sex drive than a male, she only presses Andy because of personal and psychological reasons but not because her biology is screaming for orgasm. Andy's abstinence is deviant, but it also lowers his sex drive to the presumed level of the female.

40-year-old Virgin simultaneously upholds and subverts normative sexual behavior and gender norms. On the one hand, the film shows that men are considered deviant if their sex drives do not determine their behaviors or ensure dominance over women. On the other hand, the film shows that men are perhaps not as biologically determined as is suggested by the NSA axiomatic norms that govern American society. Andy's friends come to realize how their being driven by androcentric sexual norms have interfered with their relationships and peace of mind. Andy himself comes to see that his deviant virginity has ensured self-fulfillment in that he genuinely does want a stable, monogamous heterosexual relationship and was not interested in conforming to the norms that constrain his peers' behavior. 40-year-old Virgin also shows how sex operates on complex dimensions, and is at the intersection between self and society. Sex is both deeply personal, but also essentially political and social in nature. Sex becomes a significant rite of passage for Andy, but that rite of passage arrived decades after it does for most men in his cultural milieu.


McGann, PJ (n.d.). The sexual natural attitude.

Padgug, R.A. (1989). Sexual matters: On Conceptualizing Sexuality in History. Chapter 2 in Passion and Power. Peiss, K. & Simmons, C. Eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Schwartz, P. & Rutter, V. (1998). The Gender of Sexuality. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

Seidman, S. (2010). The Science of Sex: Sexology and…… [read more]

Sex and Gender and Men at Work Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


GENDER RELATIONS ISSUES -- (500 to 750 words requested)

In "Let's Talk about Gender, Baby" Wendy Kaminer makes the argument that contemporary American vocabulary perpetuates sexism. The author provides several examples of common phrases such as "woman doctor" that are inherently sexist because there is no counterpart for male physicians. The only reason that the phrases "woman doctor" exists is because, in our society, doctors are presumed to be male. Likewise, in "Men at Work" Anna Quindlen details the ways that gender roles continue to define the respective family and responsibilities of married men and women. One of the most significant ideas in the two pieces is the notion referenced by Kaminer that our societal value system "vacillates between Puritanism and permissiveness" in so far as issues of sexual morality are understood. That raises a problem that is actually much more significant than sexism in language and family roles.

Notwithstanding all of the progress that has been made in the realm of gender equality in employment law and other areas of American society, there is an important feature of sexism that is still dominant in American society: namely, gender-based sexual morality. Generally, females are socialized to accept the more Puritanical view of personal sexual morality and males are socialized to enjoy much different permissive rules. It should be no mystery why so many sexual relationships lead to disappointment for at least one of the individuals and much more often the female. This gender-based differential in sexual morality mores virtually guarantees the perpetuation of predatory pursuit of sexual relations because women are encouraged to express their sexuality primarily in significant relationships. By contrast, because men are socially rewarded for sexual conquests, they typically conceal that their only interest in some women is superficial and exclusively sexual, because men learn that many more women will consent to sexual relations within the context of a sincere "romantic" interest from a man than in the context of an honest acknowledgement that the man is uninterested in the women besides sexually.

Essentially, the way we socialize males and females differently about sexuality creates natural incentives for men to purposely misrepresent their interest in women because feigning a sincere or "romantic" interest is usually the most direct path to…… [read more]

Performativity the Intersections Between Gender Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


My parents and their left-wing mentality held sway over his heart, but Andrew is not above pandering to the crowd. I'm sure on more than one occasion he kept his mouth shut when the guys in the locker room made homophobic remarks. And I also know that the only reason my brother escaped the scourge of bullying was that (a) he was strong and looked it; and (b) he was a nice guy and people tended to like him. Darren did get beat up. A lot, come to think of it. My brother stood up for him once, when he was ten. He got a black eye for it, and I think it made him proud. The birthday smooch took him back to that moment. It made him proud to kiss his friend, in what must have felt like a platonic gesture to them both. My brother was at that moment overcome years of indoctrination into a social code that was at once very much his own (for, after all, he fit in very well with the jocks); and at the same time, very much a source of shame for him.

My brother doesn't think too hard about these things, which is good. He doesn't use words like "interstitial" or "performativity." Andrew is just Andrew. He's lucky that way, because he does not experience much conflict within himself regarding his sexuality. Yet at the moment he kissed Darren, I knew by the spontaneous handclaps all around me, that I was surrounded by acts of performativity. Every person was thinking, "Oh! They're gonna get it on!" Perhaps it was a freak coincidence (because I don't think my brother capable of thinking this deeply), at that very moment in the club the DJ was playing a song by Louis Armstrong. The words go, "A kiss is just a kiss." This kiss was, for him, just a kiss. To the rest of us, though, it was an act of overt rebellion that challenged the positions of our normative boundaries. What does it mean to be gay, straight, or even bisexual? Does a straight man kiss his friend, with love, on the lips, and remain straight? My brother and I say yes, but we are subversive folk.… [read more]

Race, Gender, Sex - Rollin Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This book reflects this very authentically. The main players bob and weave in their own ways between what they want and what they value where sex seems always to be a subplot. The strong and confident Edgar, who wants to showcase his independence and pride, explodes with jealousy and fear when Vicente, whom he wants to help come out of the closet, tells their friends about Edgar's secret (that he is having sex with the school janitor). Edgar scoffs, calling Vicente a faggot while proclaiming proudly how we would really never give away such an important asset of his so easily. As Edgar says to their group: "I would never give my youth up that fast. I not that stupid. 'Sides, he stay married already. Vicente just jealous cuz I can get what I want and he no can." It sounds very much like the reality shows many adults of today have gravitated towards.

In a similar way, when Trina talks of her lover, Erwin, a high-school jock, she openly shares how she knows he loves her because of his wisdom of not wanting her to get pregnant too early. Plus, he always brings lots of condoms. She knows he is not "dickin around," that he really loves her, even if we as readers doubt that he cares of much beyond his football reputation. Still, the confidence that she portrays is pretty solid, even if misplaced. She sees no conflict with what she knows and what the rest of us experience for her. Like Kalihi in Farrah, it is better to act like what you really want than to want something you're fearful of portraying.

But the real story across all of the many layers is their use of language. This book is not just about youth and their exploits and naivetes. It is about the Pidgin-ing of a language to fit into the forces that rule their lives. How they roll together Tagalog, Hawaiian idioms, and 1970s American television perplexes everyone while giving a salute to their cultural clashes. How they speak demarks their personal uniqueness, their strange creativity, their defiance; and it even sets them apart from what the school and their peers really value. Filipino culture doesn't express such openness and blatant sexuality. But American TV suggests they should and they grab for what they can reach. They know little about how Pidgin comes from the need of the exploited in the past to speak in their own safe ways, claiming credit for their own existence. There is no director in their story, but still they broadcast their lines in ways that would make any award-winning script blush because of the street crud and credibility. Rolling together word and understandings just further blurs their confusions but it makes the story feel stronger.

I walked away from Rolling the R's without a lot of clarity of what it means to be a vulnerable Filipino kid in their time. The book is full of the politics of immigration, which… [read more]

Gender Show and Tell Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Gender and Sexuality: What it Means to be a Man

In her essay, "Pills and Power Tools," Susan Bordo makes the point that male sexuality is not associated with sensuality or pleasure. Instead, male sexuality is associated with performance and force. Sex is something that men do to women, not something that is done to men. Furthermore it is something that men almost need to accomplish in order to complete their jobs as men. Sexual satisfaction is equated with sexual completion. Bordo talks about impotence and the idea that when a man has impotence he is described as impotent, and that such language is not reflected in other areas. Before discussing the show and tell item, it is important to address Bordo's assertions, because they are not correct. People are labeled diabetic, autistic, retarded, schizophrenic, nymphomaniacs, addicts, savants, and a whole variety of semi-diagnostic labels, rather than being characterized as a person with an illness. To suggest that impotence is the only time that a medical label is used as a noun is a disingenuous example and it this one-sided focus that seems to permeate much of Bordo's article. Yes, men drill, hammer, or screw women, if one looks at the popular terminology for sex. However, men also make love to women, shag, hump, or hook up with a woman. In other words, not every male-related term for sex is violent or reflects the idea of the penis as a tool.

The ad for KY Yours and Mine actually reflects the idea that male sexual satisfaction is important to the sexual experience. Bordo's argument is that many sex-related products are strongly gender-divided. Products for men are supposed to increase performance, while products for women are supposed to increase enjoyment. Of…… [read more]

Gender Identity in Film Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,482 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Gender identity is an individual's isolated awareness, and personal understanding, of their own gender. Sexual identity. Sexual orientation is the favored term used when discussing a person's bodily and/or demonstrative desirability to the similar and/or contrary gender. "Heterosexual," "bisexual" and "homosexual" are what are recognized as sexual orientations. An individual's sexual orientation is separate from a person's gender… [read more]

Sexuality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is because they have placed that love as their center of happiness and when things go wrong, they end up in disappointments.

Many people go on to expect different things from love. If a person is going through psychological problems, he might go on to resolve his conflicts through a relationship. In that relationship, the person is able to attain gratification and domination through sadism or masochism. This is an example of love, intact and sexual perversions all in one category. A person placed the love or the relationship as the center of their attention. However, they link the perversions and the abnormal sexual behavior with that relationship as well. This sort of relationship can rarely lead to marriage and a peaceful life. Therefore, it was that psychological conflict led to sexual perversion and ultimate disruption of civilization.

Works cited

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton, 1962. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. London: Imago Pub. Co., 1949. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. The ego and the id. New York: Norton, 1961. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. The major works of Sigmund Freud. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1955. Print.…… [read more]

Childhood Any Less Safe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


People who engage in sexual playfulness, cybersex, sodomy and sexual fetishes also present other queer features of sexuality in the society. Sexuality initially was a sacred factor of society. However, these practices and developments in the society make the current society a den of queer sexual practices.

Question four

what does the five dimensions of sexual markets, commercialization and consumption… [read more]

Homosexuality Demedicalization of the Gender Identity Disorder Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Demedicalization of the Gender Identity Disorder

Gender identity is a highly controversial subject. The notion that one's gender is a significant determination of personality traits, behavioral characteristics, social tendencies, romantic engagements and self-perception is a critical one. However, it is also subject to debate because of the imperatives created by the social construct of gender. This often clashes with… [read more]

Gender Influences on Women and or Men's Lives Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



African-American men understand the issue of white privilege, which frequently goes unnoticed by those who possess that privilege. In fact, it is almost part of the definition of white privilege that whites remain unaware of the social status, consideration, and opportunity automatically proffered. Being able to switch back and forth between white and black identities is not possible, and… [read more]

Feminism Three Topics on Sexuality Examine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,195 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Three Topics on Sexuality

Examine how Two Feminist Thinkers Recast the Self as Subject?

Since its initiation as a theoretical discourse, feminist theory has been tasked with revising traditional theories of the self. Specifically, the traditional, essentialist, humanistic theory of the self had been predicated on the notion that subjectivity is subsumed with an instinct toward procreation, and feminism versed this view. Moreover, the universalist theory of subjectivity has an inherent bias toward the male, who is viewed as the passive agent while the female is subordinated within a position of submission. In order to advance the project of improving female agency -- one of the central motives of feminism -- it was necessary to formulate some framework of female subjectivity that did not position women as subject to male domination. Two thinkers who recast the self as subject were Eve Sedgwick and Judith Butler, each of whom situate subjectivity as socially constructed rather than biologically defined.

In "Axiomatic," Eve Sedgwick accepts Foucault's central premise that sexuality is invented when it is socially constructed. In this regard, sexuality is socially constructed rather than biologically determined. Sedgwick's theory differs from that of Simone de Beauvoir, for example, who asserts that women are inherently positioned as the other on the basis of their genitalia. Meanwhile, Sedgwick destabilizes sexuality to a greater extent than Foucault, arguing that subjectivity cannot be totalized on the basis of gender. While society is integral in shaping subjectivity, it does not have a totalizing effect. Borrowing from Derrida, Sedgwick argues that there is difference even between those who exist within the same cultural group. To this end, Sedgwick destabilizes the bond between each person and their cultural group. Instead of defining subjectivity on the basis of procreation, Sedgwick sees it as the result of the interaction between the person, their cultural group, and society.

Butler is similar to Sedgwick in that she sees subjectivity as culturally determined rather than biological. However, she considers subjectivity to be less individualistic, arguing that people can never be truly autonomous but instead are inextricably tied to the worldview of their cultural group. In this regard, a lesbian or feminist cannot conceive of themselves as distinct from how lesbians and feminists are defined by society. Both Butler and Sedgwick demonstrate the way in which the self is a social being, rather than one that is driven by a procreative instinct.

Discuss Eve Sedgwick's Ideas of Minoritizng and Universalizing

In "Axiomatic," Eve Sedgwick offers an outline of minoritizing and universalizing the question of hetero and homosexuality that contrasts with the traditional constructivist vs. essentialist framework. The minoritizing framework is predicated on the notion that homosexuality only pertains to a minority of people who identify themselves as being homosexuals. This approach is characterized by the perception that one's sexual orientation can exist in a wholly autonomous manner, distinct from the opposite orientation. Meanwhile, the universalizing approach involves the belief that homosexuality is of "determinative importance" for everyone (244). Sedgwick's use of the term "determinative"… [read more]

Gender and Sexuality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


His experiences as an emissary to Gethen challenge this assumption about the inherent division by gender between all beings. However, Le Guin's novel does not take an idealized perspective of genderless life. On one hand, there is no discrimination against women and no patriarchical authority that forces women into an inferior position, based upon their biological status. However, Karhide is in a political conflict with the neighboring state of Orgoreyn. Lacking gender does not result in a perfect society, but it does make the people of Gethen more 'human' to some degree. All beings are equally able within their respective societies to enjoy their full capacity to think and maximize their full potential, regardless of gender. What is considered strange and perverse depends upon what is constructed as normal, not something inherent to the human condition. Ali is considered just as odd in Gethen someone who transgresses gender norms in our society.

Le Guin's text thus functions as both a critique of modern society's obsession with distinctions between males and females but also as a critique of so-called 'difference feminism' which suggests that women are inherently more cooperative than males, and that once gender distinctions end, so will all the problems of the world. The people of Gethen still struggle, but at least the struggles of gender stereotypes have been left behind and they can focus upon more pressing problems.

Work Cited

Le Guin, Ursula. The Left Hand of Darkness. Ace,…… [read more]

Sexuality &amp PC-TV Facts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,783 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



From sexuality being a tight-lipped subject for television, to a show entirely about lesbians, the media has certainly come a long way to embracing a new kind of sexuality, one that focuses on sexual orientation and seeks to provide a new reality for the average American. Do gays want the same things that straight people do? Absolutely. Do gay couples stress about how to find a sperm donor (just like a straight fertility challenged couple might?). Absolutely. In short, the only way to represent a group is to show it, in all its "Must See TV!" glory (McCarthy 94), to its mundane life details, to its heartbreaking coming out scene, television, it seems, has got it all covered, whether American are ready for it or not.

Works Cited

Block, Jenny. "One Million Moms Attacks JCPenney Over Ad With Lesbian

Mothers." Huffpost Gay Voices. Huffington Post, May 3, 2012. Web. 6 May

2012. .

Class notes. 2012. 1-34. Print.

Crooks, Robert, and Karla Baur. Our Sexuality. 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson

Wadsworth, 2008. 1-23. Print.

Junger, Gil, dir. "Hello Muddah, Hello Faddah." Perf. Ellen DeGeneres. Ellen. ABC:

05/07/1997. Television. .

McCarthy, Anna. "Must See' Queer TV: History and Serial Form in Ellen." Quality

Popular Television: Cult TV, the Industry, and Fans. Ed. Mark Tancovich and Ed.

James Lyons. London: BFI Publishing, 2003. 90-100. Print.

Sedgwick, Eve. "The L Word': Novelty…… [read more]

Gender When Unraveling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


However, it is also a freedom that derives from their lesser social standing and degree of power. Halberstam outlines how femininity and masculinity as social constructs are unparallel and uneven in how they can be negotiated.

Tomboyism appears to be quite common for girls and does not generally give rise to parental fears & #8230; because comparable cross-identification behaviors in… [read more]

Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,268 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … roles of gender and sexuality in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, with particular focus on the gender identity of Hero. For all that Much Ado About Nothing is a cheery play, it has more to do with gender conflicts than happy endings. Much Ado argues, on the surface, for a binarily gendered world. It argues that women and… [read more]

Biology, Culture, and Gender the Conceptual Inadequacy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Biology, Culture, And Gender

The Conceptual Inadequacy of the Binary Gender System:

In Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality (2000) Anne Fausto-Sterling explains that the binary concept of human sexuality is inadequate to account for the true range of variation of human gender. According to Fausto-Sterling, human social beliefs and culture have arbitrarily assigned all human beings to one or the other of only two opposite genders despite the fact that human gender orientation actually occurs along a much broader spectrum than can be accounted for by the two polar opposite gender assignments of "male" and "female" (p52).

Fausto-Sterling suggests that the existence of homosexual, bisexual, transsexual, and transgender phenomena are evidence that human sexual identity is much more complex than is capable of binary categorization (p53). Whereas traditional cultural views of gender and sexual identity regard gender as strictly a function of biological structure, the author explains that many other genetic variables and external influences actually make gender a product of nature and nurture elements that operate together as an "indivisible, dynamic system (p228).

Intersex Ambiguity and Cultural Biases Based on the Binary Gender Concept:

The author explains that as many as two percent of all human beings are born as intersexuals, including those born with mixed sets of genitals, and chromosomal abnormalities in which internal genetic makeup do not correspond to external appearance.

Fausto-Sterling suggests that where an infant is born with any kind of ambiguous genital appearance, standard medical practice has been for the physician to assign a gender artificially and solely based on the physical appearance despite the fact that genital configuration is only one very narrow component of human gender.…… [read more]

Sexuality of Hermaphrodites Human Beings Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,590 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Sexuality of Hermaphrodites

Human beings are an incredibly diverse species within itself - race, ethnicity, geography, family, gender are all variables, just as DNA, fingerprints, and retinas all combine to create absolutely unique creatures - no two exactly alike. The other thing about people, is that there are infinite variations created by subtle differences in DNA and in our physical… [read more]

Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals Sexuality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Two men involved in a consensual sexual relationships are considered gay. Two women involved in a consensual sexual relationship are considered lesbian. The term bisexual typically refers to a person who is attracted to members of both sexes, although bisexuals may be involved in monogamous relationships with members of either sex. However, the label often follows behavior, rather than attraction. For example, a homosexual who marries a member of the opposite sex and never acts on the same-sex attraction would be classified as straight by most people. In fact, programs aimed at changing sexual orientation speaks of success rates in terms of behavior changes, rather than changes in attraction. Likewise, heterosexuals may find themselves engaging in same-sex behaviors because of a lack of opportunity with members of the opposite, such as when incarcerated people engaged in same-sex behavior (Wikipedia, "Sexual Orientation").

Obviously, definining human sexuality is a daunting task. The first issue is that there are not simply two genders. Instead, there are persons who exhibit both male and female sex characteristics. Furthermore, there are people whose chromosomes are neither male nor female. Finally, there are those who are biologically or chromosomally members of one gender, but who identify with the other gender. The second issue is that, even in cases where gender can be identified, sexual orientation is a fluid construct. Some people who identify as one sexual orientation may engage in situational sexual behavior that differs from their orientation. In addition, people may not have an identifiable sexual orientation because their orientation may have changed over time and space. It is impossible to tell someone how to view gender or sexuality because no person, even looking at behavior, genitalia, or chromosomes, can determine the gender or sexual orientation of another person.

Works Cited

Athenadorus. "Homosexuality: Its Genetic Basis and Evolutionary Benefit." Danaan Press.

2002. Danaan Press. 10 Nov. 2005 .

Wikipedia. "Intersexuality." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005


Wikipedia. "Non-human Animal Sexuality." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005


Wikipedia. "Sexual Orientation." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005


Wikipedia. "Third Gender." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005

.… [read more]

Human Sexuality Has Changed Considerable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Human Sexuality has changed considerable over the past. When one looks at history we find that during the course of man progressing to become more and more civilized, human sexuality has undergone great evolution. With time there have been changes in society as well as culture, which have brought about vast changes in human sexuality and a redefinition of traditional gender roles. Questions regarding what are the standards of human sexual behavior are being debated upon extensively. Where polygamous societies existed, monogamy is now spoken for. There was a time when interracial marriages were forbidden and against the law in the United States, however today no such law exists. At a point in time what was considered to be deviant is now considered a variable only and such is seen in the wide acceptance of homosexuality and movements and considerations given to legitimize same sex marriages. The 1960s came with a revolutionary thought in mind and people advocated for free sex for all. However such thoughts and ideas received a blow with the outbreak of STDs like AIDS.

In the past there were specific roles given to males and females. Where the male was primarily the bread earner of the family, the females were given the role to take care of the household and the nurturing of the children. Their role was primarily to mold the child's character and introduce him to things like family values. Today these roles have changed, not completely, but to a certain extent where children spend their time in day care centers and the only character building that they receive is from schools and peer groups. This is mainly due to the rise of feminist groups which voiced for equal rights and set out for job opportunities. While women changed their role in the family and set out for an economical stability of their own, children have been given to others to take care of. Many today feel that children are only…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Perceptions of Genders in College Basketball Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Perceptions of Genders in College Basketball

The activities in games are a part of college and students participate in it to fulfill their own perceptions about themselves. There are also benefits they expect from the sport that they engage in, and that is mainly due to their own preferences. At the same time, the sport itself projects an… [read more]

Gender Roles Sex Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But regardless, the idea that one can feel such a tension highlights the constructed nature of sex as 'only two bodies' as well as gender as 'only male and female.' The fact that transvestites, who do not necessarily feel such a conflict, but merely perform in a persona of the opposite gender, can perform gender also shows that one can have a body sexed in a particular fashion and that what appears to be of a certain sex can be altered with entirely socialized constructions as clothing, makeup, and behavior, as well as other accoutrements. (Butler, 1990)

Some people, of course, would allege that they are neither male nor female in their true self, but androgynous. The difficulty of what is 'androgyny,' however, also highlights the difficulty of defining gender. The psychoanalytical theorist Bem has viewed androgyny to mean an individual is "both highly masculine and highly feminine, rather than neither masculine nor feminine," and stated that it is "better to be androgynous in today's society as men and women need to be adaptable, and willing to share all types of jobs, without saying that one job is woman's work or another job is just for men." (Bem, 2004)

But 'androgyny,' can also be used as term to assume sexual and gender differences as givens and to view deviance from these ideals no one really fulfills as kind of extraordinary behavior, even if Bem views it as positive behavior. Bem says that androgyny should not be seen as an absence of masculinity or femininity, but it is difficult to conceive of what an absence of masculinity or femininity would be, because it is so difficult to conceive of a society absent of gender. If most people are androgynous, why cling to distinctions of gender or sex at all?

Interestingly enough as well, even if an individual rates high on Bem's androgyny scale, does not mean that 'he' or 'she' will view his or her true nature as androgynous. Because of the social constructions of gender, a woman may view her 'handiness' around the house, not as a transcendence of labor norms that limit women's strength, but merely part of housecleaning duties. A man who is a professor might view his solicitous and caring attention to his students during office hours not as feminine care giving, but as an extension of his masculine role as a professor and a highly competent professor.

Gender is such a permeating and all-purveying ideology, that one can bend it to ideologically suit one's psychological needs to conform to the two stereotypes of male and female as they exist in one's culture quite easily. Even when gender stereotypes shift from age to age and culture to culture, one of the few unifying characteristics of the socially constructed roles and assumptions that attach themselves to sexualized bodies seem to be their durability and perceived 'normalcy' for all time, even in the face of considerable evidence to the contrary.

Works Cited

Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble, Feminism and… [read more]

Human Sexuality and Homophobia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The story of Gwen Aruajo touches upon another important issue: gender roles. Because men and women are considered to be bound by their biology, it is difficult for many people to accept the fact that a person can be born a woman and feel like a man or vice-versa. The film Boys Don't Cry is an example of hate crimes… [read more]

Eyes Wide Shut Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … sexuality in Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut?

There are two highly distinct themes (which are largely intertwined) in Stanley Kubrick's final film, Eyes Wide Shut -- sexuality and enigma, both of which revolve, to varying degrees, about the presence of an unnamed, all powerful secret society. Whereas there is little attempt to illuminate the inner workings and structure… [read more]

Gender Roles in Everybody Loves Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There has been a shift in the social order and men have become less macho and less likely to put across behaviors traditionally associated with masculinity.

Some are probable to say that the show takes a feminist approach at addressing gender roles. By portraying Debra as a strong woman who is perfectly capable to take control over her life and the lives of people close to her, Everybody Loves Raymond practically shows that men have become lazy and immature individuals who absolutely need someone to take charge over their lives. Ray is shown as a person who is very successful in his business affairs, but who losses all the abilities that make him that successful in the moment when he enters his house.

The fact that Ray fails to care for his children when he is provided with the chance to do so points toward the belief that men are not capable to look after children and that this is only a job for women. The second episode, "I Love You" presents the couple coming across a dilemma with regard to the feelings they invest into their marriage. Debra is concerned about how Ray no longer expresses the love he feels for her while Ray believes that this is not actually that important. This further contributes to showing men as being more concerned about the sexual and functional aspect of a relationship and women being interested in love and romance.

It is difficult to determine whether the show is meant to reinforce gender roles or if it is meant to promote the idea that gender roles are no longer a dominant concept in the contemporary society. While Ray and Debra are initially presented as being a perfectly normal couple, their position changes as the storyline progresses. Debra is shown as being more and more authoritarian and Ray as being less and less capable to take control over matters in his family. A series of other stereotypes intervene and confuse viewers with regard to the actual scope of the show. Ray's mother is dominant and this is likely to be a reason why Ray is as immature as he is, taking into account that the fact that a dominant female figure in his life influenced him to take on particular attitudes when he is in the presence of a woman.… [read more]

Sexuality Treatment Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sexuality Treatment

The author of this response was asked to review two books regarding sexual function, dysfunction and treatment and answer to four specific questions. The first question asks the author to ask what topic surprises the most. The second question asks what question was the easiest to learn about. The third asks what topic made the author uncomfortable and the fourth asked for two specific points of learning that can be used and applied as a counselor by the author of this report.

Questions Answered

The topic that surprised the author the most was the chapter in the Long book that talked about goal setting and treatment planning. The author perhaps thinks that being so clinical and formal about that topic is perhaps being a little too involved and over-thorough because the topic at hand is not all that complicated. People certainly make it complicated but it's not usually that hard to boil things down and put the cards out on the table. To that end, a counselor would be useful but over-complicating the process is probably more trouble than it's worth a lot of the time.

The easiest chapter to go through was the third chapter in the Sexual Dysfunction book, which is in reference to sexual arousal disorders. The chapter is great because it doesn't stay in the terminology ether and uses the terms that are more common in today's society which aids in the feeling that there is not a huge disconnect between the clinicians that treat sexual arousal disorders and the patients. This disconnect perhaps explains a lot of why many people delay or avoid treatment for sexual arousal disorders altogether and this book's third chapter would aid in tamping down some of those concerns, even if the audience of this book would mostly be counselors and people that are in school for the field.

As for what made the author of this report uncomfortable, the author would point to chapter 7 of the Sexual Dysfunctions book, which relates to psychosocial approaches to treatments. The material itself is not the issue but there is a lot of different problems and approaches being thrown at the reader and there is certainly a lot to take in. It perhaps just will take some getting used to and things will ease as the author of this report becomes more involved and accustomed to the commonalities and trends that will avail themselves from patient to patient, but it is a little daunting at the moment.

Lessons Learned

As for what the author of this report learned, there are two major lessons learned (or that are currently being learned) that are particularly illuminating. First, it behooves a counselor that deals with sexual dysfunction and treatments to not be inhibited or…… [read more]

Gender Reflection: On Identifying Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example, when men go out drinking, being able to consume large quantities of alcohol is considered manly, and someone who does not is looked down upon. Because I try to stay physically fit and love to play sports, the drinking and partying lifestyle is not compatible with my personal goals. But many of my male Russian friends do not understand this.

As a straight man, it was interesting for me to see the video "Dude, you're a fag," in which the author Dalton Conley noted that the epithet 'fag' was not about same-sex desire but about not being appropriately masculine. While this may be true in the United States (and based upon my experience in the U.S., I am inclined to agree with the author), in Russia, because of the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church and the overall culture of Russia, I do not think this is true -- there is a great deal of anger and very real homophobia in Russian society that is specifically directed against gay people.

Boxing is a very important part of my life. Within the boxing subculture, seeming to be masculine is a very important component of fighting. There is no doubt that the image of boxing conforms to a cultural stereotype of masculinity of men as violent, although there are women boxers now, too. There are definitely sides of myself that I might show in other facets of my life which I would never reveal in a boxing gym. It has been said that "masculine identities are forged in the sport of boxing through training regimes that are discursively regulated by narratives of courage, honour and heroism. & #8230;despite social changes allowing for increased gender fluidity there are still particular social institutions where gender identities appear to remain fixed and rigid, such as in the sport of boxing" (Fogel 2). Boxing is certainly not a politically correct sport: either you prove yourself in the ring through intensive training and a show of heart, or you fail. There is no disguising that the ultimate objective of boxing is to win by causing some sort of physical or psychic pain to your opponent. To some extent, this is what I like about boxing. I like testing and pushing myself to my limits. But boxing is not the only part of my existence which defines me, and I do see some fighters who are so embroiled in the culture of boxing that they forget other aspects of their existence that are less conventionally masculine.

Works Cited

"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]


Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.

New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/

Nowakowski, Arianna. "Masculinity Regained: Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Russia's Post-Soviet

National Ideal." Josef Korbel School of International Studies. Mar 2011. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.du.edu/korbel/news/2011/03/nowakowski_fso.html… [read more]

Effect of Gender Race and Religion on Same Sex Marriage Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Gender, Race, and Religion on Same Sex Marriage

Staver, M.D. (2004). Same-sex marriage: Putting every household at risk journal, Vol. 9,

Issue 2, Nashville, Tenn: Broadman & Holman.

According to this article, same sex marriage is one of the controversial topics and engagement in the 21st century. Several studies have focused at the notion behind same sex marriage… [read more]

Sexuality and Cinema Laura Mulvey Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" Jame Gumb's erotic fixation on the girl does not lead to a desire to sleep with her, but a desire to inhabit her body. But this fits in with Mulvey's view of how the female body is constructed in a phallocentric model: obviously Jame Gumb's desire to playact the "identification process" with that desirable body comes in the notorious scene in which he conceals his phallus between his legs and performs (again crucially) for a video camera. That Jame Gumb is, to a certain degree, to be defined by his gaze is indicated not only by Lecter's hint, but by his physical presence in the final confrontation with Starling: he is wearing elaborate night-vision goggles, which indicate that his own capacity to see is identified with the technological construction of a nocturnal predator. The audience is invited to see through these goggles -- revealing the flailing and terrified Starling by plain sight, and also revealing that the desire to view this spectacle is, for Gumb, a stronger motivation than the desire to kill the FBI agent who has discovered him. It is Starling who kills Gumb, and we are then permitted to view him wearing the goggles, in a death agony which clearly makes him resemble one of the insects which have played a part in the murders, and -- in the earlier scene with the entomologists -- Starling's own uneasy path in navigating the various men in the film who find her desirable. In some sense, Demme's film addresses Mulvey's concerns about phallocentrism by making Starling and Gumb, to a certain degree, both outsiders in a culture of gender normativity. For Starling, this involves learning that her gender will be viewed and read by every male in the film -- Crawford uses her gender as a means of gaining the trust of the small-town cops when he excludes her, and she takes him to task; Crawford also uses her gender as bait for Lecter (revealed to her by Dr. Chilton, before he then proceeds to hit on her himself). Lecter asks if she worries that Crawford "visualizes scenarios…fucking" her. Even the dorky cross-eyed entomologists cannot resist the urge to flirt with her. In this world where femininity is viewed as intrinsically desirable, it seems like logic necessitates summoning up the shadowy other: the man who desires the woman not for fucking, but to occupy this privileged position which attracts the desiring gaze. The subjective social position occupied by Starling is, to a certain degree, the position that Jame Gumb wishes…… [read more]

Gender Roles Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … gender roles is one of the most important areas of human development. The process begins at birth with the sex of the child and how the child develops from that point forward will be influenced by his or her physical sexuality regardless of what turns the future might hold. Gender role development is a highly controversial subject which… [read more]

Discourses Around Gender Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … particular discourse focused around gender. There are various discourses surrounding gender and the paper will look at one that has been in existed working according to certain assumptions in relation to gender. It will analyze the significance of gender in relation to a particular way speakers construct their relationships and identities through talk. It is worthy to note that if there is no strategy in discourse, there would also be no expression of dominance or submissiveness in the conversation.

There are many competing discourses around gender but I will particularly look at competing discourse around gender in regard to safe sex. Campaign on safe sex are everywhere from our schools, hospitals and even the media is playing a critical role on the issue. With the advent of HIV, sexual health campaigns and sex education have been instilled in schools to advocate for safe sex especially among the youth. However I wish to argue in this paper, that the concept on safer sex using condoms is a guise because it is mainly male focused and may not extrapolate well to young women who are at a greater risk of contracting the disease and pregnancy too.

There have been rigid societal gender norm that show that the female is not supposed to make any decisions related to sex and that is why they are not in position to advocate for safe sex from their partners. They know they ought to, but on the other hand they leave the decision for men to make. This is especially so in the developing countries where men are considered as the overall decision makers and are the ones who make all the decisions including that of the reproductive health of their female partners.

The health promotions in fact are based on assumptions that there will be rational thinking during sexual encounters yet sometime this is obscured during sexual arousal culminated with desire and also the unequal power that exists between men and women engaging in sex. A woman may want to demand for safe sex but many factors work against her-they are not empowered enough to demand for safe sex. Women have traditionally been made to look at sex as something that men have control over and so all is left upon the men to decide.

The effect of this tension is that many people, men and especially women are hesitant about using safe methods as condoms. And what are the reasons behind this? There is the problem of negotiation, accessibility factor to condoms, and the fact that it is not 100% a sure way for safe sex. When it comes to sex, women are constructed to be submissive and guided while men take all the control and these are certain assumptions about masculinity…… [read more]

Risk Taking Sexuality of Adolescent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,081 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Risk-Taking Sexuality of Adolescents


A study conducted among 15-16-year-olds pupils in secondary schools in South Wales in 1993 showed that peer pressure led them to engage in sex, more strongly on males than females (Mellanby et al., 1993). It involved a representative sample consisting of 266 boys and 250 girls. Of this number, 37 or 14%… [read more]

Psychology of Gender in Psychological Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Today, the theory that is heavily touted as correct is the Interactional Model, which says that it is neither nature (biological control) nor nurture (social models and the environment) which are solely responsible for anything having to do with our inherent identity, but each of them working together to develop a person (Crooks, & Baur, 2008). It is next to… [read more]

Child Abuse and Sexuality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


, 2001; Parsons et al., 2005).

CSA, when compared to other men who have not been a victim of this abuse, exhibit a few sexual behaviors which include: greater amount of sex partners, sexual promiscuity, compulsive sexual behavior and an earlier sexual debut. A few studies highlighted the fact that men who have been a victim of CSA and showed… [read more]

Race Ethnicity Gender and Class Journal

Journal  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Race Class Gender

The intersection of race, class and gender determine social, political, and economic power. Our readings solidify my awareness of the multiple methods and modes of oppression. Each of these authors centers an argument on one or more of these facets, all reaching similar conclusions of the causes and effects of racism, heterosexism, misogyny, and classism.

In "Prisons… [read more]

Gender Has Consequences Both Profound and Trivial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Gender Consequences

Biological sex is the physical characteristics that define a human being's body, including physical attributes and chromosomes. While the majority of people have XX or XY chromosomes, the concepts of 'male' and 'female' do not fully encompass the diversity of the human condition. Many individuals possess the characteristics of both males and females, such as hermaphrodites. Individuals may also possess combinations of the X and Y chromosomes beyond those of the traditional XX or XY pattern.

Because our cultural concepts of human bodies do not fully encompass the physical diversity of the human condition, and because very different characteristics have been attached to sex organisms regarding 'maleness' and 'femaleness' in different societies, the concept of gender has been developed. Gender refers to the cultural constructions of human sexuality, for example the stereotype that women are more emotional than males, or that males are innately more aggressive. Definitions of gender change over time and vary between cultures. While biology may affect expressions and definitions of gender, gender is not a perfect mirror of biological diversity, given that some individual's sexuality is not clearly defined by maleness or femaleness, such as the indeterminate sex/gender status of the South African runner Caster Semenya.

It is important to distinguish between sex and gender because it is very easy to confuse the two, given that our maleness and femaleness is usually defined as the most salient and identity-defining characteristic about ourselves from a young age. It is tempting even today to assume that a sports figures are a 'he' when referring to someone as, for example, a baseball player. Looking for gender in terms of breasts, hair length, or clothing all refer to culturally-bound characteristics and someone from a different century (such as a male wearing a toga, for example) would not necessarily meet current Western norms of gender.

Question 2

Because maleness is supposed to be superior, and more desirable to obtain, society looks more favorably upon girls who act like boys, because…… [read more]

Attitudes Toward Human Sexuality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Attitudes Toward Human Sexuality

Human sexuality is often mentioned today when there is a differentiation between humans and animals that comes in discussion. Many people are proud to say that the only creatures that engage in sexual activities for the sake of pleasure are humans. Some may add: there appears to be recent evidence that dolphins may enjoy having sex,… [read more]

Cross Dressing Gender Rolls Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (957 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Billy Wilder's 1959 film Some Like it Hot playfully explores gender, sexuality, and gender bending. Marilyn Monroe plays Sugar Cane, a stereotypically dumb-witted blonde with no real aspirations beyond finding a man to take care of her. Sugar Cane is the archetype of socialized femininity, as she is passive, soft, sweet, and submissive. Tony Curtis and Jack Lemmon play Joe and Jerry, two musicians looking for work in tough times. As the only jobs available are in an all-female traveling band, Joe and Jerry become Josephine and Daphne, respectively. They both fall for the sexy Sugar Cane. Joe assumes yet a third identity as a millionaire named Junior. As Junior, Joe woos Candy while conforming to traditional gender roles. Switching between their multiple identities, Joe/Josephine and Jerry/Daphne at once substantiate and subvert gender roles and stereotypes. Therefore, Wilder's Some Like it Hot offers a lighthearted view of gender, but without significantly challenging gender stereotypes or social norms.

Marylin Monroe's character Sugar Cane is not appreciably different from Monroe's persona as an actor. The blonde bombshell talks with a cute, girlish voice. Her main desire in life is to meet a good man to marry. She continually downplays her own intelligence, once even referring to herself as "dumb." Sugar Cane does not lose her temper; she has a gentle temperament. Although she lives her life according to the proscribed gender roles, Sugar Cane is depicted as being independent. She has her own singing career, travels freely, and generally feels empowered to make decisions regarding her sexuality and choice of mate.

Josephine and Daphne are the other two major "female" characters in Some Like it Hot. The two transvestites assume the stereotypical role of female when they fulfill their Josephine and Daphne act. For instance, Josephine and Daphne have a different type of friendship than Joe and Jerry. When they are with Sugar, Josephine and Jerry offer relationship counseling and speak softly. When Joe and Jerry are just Joe and Jerry, they talk to each other differently and are willing to argue with one another. Their different attitudes and roles in their friendship illustrate the prevailing gender roles and norms of the 1950s.

When Joe and Jerry are cross-dressed, they walk like females, talk like females, and to a large degree act like females acted when Some Like it Hot was made. However, Josephine and Daphne are spunkier and stronger than Sugar Cane is; their gender allows for a certain degree of mutability in terms of personality. Josephine and Daphne also offer counterpoint to Sugar Cane's exceptional femininity.

Joe and Jerry play roles that in some ways fulfill the roles of typical men. For example, they pursue women, talk about golf and they take the upper hand in pursuing romantic interests. Their assertive personalities contrast sharply with Sugar's submissiveness. Joe and Jerry's masculinity is never seriously called into question…… [read more]

Gender Differences and Their Explanations Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,919 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Gender Differences and Their Explanations

The question of gender difference is one that has been the focus of much debate, confusion and conjecture in our modern societies. The issue of sexual and gender preferences and differences is possibly one of the greatest mysteries of being human. There are many divergent views on the issue of sexual and gender differences. These… [read more]

Nationalism, Gender, Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,424 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 16


¶ … Nationalism, Gender, And the Nation

The objective of this paper is to answer the question of whether policies of nationalist government modernize gender relations or do they represent a traditionalist aim to preserve or reestablish unequal and pre-modern gender relations, in effect archaizing gender relations? Another important goal is to connect this to a more specific question of… [read more]

Gender Role Theory and Male Rape Victims Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,548 words)
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Gender Role Theory & Male Rape Victims


This article describes and analyzes how researchers have studied rape, particularly focusing on male rape cases and its link to gender role theory. I utilized ten existing literatures with emphasis on employed theory and research questions

This article is divided into three main sections. Firstly, the research… [read more]

Society - Gender Theory Theoretical Approaches Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
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Society - Gender Theory


Human behavior is influenced tremendously by different elements of biology and culture. Even the most fundamental attributes of the individual, such as gender-specific expression is undoubtedly a combination of evolutionary biology, as evidenced by parallels between human behavior and that of numerous other higher animal species that reproduce sexually. Similarly, there is a powerful interpersonal basis for most aspects of human behavior, shaped by early life experiences (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).

Undoubtedly, the original basis for gender differentiation is biological, but within the human species, culture and social learning is the primary determinant of most outwardly observable gender-based social behavior. Society establishes and defines common expectations associated with gender and cultural practices, beliefs, and customs account for the tremendous variation apparent among different human societies and different ethnic groups (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

The Cultural Influences on Gender-Based Behavioral Expression:

In the late 1980s, social theorists West and Zimmer introduced the concept of doing gender, to describe the degree to which individuals express their gender in exactly the manner prescribed by their prevailing social environment. Rather than necessarily discounting the influence of biological and evolutionary factors, the concept of "doing gender" simply refers to the fact that social learning is responsible for shaping human behavior within the much more general direction established by biological gender assignment (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003). Therefore, when adult males express chauvinistic attitudes and repress their emotions and adult females experience shame in connection with their sexual urges, those represent just a few of many examples where the individual is merely acting out social roles shaped by cultural learning (Efthim, Kenny, & Mahalik, 2001).

Human intelligence is responsible for the much richer variety of cultural differences in different human societies than apparent in different societies of other animal species, and the extensive differences in cultural expectations, beliefs, and practices within human cultures includes the very definition of behaviors and attitudes that become characteristic of the two genders. In that regard, concepts of masculinity and femininity differ substantially among different ethnic cultures, as do beliefs and values that define acceptable behavior for members of each gender (Abreu, Goodyear, Campos, et al., 2000). In American society, evidence of the profound influence of social culture on behavior in general and on gender expression in particular is obvious when comparing characteristically male and characteristically female behavior inherent in the prevailing beliefs and expectations within ethnic cultures.

Anecdotal Examples:

One of the most prominent examples of socially influenced gender-specific behavior concerns the response of the individual to emotions. Generally, males are socialized from very early on to distance themselves from their emotions and to redirect their emotional energies outward and channel them into tangible release mechanisms, such as sports, superficial camaraderie, or productive work. Conversely, females are socialized to experience their emotions more fully and they are encouraged to express them directly. As a result, males often overcompensate for emotional issues as a means of avoiding dealing with them (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).… [read more]

Cinema and Sexuality Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sex & Sexuality - Cinema Comparison

SEX and SEXUALITY: CINEMATIC COMPARISON on the surface, the two features, Live Nude Girls Unite! (2000) and the Notorious Bettie Page (2005) have little in common other than the very superficial similarities of principal characters who earn a living from their physical attributes in the fringes of the sex industry. Bettie Page is discovered walking on the beach in Coney Island in Brooklyn after which she becomes famous for her provocative photographs and the mid-20th century version of what would be considered "soft-core" pornography today.

Julia Query is a lesbian comedienne whose life is portrayed with particular focus on her employment as an exotic dancer and her difficult relationship with a mother who refuses to condone her daughter's involvement in the tamer segment of the sex industry despite her own lifelong dedication to protecting street prostitutes.

Both protagonists are profoundly affected by the hypocrisies in Western culture, especially in the United States during the mid-20th century, albeit in different ways.

Childhood flashbacks into Betty Page's early life reveal that she was raised in a devout Christian family in the Bible Belt (Tennessee), where she was sexually abused by her father and later gang raped after the end of a short unhappy wartime marriage.

Even after eventually embarking on a career in the soft-core sex industry, her character comes across with a preserved innocence that belies cultural beliefs and attitudes about "fallen" women, exemplified by a Senate subcommittee investigation into the industry resulting substantially from some of her work. Her innocence is represented both in her character and in her genuine perception of having done nothing wrong, but most of all by her apparent obliviousness to the primary prurient purpose and uses of her images.

Julia Query is less naive, but equally subject to the harsh realities of the gender- based…… [read more]

Expectations of Each Gender in Comprehensive and Abstinence Only Education Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,674 words)
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Sex Education

Gender Bias in Sex Education: A Review

During the 1920s, education began to be viewed as the cure-all for social problems. One of those social problems was a lack of correct sexual knowledge for school-age children and adolescents. Thus, "mandatory, state-sponsored" sex education was implemented (Carter 2001, p. 212). At first, teachers' lessons in sexuality were abstinence-based. Students… [read more]

Gender Inequality Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,806 words)
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Gender Inequality

One of the most accurate definitions of gender was given Ridgeway and colleague (1999) where he explained that gender was simply a structure where by a society was able to define the social differences within people and their relations or socioeconomic stature based on those differences. Even though the word gender is mostly used as a synonym for… [read more]

Gender Identity Disorder and George A. Rekers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Gender Identity Disorder

The site at http://www.leaderu.com/jhs/rekers.htm is sponsored by a George a. Rekers, Ph.D., whose academic credentials lend some credibility to the information on the site. Dr. Rekers provides his credentials beyond academic certification, and his credentials are indeed impressive: Professor of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Science, Research Director for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Chairman of Faculty in Psychology… [read more]

Thinking Through Queer Identities in the Film Being John Malkovich Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,487 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Film Being John Malkovich

Sexuality must not be thought of as a kind of a natural given power which tries to hold in check, or as an obscure domain which knowledge tries gradually to uncover. It is the name that can be given to a historical construct." (Foucault 1979:105 in Weeks: 16). Foucault's historical approach to sexuality gave rise to… [read more]

Gender, Sex, and Gender Socialization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,070 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


gender, sex, and gender socialization in the western world in the twentieth century and how public intervention may produce effective policies and practices with a focus on childcare

This work intends to define the terms 'sex', 'gender' and 'gender socialization' and how these three concepts are related to each other. This work will answer the questions of how these three concepts are related to one another and provide three specific examples. This work will further answer the question of 'what ways do traditional gender expectations facilitate personal development, and in what ways do they inhibit personal development. This work will further select four photographs of men and women from a newspaper or magazine that shows: (1) a woman performing traditional female activities; (2) a woman performing nontraditional female activities; (3) a man performing traditional male activities; and (4) a man performing nontraditional male activities. This work will provide an interpretation of each picture. This work will additionally answer the question of 'what has been the common characterization of family in the Western world in the twentieth century and why has it been idealized as a private world - that is, one where conflicts are supposed to be self-contained and without intervention from the state? This work will examine why feminists support the idea of public intervention in family policy and will analyze the history of childcare in the twentieth century and using child care as an example, discuss ways that public intervention can produce effective policies and practices.


1) Sex: The defining value that labels human beings either male or female based on physical/biological elements.

2) Gender: The work entitled: "Global Women Writers: Key Terms and Definitions" defines gender as: "A culturally shaped group of attributes and behaviors given to the female or to the male. Contemporary feminist theory is careful to distinguish between sex and gender." (2008)

3) Gender Socialization: societal formation developmental process of molding the individual into a prescribed gender specific role model through entrenchment in the psyche of American socialization historically and traditionally. (Married Women's Employment, Gender Socialization and Divorce Rates, nd)


The work of Kryzanowski and Stewin (1985) published in the International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling in the work entitled: "Development implications in Youth Counseling: Gender Socialization" relates that research in the area of psychology "has generally supported the contention that the development of gender appropriate behavior is encouraged by socialization processes. Commencing from birth, male and female children are reared and socialized differently. In recent years there has been a trend toward the acceptance of less stereotyped roles (androgyny) in order that children may adapt more easily to the demands of the environments in which they live." Sex, gender and socialization can be clearly seen represented in the Chinese foot binding or the Western corset or as stated in the work of Hsieh (1996) entitled: "Putting the Sex Back into Gender" states: "Each device of beautification restricted her freedom and… [read more]

Understanding Gender and Negotiation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,546 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Gender and Negotiation

Negotiation takes place on a variety of subjects and at numerous levels in business, social, and personal interactions. Negotiation is a process of exchange between two or more parties, and is often times reduced to writing to reflect and protect the results of the agreed upon exchange. Negotiation is an art, and the quid pro… [read more]

Gender Awareness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Gender Awareness

Gender governs almost every social and political sphere. Personal identity depends on largely gender. Interpersonal relationships and communication also rely on gender cues. Gender norms determine behaviors ranging from speech patterns to body language. However, awareness about how strongly gender impacts human behavior remains limited. Part of the reason for the limited awareness about gender is that masculinity is considered the norm. We still hear people saying "a lady doctor" or "actress" when in neither case does being female impact the meaning of the professional standing. Nagel notes that masculinity underlies nation-state formation in ways we have yet to fully acknowledge in the essay "Masculinity and Nationalism."

Moreover, the income inequity between male and female professionals is one of the most disturbing manifestations of a male-dominated society. The glass ceiling also prevents many women from occupying positions of power from which they would be better able to maneuver financial, political, and social resources toward creating widespread social change. Therefore, Gender Awareness Week is an opportunity to expose the hidden and not-so-hidden remnants of gender bias.

Gender awareness means more than an acknowledgment of inequality between the sexes. Even among each gender binary group, males and females, we experience a continuum of gender identity. Not all females like pink and sleep with men. Some wear plaid and sleep with women. Similarly, not all men like football. Some prefer interior design. Gender norms inhibit free self-expression, limiting an individual's ability to transcend the binary of male-female. The result is that many non-conformist men and women are socially isolated and ostracized.

Transgender, gay, and lesbian communities increase gender awareness. Gay pride celebrations do too, even though sexual orientation and gender are actually different topics. The reason why sexual orientation always comes up in any discussion of gender is because males are socialized to sleep with females, and females are socialized to sleep with males. heterosexuality…… [read more]

Dichotomies of Our Gender System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,356 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Dichotomy of Our Gender System

While the idea that we live in a black-and-white universe may be comforting for some, reality continues to disrupt this assertion. Even the categories of "male" and "female" - a dichotomy that very few ever feel the need to question - are not as stable as one tends to believe. While Spelman argues against the… [read more]

Difference Between Sex and Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Sex and Gender

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of sex and gender. Specifically it will discuss the difference between sex and gender and whether they are a biological or social construct. Sex and gender are really two very different things, as the topic of transsexuals shows. Simply because a person is born one sex or another does not guarantee they are the "right" gender for their biological needs and wants, which is why so many people choose to change their sex through artificial and surgical means. Sex is purely biological, sex is decided when the baby is first conceived in the womb, but gender is a product of society and what society believes about "male" and "female."

In her book "Self-Made Man," author Norah Vincent writes, "Gender identity, it seems, is in the genes as surely as sex and identity are, but we don't know why the program deviates. Maybe a crossed wire somewhere, or the hormonal equivalent" (Vincent 6). I believe that gender is in the genes, and I also believe that gay and lesbian people are wired differently, not in a bad way, but in a different way that is biological and leads them in a less traditional lifestyle that is not accepted by society. Gender is essential for procreation and life, but the social norm of gender is not essential, it is simply a construct society has created regarding "men" versus "women" and all that means. Gender is basically about reproduction and biology, while sex and identity are all about society and what society believes about men and women.

Vincent's book and the film "Transamerica" both explore issues of gender and sex in surprisingly similar ways. Vincent transforms herself into a "man" to see what living as a man is like in our society. She discovers that men treat each other very differently than they treat women, and that living as a man is not as difficult as she thought it would be. She is a lesbian in real life, and so, has some masculine tendencies that helped her with her disguise, but she still found many differences in how she was treated, simply because people thought she was a man. For example, she joins a bowling league, convinces the members she is a man, and spends eight months bowling with them and learning about how they interact with each other and their families. She writes, "As I tried to be one of the guys, I could feel myself saying and doing the very things that young men do as teens when they're trying to sort out their place in the ranks" (Vincent 39). She discovers that she desperately wants to fit in as a man and be accepted, and she finds that many of the men she meets are not nearly as "bad" as she had initially thought. In fact, she talks with affection about many of them. Her gender was different in this book, but inside, she… [read more]

Human Sexuality and the Internet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … human sexuality and the Internet. There was one source used to complete this paper.

Cyber-Sex and Human Sexuality

The advances in technology recently have brought mankind to heights never before dreamed possible. Today, with the click of a mouse, one can manage stock portfolios from home, plan and purchase travel trips, shop around the globe and chat with… [read more]

Gender Identity Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,105 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15



Gender Identity disorder has received a great deal of attention in recent years. The purpose of this discussion is to emphasize current treatment strategies for clients affected by Gender Identity Disorder. The discussion will include a review of the literature and recommendations for practitioners. Let us begin our discussion by defining Gender Identity Disorder.

Definition of Gender Identity Disorder… [read more]

Sexuality in Older Adults Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … sexuality in older adults. The writer explores a specifically chose article and outlines its content and conclusion with regard to the sexuality of older humans. There was one source used to complete this paper.

Throughout modern history, the issue of sexuality has always belonged to the young. Commercials, television shows, and movies have worked to build a strong case for human sexuality in those who are under retirement age. While it was acknowledged in passing that order people are capable of feeling and having sexual relations it was usually a topic that was ignored. In more recent years however, human sexuality among older people has moved to the forefront of attention. Commercials advertising pills that can help sustain erection, advertisers for doctors that treat erectile dysfunction and other vehicles have made the world realize that the older generation is still interested in sex. As researchers begin to examine this fact one study looks at all aspects of human sexuality in people over the age of 65, and concludes it is part of a healthy and fulfilled lifestyle.

The article explores the myths of society present in the thinking about older adults and sexuality.

This article was of interest to me because I plan to work with seniors as part of my career and with the commercials and other ideas regarding human sexuality in older adults I believe this article will help me form educated opinions about the topic.

One of the first things it does is discuss the myths that currently surround the topic which include the idea that older adults are not interested in sexual relations, those who do express an interest are not normal and it is not acceptable for older women to marry younger men though the other way around is perfectly acceptable (Huffstetler, 2006).

With these and other ideas about older human sexuality being accepted by society there is a mindset that men and women should be separated by gender in nursing homes once they attain a certain age. This mindset has also led to married couples being separated from each other in the same home.

There were several facts used to support the author's ideas in this article. One of the first facts that is brought to light is the historical belief that sex was at one point only to be used for the purpose of procreation. Atone pointing history, as the article points out, people beyond childbearing years who engaged in sexual relations, even with a spouse were sinning.

The middle 1800's saw a scientific interest in the sexuality of people, however, even at that time and until two decades ago it was still believed that older people were not interested in having sexual relations with each other (Huffstetler, 2006).

Studies have contradicted this belief for many years.

Several studies have validated the view that sexual activity continues late in life for both men and women reported that 70% of 70-year-olds are sexually active at least once a week. As early as… [read more]

Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality that people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories is that men and woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological components in the body (Kimmel, 45).

Kimmel points out that biological theorists suggest that biology provides mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need to build create and form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus inborn or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of Gender

Psychological theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than biological ones. Psychological theorists tend to suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that creates gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading psychological theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological theorists would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective of gender theory suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what Kimmel suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how people can learn gender tendencies such as homosexuality and then revert to another gender identity once they are grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural differences in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender identity more so than biological or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows that cultural rather than biological tendencies can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ across cultural boundaries, hence psychological theories are also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and Gender as a Social Institution

Kimmel supports the notion that gender is a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Guinea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role as masculine and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific manner based on socially constructed factors rather than biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed theory suggests that mankind is capable of creating their own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain cultural norms, values and beliefs… [read more]

Gender Sociology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,551 words)
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Gender and Society

The Biologically-Based Gender Argument

There are many biological arguments regarding gender. While controversial at best there are many proponents of the biological perspective on gender differentiation. Biological research suggests that gender is innate. Male homosexuals for example often argue that gender is inborn (Kimmel, 2000). The primary support biological research lends tends to explain the differences between… [read more]

Social Context of Gender Term Paper

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Gender and Sexuality

There are two very common and compelling themes in these readings. One is violence, and the other is inequality. While we pride ourselves as a country that accepts all, and is a "melting pot," in reality that is simply not the case and these readings all point to that. Whether the author is male or female, black, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American, many of the thoughts and ideas are the same. These people are still treated as second-class citizens in many ways, they have far fewer opportunities than whites, and they are angry about it. These readings go further, however. They also indicate the difficulties just about anyone who is "different" face in America. Jews, the handicapped, prostitutes, gays and lesbians, women, the overweight - it does not matter how you are different, just that you are different, and so not acceptable to the bulk of American society. That bulk that makes many of the rules are white males, and they have more "privilege" and more advantages than just about any other group in America today.

It is easy to see why…… [read more]

Gender and Identity Term Paper

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Postmodernist theory suggests that socialized roles are not static, nor are they transmitted faithfully to individuals, but rather the individual interacts dynamically with the role. "Children [have] agency in learning gender. They are not passively 'socialized into a sex role... they do this actively, and on their own terms..." (Connell 2002, 15) Gender becomes not a role, but a "project"… [read more]

Human Sexuality Glbtq the Glbtq (Gay Lesbian Term Paper

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Human Sexuality GLBTQ

The GLBTQ (gay lesbian bisexual transgendered and questioning) community is defined by the interests and concerns of a number of different members of this group. While there are a number of issues of joint concern to members of this community, the community is also divided by the unique experiences of several subsets. Specifically, lesbians, transgendered individuals, bisexuals,… [read more]

Gender Have Influenced the Historic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (840 words)
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The gender stereotypes of female and male remain deeply entrenched within our society. Women continue to be marginalized by society, and are marked in the west, even today. In contrast, men are in the mainstream of western society and seen as normal and enjoy associated privileges.

In her article "The Egg and the Sperm" Emily Martin describes how cultural stereotypes continue to influence scientific literature today. She notes that scientific literature describes male sperm as aggressive, while the female egg is a passive recipient. In fact, many of the scientific facts do not support such a characterization as sperm are weak, and the egg is active during fertilization.

The modern reaction to the intersexed (those who are genetically ambiguous in terms of sex) reveals a great deal about our deeply held attitudes about gender and sex. Today, the idea of intersexed seems to create a great deal of discomfort within society, revealing our deep-seated need to continue to define based on gender differences.

Social construction also continues to play an important role in modern society, and within science. Society continues to see women as possessing of a strong maternal instinct, for example, a social construction that is deeply revered in our society. The gender dichotomy still present in society thus means that men are largely seen as not nurturing. As such, this gender dichotomy has resulted in women being are seen as marked subjects in society. Women's maternal work, such a childcare, or even nursing (both paid and unpaid) is largely marginalized by society.

It is this idea of women as nurturing that often places women in opposition to careers in science, as the demanding world of scientific research is often seen as in direct opposition to women's innate maternal drive to have children. Interestingly, male scientists are not held to such standards, and having children is not necessarily seen as a conflict for male scientists.

In conclusion, the ideas of gender continue to strongly influence both scientific literature and the practice of science today. Based on notions of gender that developed during the Enlightenment and the Victorian era, science has a long history of incorporating gender norms and sex dichotomies into science.

Works Cited

Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.

Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making…… [read more]

Health and Human Sexuality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,887 words)
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Most human development models correctly identify that the family is the primary matrix of identity formation. Research in almost every field has validated that the positive or negative adaptation of the individual is first and foremost created by the relationships within the family. In the case of self-esteem, we know, and understand that specific actions in the family build positive self-esteem, or harm the creation of the same. In the area of physical health similar nutritional variables have been identified, and no one argues about the existence of positive and negative physical growth curves. The same developmental assumptions should be applied to gender identity formation, and Elizur and Ziv give evidence for the needed change.

According to the authors, as GLB youth grow up, the family, which should be an important factor in gender identity formation, is not the source of social and emotional support. The authors say that "Unlike most human development models that consider the family to be the primary matrix of identity, the same-gender identity models... perceive the family role as rather peripheral GLB." The authors go on to suggest that the lack of support is responsible for the maladaptive behaviors. Based on an understanding of the developmental nature of the primary family on other self-perceived identities, I would like to suggest that the alienative family dynamics may have had a causal influence out he gender identify formation process, rather than a limited, and reactionary influence over the person's feelings about himself. If gender identity formation is a developmental process, then in order to make corrections for the widespread variance to suggested models, researchers need to take the processes and assumptions which are accepted in the emotional and physical areas of human development, and apply them to gender identity development. By accepting that there may be a normal identity development curve, which is male identity to be formed in a male body, and female identity to be formed in a female body, researchers may take a step toward solving the problems of maladaptive behaviors, and find the tools to help the GLB person take responsibility and control back over their own lives.


Family Support and Acceptance, Gay Male Identity Formation, and Psychological Adjustment: A Path Model.

Family Process, Summer, 2001, by Yoel…… [read more]

Sex and Gender Six Feet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,679 words)
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Ruth succeeds in shedding her role as wife when she asserts her newfound independence to Nikoli: "I'll be your friend and your lover but I'll never be your wife." Ruth's character mirrors the common attempt to break free from societal norms.

David Fisher's personal battle to come out of the closet shows how amazingly difficult it is to be gay in America, despite shows like "Queer Eye for the Straight Guy." Many major network sitcoms have made it almost trendy to be gay, while Six Feet Under demonstrates the colder reality beneath the surface. Especially because he is a deacon at the local church, David has a hard time with the shame and stigma that accompanies being gay. The show reflects the inability of religious institutions to embrace all members of the human race equally, regardless of sexual orientation. The show also depicts gay men in close relationships without focusing exclusively on the sex. In this manner, Six Feet Under provides one of the more realistic visions of what it is like to come out of the closet and to be openly gay in America.

However, Six Feet Under is totally unique among American television shows. Partly because it is on cable television and has a limited set of viewers, the show does not drive American culture, creating its trends, values, and norms. Many major network dramas and sitcoms do drive American culture by informing viewers about how they should look, dress, think, talk, and feel -- and of course, what they should buy. Women are constantly being barraged with unrealistic body types created by plastic surgery as well as images of the ideal companion for the American male. The American male is likewise told constantly how to behave, especially around women. Six Feet Under, episode 13 in particular, is not one of the shows that attempts to create cultural trends or norms. Rather, this episode is more truly a reflection of American culture; it just so happens that the culture it reflects was itself influenced by television.

Works Cited

Knock, Knock." Episode 13 of Six Feet Under. Written, Directed, and Produced…… [read more]

Sociology and Feminist Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,087 words)
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Of particular interest to the casual observer are the differences in relational dynamics and social interaction and perception between African-Americans and white Americans. African-American societies are by far one of the most dominant societies in the U.S., and have also been subject to different stereotypes and stigmas that have been existing for many years.

In fact, racial and gender differences are the most common forms of stratification that society tends to look in an individual. In the case of the American experience, African-American males are perceived differently by society as compared to white American males and females, as well as African-American females. In Myra and David Sadker's article entitled, "The Miseducation of Boys: Changing the Script," the authors discuss the significance of race and gender as determining factors that affect and change the social construction of African-American males' assumed roles and behavior in their society and social/societal interactions. The article is divided into three segments, focusing on the topic of African-American male diversity among other people in the society: stereotypes of male roles and behavior, effects of instilling these stereotypes in the psyche of African-American males, and the challenge of instilling a "new model" of role taking and behavior character of males. Using the theories of Social Learning Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, this paper discusses how role taking and behavior modeling affects the way African-American males perceive themselves as individuals in their society. Through these theories also, the authors' proposal and challenge of instilling a now model of role taking and behavior character among African-American males are given in-depth an analysis and discussion.

The Social Learning Theory, whose main proponent is psychologist A. Bandura, posits that "human behavior is learned through modeling." Stages of human behavior modeling are the following: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. In Sandker and Sandker's article, it is evident that SLT is one main factor why African-American males grow up believing that they should stick to the stereotype images of men that they have acquired as "models" of their behavior and character. Because of this, the stereotype of an black American male as a tough and masculine guy with strictly no effeminate characteristics prevailed, and 'outsiders' or males who do not conform with these models of a black American males are called a "fag," similar to the scenario presented in the authors' case study at the Morningside Elementary School in Maryland. Symbolic Interactionism by G. Mead, meanwhile, argues that humans are active conforming objects of socialization, where an individual's subjective perception of a role that s/he perceives as desirable and appropriate for his perceived personality and identity is developed, or becomes the individual's role (a process called 'role-taking'). The role of a tough black American male is the prevalent roles assumed by most black American males, and the role of a man that has "access to stigmatized part of themselves -- tenderness, nurturance, the desire for connection, the skills of cooperation" is still being challenged by a society that has grown up assuming the roles… [read more]

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