Study "Sexuality / Gender" Essays 826-880

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Mexican Sexual Slavery Term Paper

… Mexican Sexual Slavery

There are many people in the U.S. And elsewhere who do not frequently account issues regarding modern slavery. For many the images that come to mind, with regards to slavery are those that create a mental return… [read more]


Domestic Partner Benefits FMLA Rights for Homosexuals and Non-Married Couples Term Paper

… ¶ … Family Medical Leave Act and how it relates to homosexual couples. The writer explores various companies that provide benefits for domestic partners as well as state statutes that mandate such policies.

FMLA and Domestic Partner Relationships

For many… [read more]


Eiffel Tower - An Icon Changes Term Paper

… Eiffel Tower - an Icon Changes Its Image

The Eiffel Tower seizes the imagination, it is something unexpected, fantastic, which flatters our smallness..." (Quote by an Italian visitor to the Exposition Universelle 1889); (Thompson 2000).

According to Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary,… [read more]


Same Sex Partner Legal Issues Child Custody Benefits and Marriage Term Paper

… same-Sex marriages: LEGAL ISSUES

Same-sex marriage in the United States is fraught with legal complications, which do not only restrict issuance of marriage license but also create problems with other basic civil rights connected with marriage such as child custody,… [read more]


Statutory Rape Term Paper

… Enforcement of Statutory Rape Laws

Teen pregnancy is a concern to taxpayers and people concerned about upholding moral standards. Moreover, girls who give birth as teens suffer economic hardships that last into adulthood (Jepsen & Jepsen, 2006). During the 1990s, as part of welfare reform, the federal government urged states to enforce statutory rape laws in order to curb teen pregnancies and thus reduce welfare costs (Findholt & Robrect, 2002). The question is, is enforcement of these laws an effective way to deal with the problem of teen pregnancy? In this essay, I will argue that enforcement is not the answer. Statutory rape laws cannot be administered fairly and have unintended negative consequences.

Statutory rape has been a crime since the year 1275, when the Statute of Westminster was passed: "The King prohibiteth that none do ravish...any Maiden within age" (Cocca cited in Jepsen & Jepsen, 2006). Ancient Rome also banned sex with children, as did early religious canons. Children below a certain age were not considered capable of making informed decisions about sexual activity. Because of this, they were considered vulnerable and deserving of state protection: "The courts claimed that it was the state's responsibility to protect young women because they were inherently weak or were emotionally and intellectually incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse, or because female chastity was necessary to maintain the moral character of a society" (Findholt & robrecht, 2002, p. 260). Recent enforcement of these laws, however, focuses on the cost to society of teenage mothers on welfare. To encourage enforcement, the federal Attorney General cited a study, which he believed revealed an epidemic of older men preying on school-aged girls. As many as two-thirds of teenage pregnancies were said to be caused by adult men. Lawmakers rushed to prosecute the "predatory men" not only to punish them but to keep them from doing it again (Elton, 1997).

The study was ultimately found to be flawed and/or its findings misinterpreted. The Urban Institute, a respected authority on social change, reported in 1999 that 62% of teen pregnancies (15 to 19-year-old mothers) actually happen to 18 or 19-year-old mothers. Only 27% of 15, 16, or 17-year-old mothers get pregnant with men at least five years older. 23% of the 15 to 17-year-old mothers marry the father that is 5 or more years older. The Urban Institute stated, "Only 8% of teen pregnancies involved unmarried women aged 15 to… [read more]


Lawrence v. Texas Term Paper

… lawrence v. Texas

On June 26, 2003 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6 against 3 that sodomy laws are unconstitutional and unenforceable when applied to non-commercial consenting adults in private, the majority opinion being based on privacy rights. Before this decision, the courts could punish homosexuals very easily, because it was considered that a relationship between adults of the same sex, even if it was consensual, it represented deviant sex.

In Lawrence et al. v. Texas Case, Justice KENNEDY delivered the opinion of the Court: "Liberty protects the person from unwarranted government intrusions into a dwelling or other private places. In our tradition the State is not omnipresent in the home. And there are other spheres of our lives and existence, outside the home, where the State should not be a dominant presence. Freedom extends beyond spatial bounds. Liberty presumes an autonomy of self that includes freedom of thought, belief, expression, and certain intimate conduct. The instant case involves liberty of the person both in its spatial and more transcendent dimensions." This statement underlines that homosexual persons can no longer be subject to discrimination and they will enjoy the same rights as any citizen, in their private and in their social life. For this reason, the Courts' decision in this case represents an important step and it marks an important change: homosexual persons will no longer be considered criminals just because they have different sexual habits, because every citizen has some constitutional rights, and one of the most important of these rights is the right to privacy. The legal status of homosexuality should be no different from the legal status of heterosexuality, because the U.S. is a country that promotes equality between people, irrespective of their religion, beliefs or sexual habits.

Lawrence et al. v. Texas Case has an important impact on homosexuals' lives and it marks a historic moment and a great change of mentality. Gay people can no longer be discriminated and they became equal to a certain extent in point of legal, social and political rights with any other heterosexual. Undoubtedly, the Courts' decision has created a great dispute… [read more]


Policy Proposal to Stop Use of Abortion as Birth Control Term Paper

… Abortion is important exercise towards birth control policy, according to the medical specialists, there is a need for the introduction and implementation of certain laws and regulations with reference to abortion practice. It has been recommended through different forums such… [read more]


Sexual Abuse Term Paper

… Sexual Abuse Information

Sexual abuse (often called molestation) is defined as any kind of unwanted or desired sexual acts between two people, so it can refer to child molestation, molestation between adults, or even between homosexual partners. Incest is a form of sexual abuse that occurs between family members.

Here are some startling statistics about sexual abuse that many people might not know:

Every two and a half minutes, somewhere in America, someone is sexually assaulted.

One in six American women are victims of sexual assault, and one in 33 men.

In 2004-2005, there were an average annual 200,780 victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.

About 44% of rape victims are under age 18, and 80% are under age 30" (Editors, 2006).

Sexual abuse does not have to culminate in the sex act; it can consist of harassment, elder abuse, or even stalking. It is any type of unwanted sexual behavior by one person directed toward another, and as the statistics show, many types of abuse are becoming more prevalent in our society. One of the most disturbing is child molestation, which seems to be making the news much more often these days.

There are several signs of sexual abuse that can give relatives and loved ones a clue to what is happening, especially in children or the elderly. They include aggressive behavior toward family members or pets, pain while eliminating or genital infections, bruises or trauma to the genital areas, loss of appetite or other eating problems, unusual fears, unexplained health problems, panic attacks, regression, fear of a certain person, or being alone with that person, withdrawal, and an increased interest in sex or sexual situations (Hughes, 2001). Even one or two of these signs could indicate some kind of sexual abuse, and the child or adults should then be investigated by health professionals.

There are ways to prevent sexual abuse. Perhaps one of the most important ways to prevent abuse from happening is to know who children spend time with, and listening to children, especially if they are trying to tell a parent something important. Talk to children about sexual abuse, and teach them body parts are private (Editors, 2000). Monitor children's… [read more]


Gay/Lesbian Studies - Discrimination in the Workplace Term Paper

… Gay/Lesbian Studies - Discrimination in the Workplace

An Analysis of Discrimination against Gays and Lesbians in the American Workplace Today

While many people today may not remember a time and place where minorities and women were discriminated against openly in… [read more]


Temporal Relationship to Deviance and the Interpretation Term Paper

… ¶ … temporal relationship to deviance and the interpretation of what is and is not criminal with regards to temporal deviance. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

Cases being tried in criminal court sometimes have to examine temporal deviance as it relates to the crime at hand. It is used in criminal defenses where something deviant was done. These deviances can include child molestations, rapes, voyeurism, and other incidences where a deviation from socially acceptable behavior was involved in the crime being committed (Garcia, 2006). Experts must examine temporal deviance with each such defense and make a determination about what is and is not criminal within that deviant desire and behavior.

Predisposition

Experts have argued that a predisposition to deviance should carry some weight when determining what is and is not criminal during a criminal trial.

Temporal deviance can occur without any crime being committed. Some examples of temporal deviance would be certain consensual sexual acts, certain fetishes that do not impact the life, privacy or liberty of another person and things such as hording.

There are also temporal deviances that take a much more dangerous turn and the person who has them commits a crime against society, individuals or a group of individuals.

Some examples of this type of deviance include rape, murder and molest (Crenson, 2005).

An unhappy upbringing certainly increases a boy's chances of growing up to be a violent sexual offender. But if an unhappy childhood were all it took to create a sadistic pedophile, every town in America would live under perpetual Amber Alert (Crenson, 2005)."

Joseph Duncan murdered two Idaho parents, kidnapped their two children and ran with them to Montana where he sexually abused the nine-year-old son and murdered him before being caught with the couple's daughter.

Duncan had already served on 20-year sentence in the 1990's for kidnapping and raping a 14-year-old boy.

His preoccupation with deviant sexual fantasies of one kind or another date back to the age of 12," one therapist wrote after evaluating Duncan in 1982.… [read more]


Philosophy the Murder-Cannabalism of Bernd Brandes Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophy

The murder-cannabalism of Bernd Brandes by Armin Meiwes is disturbing, yet brings about interesting ethical questions regarding the occurrence.

Whether or not what Meiwes did was legally right, has nothing to do if it was ethically right.… [read more]


Contraception Since the Beginnings of Human Civilization Term Paper

… Contraception

Since the beginnings of human civilization, men and women have wanted to be able to choose when and whether to have children. Contraception has existed for thousands of years because people needed a way to stop having children when they weren't ready to have them.

The methods to which the ancient scholars refer fall into three general categories:

those that seemed reasonable at the time but are now known to be ineffective (wiping out the vagina after intercourse);

the reasonable and perhaps effective (e.g., using honey, pepper, alum, or lactic acid as pessaries and barriers; the unreasonable, manifestly ineffective, such as the woman holding her breath at the time of ejaculation or jumping backward seven times after coitus. The manufacture of vaginal pessaries from the dung of animals, such as crocodiles, elephants, or mice, perhaps reflects Freudian more than pharmacologic concerns, although as Himes points out, most animal dung is alkaline. Among descriptions that come close to certain modern methods of contraception are Jewish references to "cohabit with a sponge."(Pots and Campbell, 2002)

Many ancient forms of contraception were not that good and dangerous at the same time. There still are some methods which exist today and have been incorporated into current birth control methods:

abstinence has been an effective form of contraception.

A vaginal suppository. Various substances (like honey and vinegar) were inserted into the vagina, since the acidity aided in killing sperm.

A the male condom. It was developed in 1562 to stop the spread of venereal disease. Originally called the male sheath, it was made from a lubricated linen cloth. Later versions were made from goat bladders, animal intestines or blowfish intestines.

For many years, birth control information has been limited due to religion as religion and the whole society at the same time were totally against it.

Today there are a lot of new methods of contraception which are, of course, more effective and more secure. Some of these methods are:

hormonal methods of contraception - when we speak about hormonal methods of contraception we usually refer to: the pill, patches, injections, and implants. The pill is a small tablet that usually contains a combination of two sex hormones and it is one of the most usual methods of birth control used by women.

A barrier methods are contraceptives that prevent the passage of fluids from one person to another. When we speak about barrier methods we refer to: condoms, cervical caps, diaphragms, sponges, and dental… [read more]


Contraceptive Devices Review of Contraceptive Methods Term Paper

… Contraceptive Devices

Review of Contraceptive Methods

What type of contraceptive device would be appropriate for a woman who says she is too forgetful to be trusted to take birth control pills, or use a diaphragm? And this is a woman… [read more]


Infertility, the Inability to Naturally Conceive Term Paper

… Infertility, the inability to naturally conceive a child or to carry a pregnancy to term, is a common condition worldwide and the problem is thought to have increased over the last 30 years due mainly to the social phenomena of… [read more]


Stonewall Riot Term Paper

… Stonewall Riot

Throughout history, the quest for civil rights has been waged by many groups of people, seeking not only acceptance in society, but also granting of equal rights to the majority of those societies. Among the groups which has… [read more]


Black Market Birth Control Term Paper

… Black Market Birth Control

There has been very little work -- scholarly or otherwise -- that explores the roles of entrepreneurs and supporters of birth control during the late 19th to early 20th century when birth control was considered a crime in the United States. However, after reading Andrea Tone's "Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Entrepreneurship and Criminality in the Gilded Age" it becomes clear that it is the efforts of these "bootleggers" that kept the practice of birth control alive, as well as continued the development of new, more effective contraceptive devices. This article aims to, and succeeds at, generate a fuller understanding of the underground movement in birth control, which was a springboard for the now legal, lucrative, and effective practice of birth control today.

This article is presented within the context of several anecdotes of people involved in the birth control culture of the time. The author explains her position through the voices of people who were making their living in this field, or those who were partaking in the illegal practices. This technique allows the reader to really understand the roles of the individuals involved, giving the historical account a strong feeling of personal history and human interest. Through her discussion of the prominent individuals involved in the world of black market birth control, Tone communicates a clear sympathy for the trials and unfortunate situations that the historical figures find themselves in. Of course, Tone also explores a broader picture of the black market for birth control, suggesting that not only were the efforts of the main individuals a boon to the future of prophylactics, but the market itself contributed greatly to the economy of the time.

As stated by Tone, Antionette Hon of South Bend Indiana made a considerable yearly income off the birth control black market, totally around $3,600 in 1917 (478). "Henry Hunter's annual profits from selling birth control were estimated to be as high as $1, 700 per year in 1873" (455). Both of these individuals were immigrants who's average future in the United States, though generally far more lucrative than those of their native countries, was usually far below the income potential of American citizens. This information allows us to understand not only how widespread illegal birth control was, but also how it played major role in building the economy, and contributing to the stability of immigrant families.

The importance of the birth control black market goes beyond… [read more]


History of the Profession Term Paper

… ¶ … history of the profession and describes the different types of prostitutes and the services that they provide. The writer then presents both sides of the legality argument. There was one source used to complete this paper.

Prostitution is… [read more]


England's Financial Systems Being a Victim Term Paper

… England's Financial Systems

Being a Victim

The concept of victimization is very emotionally charged. While almost every person alive has been victimized at some point in his or her life, many resist the victim label. This concept is dramatized in the statement, "No one can make you a victim without your consent." In many ways, this concept is absolutely true. While one might not have control at the actual moment of victimization, one does have control over how one ultimately responds to the violation in question. On the other hand, such a statement simplifies the complex emotional reactions that people have to being victimized, and could make a victim feel an increased amount of shame or personal responsibility about having been victimized. Therefore, it is important to understand that the, in that statement, one is only made a victim if one's self-identity is that of a victim who has no control over a certain area of one's own life.

For example, in "How it Feels to be Colored Me," Zora Neale Hurston talks about large-scale victimization. She discusses the issue of slavery, which is a clear-cut example of people being made unwilling victims. However, she dismisses the idea that the victimization of her ancestors means that she is also a victim. Instead, Hurston declares, "Slavery is the price I paid for civilization, and the choice was not with me." (Hurston). With this statement, Hurston reveals some powerful truths about victimization. First, she makes the point that the changes wrought by victimization are not always solely negative changes. Second, she makes the point that she is not going to feel shame for something over which she had no control. Hurston also explains that she is "not tragically colored." (Hurston). While she does not gloss over the fact that she has been subjected to prejudice and discrimination as a colored woman, Hurston makes it clear that she is not going to allow other people's attitudes to keep her from taking full advantage of what life has to offer her.

Khalil Gabrin makes a similar point in his poem "The Ambitious Violet." He describes a violet who wishes to be a rose, despite being a beautiful and previously content violet. She risks all to become… [read more]


Emergency Contraception Term Paper

… Emergency Contraception

The availability of emergency contraception pills (ECP) has raised concerns on the part of the public and medical personnel as to whether this form of avoiding pregnancy in youthful females (ages 16-24) might constitute a serious health risk.… [read more]


Emergency Contraception Term Paper

… ¶ … Emergency Contraceptive Pills in the United States

This chapter will discuss the use of Emergency contraceptive pills in general. The chapter serves as an introduction to the ECPs, their rate of unwanted pregnancies and effects of the pill… [read more]


Ethical Issues and Legal Issues In-Group Counseling Reaction Paper

… ¶ … ethical issues and legal issues in-group counseling, I must first admit that I was worried and concerned. In counseling, well actually in all aspects of life ethical issues are such sensitive areas and are often interpreted in numerous ways by various groups of people. I agree with the need to do a self-assessment as stated by Rapin. Routinely a "self check" is necessary to make sure that ones values, beliefs and theoretical orientation and how these impact upon the group, particularly when working with a diverse and multicultural population are perceived by oneself and others (Rapin, 1998, a:3). We have to make sure that not to lose sight of our purpose. We cannot let our own views skew what the group is working on. The only area that I do not agree with completely is the area of confidentiality. Firstly, I must state that I believe that confidentiality is very important, however there are certain areas that can be harmful to group members. We all know that primarily confidentiality is in place so that what occurs in a group sessions stay in a group session and to respect the lives of the group. However, there are instances where group members may have personal issues that can affect another member of the group or the therapeutic milieu. This is my area of concern; although regardless I respect and uphold confidentiality in every aspect I still have concerns over some aspects of it.

Another cite discusses the importance of diversity knowledge and understanding. This I agree is also a very important aspect for any worker to acknowledge, practice, and uphold. It is very necessary that Diversity-skilled group workers exhibit awareness of any possible negative emotional reactions toward Indigenous Peoples, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgender persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities that they may hold. They are willing to contrast in a nonjudgmental manner their own beliefs and attitudes with those of Indigenous Peoples, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgender persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities who are group members… [read more]


Psychology and Health Term Paper

… Psychology

Health and Social Psychology

Socially and environmentally, the rise of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) has a dire affect on health and well-being. With AIDS/HIV patients, their quality of life is reduced dramatically, and eventually most will die from the disease. Socially, this creates more health care costs, the need for more AIDS research, and a fear of sexual encounters for many. The spread of these diseases also has environmental impact, from the reduction of youthful populations to large medical care costs for many third world countries where the monies could be spent on infrastructure and quality of life issues were they not necessary for health care.

Several theories are represented in this rise in STDs, from the implicit theory, which tends to judge people who have STDs as inferior or especially repulsive because of their sexual behavior. Thus, if their condition becomes publicly known, the social impacts can include social ostrasization and loss of sexual partners, just to name two. A female especially may suffer because of the implication that she is "easy" or a slut because she has contracted the disease.

Another important theory regarding STDs and how they are acquired is the behavioral decision theory.… [read more]


Morning After Pill Plan B. Levonorgestrel Term Paper

… ¶ … Morning After Pill

In May, 2004, FDA regulator's refused to make the morning-after pill more accessible by okaying it for over-the-counter sales (Gardiner, 2004). In 2005, Susan Wood, who was assistant FDA commissioner for women's health and the… [read more]


Diagnosis of a Client According to DSM-IV Term Paper

… ¶ … Diagnosis of a Client

According to DSM-IV (1994) John meets the diagnostic criteria for 302.71 Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Specify types: Acquired type, generalized type, and due to psychological factors. Mary meets the diagnostic criteria for 302.73 Female Orgasmic Disorder, lifelong type, generalized type, due to psychological factors.

According to the DSM, John shows these symptoms: A. Persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, given his relatively young age and the current context of his married life. B. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty for John. C. The sexual dysfunction is not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder and is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effects of a drug or medication, or a general medical condition.

In short, John has little interest in sex, with his wife, or with real of imagined other partners. This is causing stress with his wife, and does not seem to be due to another psychological or physical condition. It is acquired, because John has shown interest in sex in the past, and it is generalized because it is not specific to his current relationship but to all sexual acts. It… [read more]


Differential Association Theory Voyeurism Term Paper

… The techniques used in the act of voyeurism can be attained from watching videos to see how others do it, learn secrets from family or friends or just by practice. The first thing needed is a lack of conscience since voyeurs only care to have their sexual needs being met. As for equipment, there are many things used. Camera phones, binoculars, night-vision goggles, video-cameras, mirrors and just their own eyes. The voyeur can be close or be far away from the victim; depending on the equipment used and the preference of the voyeur. Some voyeurs use mirrors under doors, others use binoculars through windows and shades. There are those who would go as far as installing cameras inside homes, dressing rooms and bathrooms of their victims. Many people have and can operate video-cameras, binoculars, and the like, and camera phones are accessible to virtually anyone. All that is needed is the opportunity.

Voyeurs acquire particular behaviors as they keep their addiction up. Their actions become justified by others who share the same passion which helps them make voyeurism acceptable in their minds. Their secret lives become more real and they begin to keep away from realities of family, friends, and work. Arguments, excuses, justifications, and denial start increasing. They may start believing their own lies. They start to convince themselves that their actions do not cause any harm or that the victim actually wanted to be observed. Voyeurs characteristically have little empathy for the victim and have an impaired capacity for emotional or sexual intimacy. Whatever the rationalization, it further cuts the voyeur off from the reality of the behavior. Voyeurs are continually on the search, the hunt, the suspense; which is heightened by the unusual, the forbidden, and the illicit, all which are intoxicating to… [read more]


Gay Marriage Term Paper

… Perhaps the strongest argument here is that marriage has traditionally been defined as a union between members of the opposite sex. Virtually all societies on earth, and throughout time, have reserved the status of marriage for only this type of union. Those putting forward this point generally indicate that the very few exceptions to these findings do not change or threaten this firm historical truth. Opponents argue a financial reason for their opposition which is perhaps hard to counter: allowing same-sex marriage will make more people eligible for benefits if the marriage breaks down. The other points are on shakier ground. There appears to be no valid reason to prefer heterosexual parenting over same-sex parenting: research has not shown any difference in the psychological or emotional health between these groups of children. Moreover, there is little or no evidence to show that long-term committed gay relationships are any less stable than their heterosexual counterparts. Similarly, it appears that arguments stating that same-sex marriage represents a threat to the "fabric of society" are more colorful than logical: resting on vague terminology and emotional rhetoric.

Finally there is a further argument against gay marriage made by some gays themselves: there is little evidence that in modern society that marriage promotes any more stable relationships than persons living outside this "sanctioned" or "privileged" union. [read more]


Rape on October 17, 2005 Term Paper

… Rape

On October 17, 2005, the Associated Press reported that according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, murders across the United States fell for the first time in five years during the year 2004, however rapes actually increased (Sherman pp).… [read more]


Three Theories of Humor Term Paper

… ¶ … Humor

Achieving a familiarity with the three theories / styles of humor affords a fuller understanding of how the humorous passage or presentation was made to invoke laughter. Jeff Foxworthy and Bill Engvall are comedians who use all… [read more]


Condom the Focus of " Case Study

… ¶ … Condom

The focus of "The Condom and Why More People Don't Use It" is not based on measurement and statistical analysis. Its' focus is on meaning, interpretation, and experiments in the world of people (page 233). The results… [read more]


Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Term Paper

… . . because of . . . sex." Therefore, in order for Title VII to apply, the plaintiff in a sexual harassment case must prove that the conduct of the offender was not just sexually offensive in nature but actually… [read more]


Rapists and Their Psychology. It Will Incorporate Term Paper

… ¶ … rapists and their psychology. It will incorporate a brief description of the psychodynamics of rape, including anger rape, power rape, and sadistic rape. Experts agree rape is not a sexually motivated crime. It is a crime of opportunity,… [read more]


Bowers v. Hardwick and Lawrence Term Paper

… Currently, laws prohibiting sodomy do not seem to be enforced against consenting adults acting in private. The Lawrence rulings has broader implications for the current state of laws, because it overruled its' prior case and set a new precedent. In Lawrence, the ruling enshrines for the first time a broad constitutional right to sexual privacy, and its impact would reach beyond Texas and 12 other states with similar sodomy laws applied against the gay and lesbian community, and as a result, into mainstream America. As recently as 1960, every state had an anti-sodomy law, according to The Associated Press. In 37 states, the statutes have been repealed by lawmakers or blocked by state courts.

Furthermore, of the 13 states with sodomy laws; Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, prohibit oral and anal sex between same-sex couples. The other nine ban consensual sodomy for everyone; Alabama, Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. The ruling in Lawrence invalidated those laws, striking down most laws governing private sexual conduct, establishing a benchmark in privacy that had not previously existed. As a result of Lawrence, which was based on due process arguments rather than equal protection laws, new areas in privacy would receive more attention and protection. The decision was criticized by religious conservatives, but praised by gay supporters, who stated that Lawrence opened the door for gay people all over the country to be treated equally.

Although religious groups have criticized the last ruling, the decision has positively affected the laws of today. For example, homosexuals should have the same rights to engage in sexual acts as heterosexuals and married couples do. Equal protection extends to all people similarly situated, therefore, gays should not be treated differently than other people. Lawrence has positively shaped the current laws, for the Court's decision has shed light on why the ruling in Bowers was incorrect, and as a result has given more people rights that they truly deserve. As long as the sexual acts are between consenting adults in the privacy of their own home, there should be no disparities based on their sexual preference, and these acts should not be criminalized. Future laws based on this holding can only positively protect all people, regardless of their private sex lives. Finally, the rulings of these two important cases have no doubt assisted in shaping the laws of today.

Bibliography

CNN. "Supreme Court strikes down Texas sodomy law. Ruling establishes new legal ground in privacy." CNN.com. 2003. CNN.com. 23 July 2005.
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Television Americans Frequently Refer to Television Characters Term Paper

… Television

Americans frequently refer to television characters as if they knew them, as if they were friends. A prime example is the way the show Seinfeld infiltrated American society. In the article "Common Culture," the author notes how television shows… [read more]


Importance of Birth Control Term Paper

… ¶ … birth control and argue why birth control should be taught in the nation's schools to help America's young people engage in safer sex. A policy of abstinence is abdicated by some as a way to combat premarital and teen sex. However, abstinence is not a viable alternative for most young people. Therefore, birth control should be encouraged and young people should learn about the different forms of birth control in school, so they can have safe choices and knowledge before they face the issue of premarital sex.

While on the decrease, teenaged pregnancy is not going away. One Web Site notes, "8,589 babies were born to teenagers in 2002 (decrease of 6,888 births from 1998). These babies will fill more than 505 kindergarten classrooms in 2007" ("Gift of Life," 2003). Many of these babies will face additional problems and poverty because they were born to children themselves. Many of these young mothers will never finish high school, and face dismal prospects in the job market and throughout life. In addition, the United States "boasts" the highest teen pregnancy rate and teen birth rate in the industrialized world. Even more disturbing is that over 25% of teen mothers will have another child within two years of their first ("Gift of Life," 2003). These figures are disturbing, but they indicate just what a huge problem the U.S. faces in teen pregnancy, and why birth control should be taught in schools around the nation. Making teens more aware of themselves, their bodies, and their reproductive choices could save many teens from a lifetime of parenthood before they are prepared, and in actuality save the country millions of dollars in social programs and health care costs. In addition, most countries around the world advocate birth control choices for their citizens, and so, they have fewer problems with teen pregnancy and premarital sex. The United States often seems Puritanical in its societal beliefs, and sometimes this old-fashioned thinking gets in the way of social progress and reform.

Poverty is also a crushing problem in our country, and sadly, most young, unmarried mothers fall far below the poverty levels in America. Life can be very hard for these young families, and it can be incredibly difficult for them to climb out of poverty and into the middle class, which offers more educational and economic opportunities. Not only do many teen mothers face a life of poverty and difficulty after they give birth, they also place an additional burden on the social services of the country. Many young mothers cannot work, because they dropped out of high school to have their baby and they simply do not have the skills necessary to get decent employment. They end up on welfare and food stamps, and this is a drain on social services for everyone. Some of these young mothers will manage to better themselves, but many will not, and that affects all Americans.

There is another very compelling reason to push for birth control… [read more]


Same-Sex Marriage Premises: In Everything Term Paper

… Same-Sex Marriage

PREMISES:

In everything which has been written and said about... homosexual marriage... The most fundamental but important point has been overlooked."

Homosexuality is not generational. The family tree that starts with a homosexual union never grows beyond a… [read more]


Exposure to Sex in Commercials Term Paper

… The racy ad features Paris Hilton clad in a swimsuit eating a burger and washing a Bentley (Taylor pp). The ad, which sparked a controversy when it aired on the West Coast, is now scheduled to hit the Midwest and… [read more]


Chemical Castration for Sex Offenders Term Paper

… This theory believes that some criminal activities may be avoided if the criminals know the punishment they will receive if they commit these crimes. Some offenders may be able to control their urges if they understand they could face chemical castration as a result (Roberts and Sluder 184). Thus, there is more than one theory behind the idea of chemical castration, and implementing these laws could stop some crimes from being committed before the offender ever begins a life of sexual predatory behavior.

EVALUATION

Evaluation of the theory and treatment of sex offenders by chemical castration would be relatively simple. Since California has had these laws in place for nearly 10 years, various studies and research could look into sex crimes in California, and see if they are increasing or decreasing. These studies would also look at who is committing these sex crimes, whether they are new sex offenders or those who have already been convicted of a sex crime in the past. These studies would clearly show how effective these laws have been so far, and what to look forward to in the future. Researcher Thiessen has already looked into certain studies on chemical castration and notes, "These few studies suggest that reductions in testosterone effectiveness with MPA or CA decrease the overall libido, decrease sexual aggression, lessen interest in sexual thoughts and behaviors, and prevent the full range of physiological responses to sexual stimuli" (Thiessen 158). Since California implemented their chemical castration laws, several other states have followed suit (Meisenkothen 139), and so, there should be ample data available, as more sex offenders reach their parole time, to study the affects of the chemical castration laws and how they have affected public safety.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, studies show that controlling sex offenders is important in keeping communities safe. Chemical castration has been shown to effectively keep sexual urges down in sex offenders, and stronger three-strike (or even one-strike) laws keep more sex offenders behind bars and off the streets where they can harm others. States like California have already enacted chemical castration and one-strike laws, and more states should follow suit. Recently, there have been many cases of sexual abuse and murder in the news -- especially involving children. Creating stronger chemical castration and one-strike laws may have been able to prevent some of these crimes from occurring. If these measures save even one life, they are worth exploring and implementing.

References

Thiessen, Del. "11 Hormonal Correlates of Sexual Aggression." Crime in Biological, Social, and Moral Contexts. Eds. Ellis, Lee and Harry Hoffman. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1990. 153-158.

Kincaid, James R. Erotic Innocence: The Culture of Child Molesting. Durham, England: Duke University Press, 1998.

Meisenkothen, Christopher. "Chemical Castration - Breaking the Cycle of Paraphiliac Recidivism." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 139.

Russell, Stacy. "Castration of Repeat Sexual Offenders: An International Comparative Analysis." Houston Journal of International Law 19.2 (1997): 425-459.

Sluder, Richard D., and Dan… [read more]


Birth Control and Population Term Paper

… Further, it's entirely possible to consum less resources as is the case with UDCs, but to still generate a disproportionate amount of pollution and resource waste. Costlier environmental conservation may increasingly become the purview of ODCs that are in a… [read more]


Gay Maggie Constitutionality Term Paper

… Gay Marriage and Its Constitutionality

Although civil rights activists in the United States have been campaigning for legal recognition of gay or same-sex marriage since the 1970s, the issue has invited greater national attention in recent years as an equally… [read more]


Citizenship the Struggle of Immigrant Workers Term Paper

… Citizenship

The Struggle of Immigrant Workers and Gay/Lesbian Groups

The common factor in the struggle of immigrant workers and gay/lesbian people in the United States is how both group can live a normal life, without any discrimination from the American society.

Both the immigrant workers and gay/lesbian communities struggle for acceptance from the American society. Tracing back in the American history, these groups experience inequality because their citizenships are not considered by the Native Americans to belong in their class. Even the U.S. government itself used to have laws that discriminate immigrants and gay/lesbian individuals from having the same status in any environment, whether at work or in school, as with the native Americans. On gay/lesbian discrimination, such people were not accepted as citizens of the United States. The notes further indicate this discrimination in the following.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued an executive order in 1953 barring gay men and lesbians from all federal jobs. Many state and local governments and private corporations followed suit. The FBI began a surveillance program against homosexuals.

On immigrant discrimination on the other hand, the majority of immigrants were employed at low types of job. The notes indicate that This is about the capitalists finding the workers they believe to be the most vulnerable, and using them. Louie identifies several workforces that the larger society has declared to be vulnerable: Chinese, Mexican, and Korean workers.

The struggles of the immigrants and the gay/lesbian… [read more]


Evil and Sex Slavery in Eastern Europe Term Paper

… ¶ … good and evil as it relates to sex slavery in Eastern Europe. The writer first defines good and evil and some terms that are often related to those two opposites. The writer then defines the terms as they… [read more]


Legalization of Gay Marriage and Civil Unions Term Paper

… Legalization of Gay Marriage and Civil Unions in States

The status of gay marriages has been a serious subject of debate for several years now. While people may have, at least partially, accepted the fact that a human being is… [read more]


Sexual Practices Term Paper

… Sexual Practices of all groups of people have been under the microscope since the first discovery of HIV / AIDS. Most of the data has been related to gay and bisexual men and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)… [read more]


Ambedkar and Homosexuality Essay

… As far as the "Homosexuality and the Bible" research paper, I noticed that when I am trying to get my points across, I do not have to use scare tactics in order to do this. I can simply make an argument by stating my point and backing it up with evidence. I learned that you must be careful in how you express and phrase opinions toward others about certain issues. The issues can become very sticky, especially when the issues have to do with religion and homosexuality.

Fallacies were used as well in "Homosexuality and the Bible," without deliberate intention. For example, I noticed I did not provide the needed degree of support for certain arguments, as needed. I did not back them up with substance, which caused weak arguments in certain cases. In future writings, I am now able to utilize the tools I learned in this class to better my writing skills and avoid any inconsistencies. [read more]


Play of Protest Term Paper

… Roy is a gay, Republican lawyer dying of AIDS who actively persecuted supposed communists in the name of American justice during the McCarthy era. Roy is Jewish, gay, and a Republican, thus his persona unites different facets of the identities of Louis, Joe, and also Parker. But Roy insists that he can be none of those things -- he is only a Republican American because gays have "zero clout" and he has clout -- by denying everything he is, and remaking himself into a false, straight zealot of the right wing. Ironically, the most truly, genetically 'American' of all the characters is the drag queen Parker, who is visited by a vision of all of his ancient Puritan ancestors, in another of the play's intersections between dreams and reality. This vision of Parker's past history suggests that everyone has different claims upon America's past, and that America's past history of diversity -- and its Puritanism -- continues to affect America's present.

Through dreams and by combining different parallel stories together on the stage, the play ultimately calls upon the viewer to perceive a larger American truth, a truth much greater than the narrow American truth espoused by Roy Cohen and his followers. The truth is that all Americans are interconnected in their common lives and struggles. Joe works for Roy, but is unaware of Roy's homosexuality, just as he attempts to conceal his own for career, personal and religious advancement, even though his sexual alienation causes his wife and himself great pain. He and Louis meet in a washroom in one of the play's many intersecting moments, and in this scene both men despair for their own futures and the futures of an America based on lies.

However, part of their perceptions that America is a lie is based on the fact that their own selves are lies, constructed to be the same as what they see as the mainstream of the country, a mainstream that does not really exist. The play ends with a note that suggests in the millennium that there is no mainstream. The dying drag queen Parker, lying in bed, is granted a vision of the angel of the world to come, and the America to come that is based on truth, not lies, and embraces all peoples, not just some peoples and some constructions of American identity.

Work Cited

Kushner, Tony.… [read more]


Pro Gay Marriage Gay and Lesbian Term Paper

… Pro Gay Marriage

Gay and lesbian marriage has become a controversial debate in contemporary society. There are heated arguments for and against the legalization of marriage between couples of the same sex. The underlying assumption for those in favor of… [read more]


Legalizing Gay Marriages Term Paper

… Legalizing Gay Marriage -- Pro and Con, Morally and Legally

When recently, on February 7, 2005, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg stated that although he supported gay marriage on personal, ethical grounds, but worried that a recent ruling by a New York judge allowing same sex unions might get the city into legal troubles, he was roundly denounced as expressing a lack of political backbone. (Ruttenberg, 2005) Several gay elected officials at City Hall blasted the mayor for what State Senator Thomas K. Duane called cowardice, after the mayor stated that he intended to appeal the decision allowing gay marriages in the city, so that the metropolis could have greater legal clarification in the issue.

But clarification does not seem to be coming anytime soon, legally or morally.

Although both proponents and opponents of gay marriage approach the issue in America through the legalization process, the issue touches upon personal and religious convictions as well, on both sides of the debate. Bloomberg's difficulty highlights the fact that legalizing gay marriage is argued both for and against on moral, ethical, and religious as well as legal grounds -- hence the difficulty of defining the issue in a clear way. For instance, President Bush stated that he supported an amendment that would define marriage as the legal union between a man and a woman. He, like many who support his position, argued that historically, the maleness and femaleness of the two participants have defined the nature marriage contract. (Nwazota, 2003)

President Bush's stated position on gay marriage was released as a direct result of the decision by some state courts that homosexuals could be denied the benefits and recognition of a legal marriage. If history can act as a guide, however, an actual amendment to the U.S. Constitution defining marriage is unlikely any time soon. Moreover, further muddying the waters the Supreme Court has avoid setting precedents regarding this issue, as in November 2004, for the second time the high court declined to intervene in the Massachusetts dispute regarding same sex unions and in May, the justices refused to block clerks from issuing the first marriage licenses. (McNeil-Lerher News Hour, 2005) the issue, this lack of action suggested, is still in the hands of societal as well as legal debate.

Thus the issue of same-sex marriage remains legally undefined in America. But same-sex advocates stress that gay marriages have existed in the form of partnerships since the beginning of time, even when they have not been formally recognized. They argue that gays do not chose their orientation, anymore than an individual chooses his or her race, and parallel their struggle to the laws that prohibited marital unions between the races in the American South. But gay advocates, even when individual politicians such as… [read more]


Television and Cultural Plagues Term Paper

… In contrast, adolescents who spend more time watching videos in a VCR are at a much lower risk of starting to drink alcohol. The study definitely shows that television is worse than movies in that fashion. On the bright side,… [read more]


Talented Mr. Ripley, Patricia Highsmith Term Paper

… "You were interfering between Tom and me ... " (p. 79).

When Dickie returns, however, he tells Tom he isn't "queer," but that Marge suspects Tom is. Secretly, Tom worries that he might be homosexual and remembers a time when he said, "I can't make up my mind whether I like men or women, so I'm thinking of giving them both up." (p. 81) Dickie's revulsion toward gay men becomes apparent when Tom and he visit San Remo, and Dickie needles Tom about his possibly being gay. Then he openly rejects Tom, saying he is going to go skiing with Marge, and asks Tom not to come along. He remembers his Aunt Dottie insulting him in the same way: "Sissie! He's a sissie from the ground up. Just like his father!" (p. 99) Tom has thought of killing Tom several times, and on a boat in San Remo, he does it -- and begins pretending that he is Dickie Greenleaf. Highsmith writes, "Tome had an ecstatic moment when he thought of all the pleasures that lay before him now with Dickie's money, other beds, ships, suitcases, shirts, years of freedom, years of pleasure." (p. 111-112). The reader can no longer sympathize with Tom, but Highsmith has sucked the reader in, to see how Ripley can pull off such a charade.

Tom has impersonated people before. He gathers up Dickie's personal papers along with his clothes, his jewelry, and his insurance policy. He tells Marge a story he finds credible, that Dickie just suddenly decided he wanted to live in Rome. It is similar to the story he told a young woman in New York City to explain why Tom was leaving. This story reveals something else about Tom: because he is completely self-absorbed, he mistakes Dickie's happy-go-lucky character as similar self-absorption. But Marge knows Dickie truly cared about her, and she is baffled by Tom's explanations. However, she sees through Tom, writing in a letter to Dickie that he will never read, "He'll never help you or anyone else to get straightened out about anything. In fact it's greatly to his interest to keep you muddled and string you along and your father too." (p. 123).

By using the device of this letter, we see Tom through Marge's eyes. Highsmith manages to keep the reader interested in Tom through the rest of the book because the reader wonders if, and how, Tom's pretenses will collapse. The reader has no sympathy for Tom, but we want to know what happens to the people he has abused. Tom Ripley, charming but disturbed, holds our… [read more]


Legalization of Prostitution Within the United States Term Paper

… ¶ … legalization of prostitution within the United States, America would actually be better served by legalizing prostitution. This is due to three reasons: first, prostitution will continue to exist, legal or not; second, criminalizing prostitution compromises the health of… [read more]


Sexual Motivation Term Paper

… Sexual Motivation

Human sexual motivation is an inferred, internal state influenced by several factors, which determine engagement in sexual activity. These factors include physiological correlates such as hormones, odor, smell, touch and genetic make-up. Besides physiological motivators, human sexual behavior is also determined by psychological and environmental components such as cognition, attraction, conditioning, and cultural learning (Johnson, 1997). In fact, it is now believed that human sexual motivation cannot be explained by physiological factors alone. However, there was a time when psychologists theorized that human sexual motivation had its roots purely in physiological factors. Two such motivation theories were the "instinct" and "drive reduction" theories.

The instinct theory of motivation was based on the premise that much of human behavior stems from unlearned, innate tendencies. Thus, this theory explained human behavior such as crying, moving, imitation, curiosity, sympathy, love, and jealousy as unlearned behavior, which is modified by habits that are learned. In fact, several scholars such as McDougall and Thorndike even explained emotions as either the core of instincts or as unlearned patterns of behavior. Thus, some proponents of instinct theory tended to explain virtually all human behavior as a range of innate instincts. Sigmund Freud, on the other hand, believed that human behavior was motivated by primarily three instincts: sex, self-preservation, and death. Adler and Jung, two of Freud's associates, also emphasized the role of instincts in human motivation, but differed from Freud in defining the instincts of primary importance. Adler believed that it was power while Jung stressed on nutrition and gregariousness (Demartino & Stacey, p. 4).

In sum, however, the instinct theory explained human sexual motivation as an innate tendency, which is determined by biological factors such as hormones. While the instinct theory… [read more]


Legalization of Prostitution Many Believe Term Paper

… Legalization of Prostitution

Many believe that the world's oldest profession, prostitution, should be legalized and the arguments appear justified.

In the mid-1990's during the height of the Heidi Fleiss, the Hollywood madam, conviction, several cities, including San Francisco and Atlanta,… [read more]


Disease Commonly Known as Scabies Term Paper

… ¶ … disease commonly known as scabies is an itchy skin rash which is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The scabies mite is a very small arthropod, which is about the size of a small grain of salt. This… [read more]


Down These Mean Streets Doubtlessly, Piri Thomas Essay

… Down These Mean Streets

Doubtlessly, Piri Thomas in Down These Mean Streets walks a difficult and painful path towards his ultimate goal of peace with himself. Specifically where he goes wrong, or what social circumstances result in the sorrowful events… [read more]


Parenting and Adoption in 2002 Term Paper

… Warrants or assumptions underlying the debate over gay parenthood range from the overtly religious to the quasi-scientific. Although no studies have indicated that the children of homosexual parents are disadvantaged, those opposed to gay adoption assume that the children of gay parents will be summarily worse off than their straight-family counterparts. Those who oppose adoption rights for gay couples on religious grounds rest solely on a nebulous, unscientific worldview that has no place in legislation.

Homosexual couples should be afforded every right that heterosexual couples enjoy, especially adoption. According to the ACLU, at least 21 states already permit second-parent adoptions by gay parents ("Lesbian and Gay Rights" 1999). It is time to enact general legislation that not only permits gay parents to adopt children but encourages gay parents to adopt and care for otherwise unwanted children.

Works Cited

'A Message From Steve and Roger." (2004). Let Him Stay.com. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://www.lethimstay.com/.

Craft, Carrie. "Gay Adoption." About.com. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://adoption.about.com/od/gaylesbian/p/glfaqs.htm.

"Gay Adoption Debate and Poll." You Debate.com. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004.< http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/gay_adoption.HTM>.

'Lesbian and Gay Rights." (1999). American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://archive.aclu.org/issues/gay/parent.html.

'Sweden Legalizes Gay Adoption." (2002). BBC News. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2028938.stm. [read more]


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