Study "Sexuality / Gender" Essays 881-913

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Date Rape Term Paper

… ¶ … rape is a less technical term for acquaintance rape where offender is identified as a non-relative whom the victim knew personally. However the extent of this relationship may vary from case to case. In some cases, the offender… [read more]


Personal, Local or National Issue Term Paper

… Morality has nothing at all to do with this issue. The notion that homosexual marriage is immoral or dangerous for children is preposterous and defies all logic. Same-sex unions are substantively no different from heterosexual unions. Those who say that children of homosexual parents will be psychologically damaged have only their own prejudices to blame, for the only reason why the children of homosexual parents would suffer psychological trauma is by taunting and teasing from ignorant classmates, teachers, or other parents.

Denying gay couples the right to marry is like barring blacks from public schools or restrooms. In the same vain, any worldview that denies same-sex couples the right to legally wed is fundamentally based in bias, prejudice, and in some cases, even hatred. The United States has responded to many similar situations in the past, altering our laws and in some cases, our constitution, to ensure liberty and promote a more enlightened society. Legal marriage must be extended to same-sex couples for the same reasons why legal rights were eventually extended to African-Americans, who at one time were forced to sit on the back of the bus and drink from different water fountains from their white counterparts. When Jim Crow laws were in effect, many white people believed in their hearts that those measures were morally correct, that they had legal value. Likewise, a hundred years ago, it was a preposterous notion for women to be able to vote. Now we can look back on that day and laugh. The American government eventually altered their laws to promote human liberty over racism, even though not all citizens supported women's suffrage or the end of segregation. Similarly, I believe that a few years from now, we will also laugh at our inability to accept the legitimacy of same-sex marriages in spite of the objections of the opposition. I support the right of people to form opinions of any sort and voice them; however, I don't support the right of government to withhold basic human rights from anyone. Hopefully, the law will be changed before people like Janice lose their partners to backwards legislation.… [read more]


Proper Use of Birth Control Pills Term Paper

… Birth Control Methods

There are many factors to consider in deciding to take birth control pills. Many oral contraceptives are available, with varying degrees of strength and effectiveness. It can thus be difficult for a woman to decide which birth control method would work best for her.

This essay explains the process of choosing and taking a birth control pill effectively. The first part of the essay discusses how a woman can pick the best pill, depending on her needs. The second part then explains the steps in taking the pill, to ensure that the birth control method is effective. In the last paper, the paper explains the different symptoms which a woman should watch out for, in order to catch any bad side effects of the drug early.

It is hoped that these methods would help to ensure artificial contraception that is both effective and safe.

Choosing the pill

Women who decide to rely on artificial contraception or "the pill" have several options. One thing that all pills have in common is that they contain female hormones. By altering the hormonal levels in a woman's body, oral contraception can prevent a woman from getting pregnant. The most common birth control pills contain both estrogen and progesterone. When taken daily, a pill with these hormones blocks the ovaries from releasing ova. Experts also advise that when taken properly, the pill is 95 to 99% effective in preventing pregnancy.

However, women should also consider several important factors before deciding to take a pill. Since a pill does not protect against HIV or sexually-transmitted diseases, a woman who decides to take the pill should continue using barrier contraceptive methods like condoms. Alternatively, a woman who takes artificial contraception could also ensure that she and her partner are in a monogamous relationship.

Also, while the pill gives a woman added protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease, it increases the risk for several other ailments. Women who are over 35 can experience additional risks of blood clots and breast cancer when taking the pill. Because of this, physicians advise women on the pill to refrain from smoking.

Also, because the pill can react with other medication, women should always inform their physicians about their oral contraception before undergoing treatment for any illness.

Taking birth control pills

For the pill to be effective, a woman must take the pill regularly. Experts recommend that a woman starts taking the pill…… [read more]


Pornography Term Paper

… Instead of making determinations based on legal precedent, the author fears that censors would simply make decisions geared towards avoiding controversy (Douglas).

Critics of censorship also challenge the notion that laws provide judges with clear-cut guidelines to determine and regulate pornographic material. The landmark case of Roth v. United States, for example, is the first Supreme Court ruling regarding the relationship between pornography and the First Amendment. In this ruling, Justice William Brennan ruled that any law regulating pornography contained a fatal flaw. The vagueness of the definitions meant that censorship laws could be misapplied to unprotected speech. Brennan felt that the threat of prosecution under these restrictions would have a "chilling" effect on all protected speech (cited in "Pornography should not be censored).

Conclusion

In the end, as with most genres, pornography could be interpreted as demeaning or even empowering, as art or trash, as aesthetic or offensive. It remains difficult to create a criteria defining pornography that is broad enough to include all works that cater only to the "prurient" interests and still specific enough to exclude works such as classical nude paintings by Michelangelo or books like DH Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover.

Until a satisfactory compromise is reached, however, the only clear guideline is the Constitution, whose First Amendment protects the freedom of expression. This is why court cases against pornography have continued to be dismissed in the judicial system. Furthermore, "regulating" pornography has a subtle effect of discouraging creativity and innovation. In this way, censorship and the regulation of free speech create more potential social harm than good.

Works Cited

Douglas, Jeffrey J. "Government Should Not Censor Pornography." Free Speech. Scott Barbour, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2000. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/OVRC

Itzin, Catherine. "The Government Should Legislate Against Pornography." Civil Liberties. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/OVRC

Pornography Should Not Be Censored." Censorship: Opposing Viewpoints Digests Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/OVRC

Wein, Betty. "Obscenity Laws Do Not Threaten Free Speech." Pornography. Carol Wekesser, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 1997. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/OVRC

Outline:

Introduction

Thesis -- Restrictions on pornography are unconstitutional

Definition -- pornography

Anti-pornography arguments porn harms female actors physically and psychologically sex workers are exposed to harm cities are enacting anti-porn ordinances based on civil rights statutes

Restricting pornography is unconstitutional government regulations into which material to read violates free choice

Roth v. United States that prosecution would have "chilling" effect on free speck

Conclusion - Free speech should be protected no guidelines defining "pornography"

In the absence of such guidelines, the only clear guide is the Constitution, whose First Amendment protects all forms of expression… [read more]


Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema Term Paper

… Voyeurism: The Visual Pleasure of Male-Gazing Narrative Cinema

According to the feminist theorist of film Laura Maulvey, the pleasures of voyeurism, once considered a perversion of fetish, are normalized rather than rendered problematic by the nature of the cinematic gaze and the visual nature of the medium of film. In both voyeurism in life and voyeuristic gazing while watching a film, the voyeur need not be a part of the world around him. The voyeur need only stare at the image that entices him and achieve a passive kind of gratification. Because the voyeur does so illicitly, without the object of his desire being aware of his presence, there is a sadistic and a masochistic aspect to of this passive, exclusively visual form of sexual behavior and enjoyment. Through the voyeuristic gaze, the woman is rendered into an object, against her will and knowledge. Un absence of her own mutual gratification from the voyeur, she does not experience pleasure. She experiences a violation and an unwilling and unwitting penetration with the male eye. Yet the male, gazing voyeur also suffers because he can receive nothing back from his loved on.

Film is an inherently voyeuristic medium because it is visual in a passive and recorded fashion. The viewer gazes at images and at actors. But unlike a theatrical performance, where the performers are aware of audience member's expressed approval or disapproval, and can tailor their performances accordingly, the actors in film have acted without awareness of exactly who will watch them, when, and how. The actors cannot respond to the reactions of individual audience members. Yet the director directs the way that the viewer's eye will pass over the observed subject. Thus, there is a doubly sadistic aspect to the voyeuristic aspect of film. While one chooses to gaze, one cannot chose where to gaze -- at a woman's stocking or through a porthole and two women in a ship's cabin. The viewer is thus subject to the vision of the director, just as the actors are subject to the viewer's gaze, and the director's desired direction of the viewer's gaze.

Notice that in the first paragraph of this essay, the…… [read more]


Sex Partners L. Jones Trust Term Paper

… Additionally, I personally place a high level of importance on confidentiality and mutual respect. This is because, without mutual respect, a relationship can degenerate very quickly into a source of pain and serious potential damage -- both psychologically and physically. Further, without a feeling of trust and confidentially, I feel that the sexual and emotional relationship cannot fully develop.

Finally, issues of commitment and monogamy are important for me to develop a meaningful relationship. Although I know that many people place little personal importance on monogamy, I am simply one of those people for whom monogamy is an essential component in a relationship.

Bibliography

Cornforth, Tracee. (2004). "Before You Get Married - Getting Your Marriage Off to a Healthy Start." Retrieved on October 8, 2004, from, http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/azhealthtopics/a/strthlthymarria.htm

Pulice, Carol. (2004). "Betrayal and Its Aftermath." Retrieved on October 8, 2004, from, http://www.helphorizons.com/care/search_details.htm?id=138… [read more]


Common Sense the Merriam-Webster Online Term Paper

… However, this is a too simplistic statement that seems to disregard the abilities of many men to care for children, and women who lack basic parenting skills.

Overall, both the subjectivity and stereotypical nature of common sense explanations often simply reflect the social perspective of the speaker. Common sense ideas are often simply assumed to be true, based upon the social perspective of the speaker. This phenomenon occurs both in the arguments for and against same sex marriage, and in the argument that women are better caregivers than men.

In conclusion, common sense if often based upon social perspective. We often have the tendency to assume that others have the same social perspective, leading to different perspectives of 'common sense' views on a topic. Here, common sense is more than "the unreflective opinions of ordinary people," as social perspective can be held by all types of people, and also include reflective thought.

Works Cited

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Common Sense. 17 July 2004. http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=common+sense… [read more]


Homosexuals Can Be 'Married Term Paper

… Straw Man: (post) "the majority of abusers (physical, sexual or emotional) were themselves abused. And that is the cycle that I am saying needs to stop." reply) I work with Developmentally Disabled individuals, some who have been abused in horrible ways. Some of these individuals could never think of abusing someone like they have been abused, so although the cycle you speak of needing to be stopped does occur at times, it does not mean that it will occur.

Thos that have been abuse sexually does not mean they will be abusive sexually later in life.There is a sexual deviant cycle, but that is not what you are refering to. The cycle you speak of really does not exist.

8. Amphiboly: "Jonathan Walton wrote: 'Just because people don't have names, it doesn't mean you can't refer to them in other ways.'

I'd have to disagree. Once you have decided to use a term to refer always to a specific person, regardless of whether it's Bill, J. Crew Guy, Tall Man, or First Man My PC Speaks to This Scene, you've created a name. Otherwise, nicknames and pet names and other surrogate references would not exist. "

Bibliography

Hear Some Arguments Against Gay Marriage." So You Wanna Know About Gay Marriage. 2000. http://www.soyouwanna.com/site/pros_cons/gaymarriage/gaymarriage2.html

Urey, Harold. Christian Science Monitor. January 1962. Archived online at "Scientists Speak Aboout the Origin of Life." Pathlights. http://www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/07prim04.htm

Nottage, Shawn. "Man Boy Love Association book should be banned." Connecticut Daily Campus. 21 October 2002. www.dailycampus.com/news/2002/10/21/Commentary/Man-Boy.Love.Association.Book.Should.Be.Banned-302005.shtml

Selective Service System." USA Jobs. http://www.usajobs.opm.gov/EI60.asp

Huether, Suzy. "Volunteers Dedicated to the Rescue of Toy Breeds in Puppy Mills and Kill Shelters." WolfSpirit's Animal Shelter. http://www.wolfspiritsrescue.com/

Frequently Asked Questions." Vivisection. PETA. http://www.peta.org/fp/viv.html

Abuse at State School for the Deaf." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. March 2001. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/forum/boards/viewtopic.asp?topicid=918&page=

Indie Game Design Forum. The Forge. January 2004. http://www.indie-rpgs.com/viewtopic.php?t=9535… [read more]


Law and Society Bowers v Term Paper

… The Court ruled that the Connecticut statute forbidding use of contraceptives violates the right of marital privacy as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights and frowned at the government's right to intrude into the private lives of its citizens. The Griswold decision also underlines the precedence of the fundamental rights over State statutes that intrude upon such rights of individuals. In the Bowers ruling, the Court has asserted that the recognition of "privacy rights" in Griswold (and other similar decisions of the court) does not bear "any resemblance to the claimed constitutional right of homosexuals to engage in acts of sodomy that is asserted in this case." In its arguments, the court reveals its prejudice against the homosexual act as it equates such acts with other criminal acts and "sexual crimes."

The Bowers decision was flawed in a number of other ways as well. For example in its majority decision the court had argued that "Proscriptions against that conduct have ancient roots." While such "proscriptions" may be referring to some distant history, it certainly had no precedence in the ancient U.S. history. As a matter of fact, the framers of the country's constitution were more concerned about protecting the property and privacy rights of individuals rather than being worried about punishing the homosexual act, especially when it is committed between consenting adults in the privacy of their homes. The early sodomy laws in the U.S. were rarely applied to acts between consenting adults and were directed mainly at preventing predatory acts against non-consenting adults (i.e., rape) or against minors. Moreover, the language of the Georgia statute about sodomy discussed in the Bowers case is not directed specifically at homosexual acts but covers heterosexual acts as well. Ga. Code Ann. 16-6-2(a), quoted by Judge Blackmun et al. In their dissenting opinion, states: "[a] person commits the offense of sodomy when he performs or submits to any sexual act involving the sex organs of one person and the mouth or anus of another." This further reinforces the belief that the majority opinion in Bowers was deeply prejudiced against the homosexuals due to, perhaps, the personal beliefs of the Justices delivering the judgment.

There is little doubt that the majority decision handed down in Bowers v Hardwick was flawed and was, therefore, over-ruled by the courts 16 years later. As we saw in this paper, the holding in the case was also incongruent with several court decisions given in prior cases relating to the right of privacy, notably the decision in Griswold v Connecticut (1965).

Works Cited

BOWERS v. HARDWICK, 478 U.S. 186 (1986). U.S. Supreme Court." Argued March 31, 1986. Decided June 30, 1986. FindLaw Website. April 4, 2004. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&court=U.S.&case=/us/478/186.html

GRISWOLD v. CONNECTICUT, 381 U.S. 479 (1965): U.S. Supreme Court." Argued March 29-30, 1965. Decided June 7, 1965 FindLaw Website. April 4, 2004. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?navby=case&court=us&vol=381&invol=479

The right to be left alone… [read more]


Population Services International (PSI) Term Paper

… Pricing also seemed to be an issue. It was strange that the women from Bangladesh, one of the poorer countries of the globe, would choose to buy products that were five, seven and even ten times more expensive than the… [read more]


Foreign Film Recently I Happened Term Paper

… The hero finds that heroine is married to a man who does not care for her and cheats with other women. The heroine wants a divorce, however, the husband refuses, until she begins to live with the hero. At this point, there is a fight between the hero and the husband, similar to the Hindi movie between the hero and the villain. The police arrive, divorce is finalized, and the hero and the heroine begin to live happily after.

If I compare these stereotypical movies: Hindi movie (that is what my friend explained me) and the American movie, one thing becomes clear. In the Hindi movie, the hero of the movie wants to marry an unmarried girl, where premarital sexual intercourse is rare. Therefore, while the villain of the Hindi movie finds the girl alone, but he does not force the girl for the sex. It is because once the hero finds that she has been forced into sexual intercourse, the hero would not be able to marry her because of the social stigma and that would have ruined the plot of the movie. In contrast, American culture is more open. Divorcing and marrying other man by a woman is considered normal. Similarly, dating with someone else at a pervious time is also considered common. In addition, I believe that American girls and boys make their dating decisions not based on their economic affiliations, because most of the school goers, at best, can be considered middle class. All of the above scenarios show the advancement of American women, where premarital consensual sex for a woman is not seen as a social stigma.… [read more]


Changing Attitudes Regarding Same-Sex Marriages Term Paper

… "

By 1977, the backlash associated with Anita Bryant and her attack on gay rights created the need to protect the gains already made. Then, in the early 1980s, AIDS struck the entire lesbian and gay community. Still, despite the fact that many anti-homosexual groups used AIDS to fuel their argument, the epidemic actually launched gay right activism, leading to a re-emergence of the same-sex marriage question. In the first place, AIDS blunted the adulation of multiple partners celebrated by both male gay culture and gay leaders in the 1970s. In addition, the AIDS epidemic encouraged closeted gays to come out publicly, creating a self-assured lesbian and gay community. With so many proud gays and lesbians, gays were no longer perceived as unloving, unstable and immoral. The epidemic has buried these opinions, at least for the public lesbian and gay community.

At this point, gays and lesbians were at the third level, at the postconventional level. People began to argue that rules of society exist for everyone's benefit, from a legal point-of-view. Therefore, gays and lesbians believed that they had a right to get married, just as much as straight people do.

By 1992, a Newsweek survey reported that 58% of its respondents disapprove of gay marriage; 35% approve, and 7% are still unsure. Today, same sex marriages are illegal in the United States. The gay and lesbian community has this issue prioritized on their agenda. Still, they are gaining momentum, as attitudes toward same sex marriage are rapidly changing.

According to Kohlberg, simple participation in moral discussions spurs growth in moral reasoning. The "just community" approach to moral development that Kohlberg helped create has three basic aims: 1) to encourage moral development through discussions of moral issues; 2) to develop a culture of moral norms through community-building and the democratic establishment of rules; and 3) to create a context where people can act on their moral decisions. For this reason, the progression made by homosexuals over the years and their efforts to gain public recognition has evolved moral thinking regarding same sex marriages. By simply getting the issues out there and making people aware, they are gaining momentum in their cause.

Bibliography

Page, Jeffrey. (July 2, 2002). Recognition for same-sex marriages. The Record.

Romanceopedia. (2003). Examining the…… [read more]


Sex Education in Schools Term Paper

… Both comprehensive and abstinence approaches to teaching are subsisted in the American society, and have both been proven to be successful in informing and preventing sexual participation among the students/children. These results imply that even though they have different methods and approaches, both comprehensive and abstinence teaching is an effective tool in informing students/children about the importance of sex education.

OUTLINE:

Introduction

Overview of Sex Education

Definition of Sex Education

History of Sex Education

Significance of Sex Education to the Individual and the Society

Schools as Primary Institutions in Teaching Sex Education

Sex Education Approaches/Teachings: Comprehensive vs. Abstinence

Comprehensive Approach

Abstinence Approach

References

Forrest, S. "Teacher-Led Sex Education -- Pupil Engagement and Discomfort Explored." Winter 2003. Sex Education Matters Magazine.

Hobden, J. "Giving Young People A Voice -- and Listening to What They Say." Spring 2002. Sex Education Matters Magazine.

Santrock, J. "Psychology" (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 2001.

Sex Education." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Whitehead, B. October 1994. "The Failure of Sex Education." The Atlantic Monthly Online…… [read more]


Liberty, by John Stuart Mill Term Paper

… If the images are of minors, they very well could have been taken under coercion, and should not be sold, viewed, or trafficked. This is as much common sense as anything else, and in fact, the creation of these types… [read more]


Faking Orgasm: Why Women Term Paper

… If more women were exposed to the idea that sexual frankness was an accepted form of communication, and had more support groups that allowed them to freely communicate their feelings and desires, faking orgasm would never be necessary.

Another important consideration: Why are men much more comfortable with saying, "I just can't do it tonight, sorry." Have women been programmed to believe that they are responsible for creating happiness and maintaining relationships? According to and article in Cosmopolitan Magazine, a woman was quoted as saying the following: "I don't always want to have an orgasm! Sometimes I just prefer to enjoy the closeness of sex. The trouble is, guys seem to get ego-bruised if I let them know about this, so I fake it" (Kurtz, 2000). The author proposes a novel idea, being honest with ones mate! Certainly no mate could consider a woman not pleasing who enjoys the intimacy and closeness of sex, but just isn't in the mood to climax. How many times has this happened to any individual? The act of sex involves many intricate feelings, emotions and sensations. It is important that a woman and a man in any type of relationship be honest about their desires, to themselves and their partner.

The worst result of women faking an orgasm: they'll feel obligated to continue doing so in the future, indefinitely perhaps, and never achieve the intimacy and joy that results from climaxing with their partner. Cheating a partner out of pleasure is bad. Cheating oneself out of pleasure is a crime that should be punished. If a woman isn't certain about how to orgasm, she should investigate the matter. Enlist the help of a partner to find out what turns the hot buttons on and off. If a woman knows what feels good but is afraid to tell her partner, she should examine the reasons behind her fear and develop a plan to overcome them.

References

Bendery, Jennifer. "Sex and Our City." June 22, 2002. March 6, 2003, http://www.popmatters.com/tv/reviews/s/sex-and-the-city.shtml

Irma, Kurtz. "Am I Bad For Faking My Orgasms?" (2000) Cosmopolitan Magazine. March 6, 2003, http://magazines.ivillage.com/cosmopolitan/experts/agony/qas/0,12750,284428_286197,00.html

Lewis, Laura Dawn. "Why Women Fake Orgasm" (2000). March 6, 2003 http://www.couplescompany.com/Jungle/WhyFake/default.htm

Faking Orgasm." March 6, 2003, http://www.indiadiets.com/sex_guide/guide%20to%20womens%20orgasm/faking_orgasm.htm

No Need To Fake It." 1998. Savage Love, Volume 19, Issue 2. http://www.shepherd-express.com/shepherd/19/02/premier/… [read more]


Patient Sexual Orientation on Diagnosis Term Paper

… ' While homosexuality is more accepted than it used to be, many individuals still see it as some type of psychological disease or condition, and would likely expected it to be listed as a clinical diagnosis option for psychologists.

Treatment of homosexuality by psychologists will also be covered in the literature review. Not only diagnosis, but reparative treatments and other options will also be discussed. This is important due to the fact that the treatment of homosexuality has changed greatly over the years, and it is necessary to understand how psychology has moved from feeling that homosexuality is a problem to be fixed, to recognizing it as an actual ' normal' state of being for some people. Research on clinician bias will be examined as well, and in order to understand the true biases toward homosexuals, racial bias will be used as a comparative. This will help to show the degree of bias that clinicians have toward homosexuals in relation to other minority groups.

At the end of the literature review, the statement will be made that there is a scarcity of research to be found on diagnosis since DSM-IV, and an overwhelming scarcity of research done on female homosexuals. It then will be proposed that this study may show that clinicians will diagnosis female homosexuals as having an axis II personality disorder more often than they would diagnose a female heterosexual, given the fact that the clinical data is the same. Sexual orientation would be the only difference. Since correct diagnosis leads to correct treatment, finding the proper diagnosis using DSM-IV is very important. Whether or not the sexual orientation of an individual is truly affecting their diagnosis by a clinician is worthy of examination for the sake of…… [read more]


Sexual Morality Michael Levin Contends Term Paper

… He thus contends that unhappiness is deeply embedded in the very nature of homosexuality and isn't caused solely by society's attitude. He notes, "Having to 'stay in the closet' may be a great strain but it doesn't account for all the miseries that writes on homosexuality say is the homosexual's lot..." Levin goes on to explain the ways in which society has become more accepting of homosexuals and concludes that all this should have raised the level of homosexual happiness but general observations suggest this not so. He writes, 'On the societal reaction theory, there ought to be an enormous rise in homosexual happiness. I know of no systematic study to determine if this is so, but anecdotal evidence suggests it may not be."

If the society's attitude was indeed such a huge cause of homosexual misery then changing views should have decreased unhappiness to a significant extent. However this doesn't seem to be the case. This indicates that there are some other important causes of this unhappiness and if it is not social and cultural views than it ought to do something with the nature of this sexual preference itself.

Levin also argues against legalizing of homosexual parenting on the grounds that this could produce unhappier children. Studying the issue from deontological point-of-view he maintains that a wrong action is likely to breed negative results and therefore an immoral action is to considered immoral, whether it hurts someone or not. I personally believe his argument makes sense because it is seen that anything unnatural or twisted is likely to have a negative impact on the society in the long run. Since we are already aware of the fact that homosexuality is connected with unhappiness, it doesn't make sense to publicly support or endorse it. Legalizing homosexual marriages or parenting indicates endorsement of a practice, which is morally and socially unacceptable.… [read more]


Overpopulation Term Paper

… My main concern would be that women would not be informed about the potential risks. Most people would probably still take the pill, knowing that one in a million patients will develop cancer. The risk is relatively remote, but at least it would be up to the individual to decide. The fact that corruption and deceit could cause women to be unaware of this risk is beyond my control as a scientist. Hundreds, if not thousands, of drugs are prescribed every day and in many of those cases the patient is not made fully aware of the potential risks and side effects. This is usually not because researchers failed to report their findings but because doctors refuse to respect the rights of their clients.

It would be entirely unethical to withhold the information because people have the right to know and the right to exercise free will. Because so many other drugs on the market carry statistical risks even higher than this, the pill would most likely be released anyway. The pharmaceutical industry is concerned with profit above all else, and a drug of this kind has the potential to make billions of dollars, even if it is distributed cheaply to poor countries and nonprofit groups.… [read more]


Rose for Emily Term Paper

… Author Hal Blythe surmises that Emily murdered Barron because she discovered that he was a homosexual and that she needed to save face once she found out.

He believes the following clues within the story support his theory that Barron is gay such as statements that Barron "liked men, and it was known that he drank with the younger men in the Elk's Club-that he was not a marrying man." Blythe states that Emily is humiliated when she discovers that Barron had used her to keep the community from discovering his sexual orientation and that Emily's positioning his body to appear to be an embracing a lover is her attempt to conceal his homosexuality from the town.

In her analysis, Judith Fetterley explains how Emily was calculating enough to use the stereotype of a lady that the Jefferson community forced her into against them to obtain power. Proof of Emily's control is evidenced by her getting away with not paying taxes and getting away with murder. When the new Board of Alderman demand tax payment, she informs them that Colonel Sartoris has given her permission not to pay taxes and to go ask him if they don't believe her. The men are aware that Sartoris is dead, but do not argue the point and simply leave when asked to do so. It's hard to imagine that they would have displayed this "gentlemanly" behavior toward a male. When Emily purchases the arsenic to kill Barron, everyone assumes that she intends to commit suicide and no one got suspicious after the house began to stink. The judge doesn't act on suspicious because he is afraid of offending a lady.

The strongest argument for Emily's motives for murder is provided by Fetterley. Other explanations presented in this paper are weaker because they don't fully account for Emily's independent nature. There are many examples in "A Rose for Emily" that support Emily's independence. For example, she refuses to pay taxes and she refuses to be criticized by the town for dating Barron. Emily is not a victim and she's also not the stereotypical "lady" that the townspeople envision. Instead, she's much more likely to be the type of person that would conform to Fetterley's analysis of why Emily murdered Barron. Finally, on the issue of homosexuality, there's simply not enough evidence to support that Barron was gay.

Bibliography

Beaty, Jerome, Booth, Alison, Hunter, Paul and Mays, Kelly. The Norton Introducton to Literature, Shorther Eighth Ediction. New York: Norton, 2002. 425-432.

Blythe, Hal. "Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" Literature for Composition. 4th Ed. Sylvan Barnet, et al. New York:…… [read more]


Contact Our Customer Service Department Term Paper

… " She goes further and blames society for some groups' need to act in self-destructive ways by its interference with their autonomy. She argues that these two groups - gay men and IV drug users - have "already endured more than enough harm because of social conditions." She attributes their behavior to "adaptive preferences" caused by on onerous society. She sees their life-style choices as no different than a "yuppie's" desire for a BMW.

History has proven her wrong. Some of the men frequenting bathhouses were bisexual. They came home to wives or female lovers, and spread AIDS to them. Intravenous drug users were often heterosexual. They would be sexually intimate with a non-infected partner, and infect the partner. At the close of 2002, some reports show AIDS spreading faster among women than men. Sexual preference is no longer much of a protection against AIDS unless one is a completely non-heterosexual Lesbian who never uses drugs. Illingsworth also ignored the financial burden taken on by society to care for those infected by the AIDS virus if the people could not pay for the treatment themselves.

Illingsworth's main argument, that these groups of people risked only themselves, wasn't accurate. In addition, the idea that a group of people should be allowed to pose a risk to greater society because society has been unfair to them in some way, makes the two groups sound helpless and unable to assert for themselves.

Closing the bath houses wouldn't have curbed AIDS in all likelihood, because sexual drive is a powerful one, and people would have found a way to be together. However, by educating these groups about condoms and clean needles, many lives were saved. To ignore the risk to lives because of social slights…… [read more]


Prostitution Problem in Los Angeles Term Paper

… He says that "If you talk to people who live in these neighborhoods... multiple times during the night people park in front of their houses and engage in illegal activities, then leave their trash on the street for children and residents to find," This a radical method of fighting prostitution and in itself indicates the graveness of the situation. (prostitutes have virtually invaded all the important places of the city). [Gina Keating]

Many other States have a totally different approach to this problem. In Florida for example law enforcement officials have a novel program wherein the prostitutes are provided with 'spending money' and a free bus ticket to leave the city. (5 years banishment). While this kind of approach may work out to some degree of success it does not address the root of the problem and this approach only leads to the shifting or relocating the problem to another location, (Usually Prostitutes end up in Washington). [Author not Available]

The Solution

Community involvement and reformative procedures)

Henry Pegeron, an experienced Los Angeles County Sheriff opines that effective control of the prostitution menace is only possible by a combined effort on the part of the cops and the local community. From his experience Pegeron recounts that invariably the prostitute is associated with other kinds of illegal activities like drug trafficking and selling. Henry also points out that in majority of the cases people are unwilling to get themselves involved in cases against the customers of the prostitutes and hence refrain from giving information to the cops. Unless community policing helps the cops get some concrete evidence of the illegal prostitute activity and their customers it will be of little use in eradicating prostitution. Furthermore enforcing strict laws aren't the only solution to the problem of prostitution. Eradicating prostitution would involve educating and reforming the people involved in the trade (especially the children). Since prostitution and other drug related problems are inter-related any solution would prove to be a waste unless it has a reformative approach to it that would help the people entangled in the problem to lead a new life.

Conclusion

Prostitution is slowly invading each nook and corner of Los Angeles. What we need is a solution that would be reformative and give the people caught up in the ring of prostitution a new way of life. Educating the deserted and outcast children on the issue would go a long way in preventing the birth of another generation of prostitutes. Rehabilitating the prostitutes by providing them with new opportunities to make them economically stable will be the best method to eradicate this evil from the society. Community policing would be a good solution to monitor the problem, as it requires a combined and cooperative effort on the part of the Law enforcement officials and the public to tackle this menace effectively.

Bibliography

1) Advocacy Committee for Women's Concerns, "Prostitution in the United States." Accessed on December 11th 2002, http://horeb.pcusa.org/oga/diversity/advocom.htm

2) Gina Keating, "Anti-Prostitution Law Targets Men's Cars," Accessed… [read more]


1984" by George Orwell Term Paper

… This program was slammed with a lawsuit by the Orwell estate, claiming it illegally borrowed from the George Orwell classic (Big 9).

Many stay constantly aware that citizens of the world may fall under the watch of Big Brother. America's new Homeland Security bill has critics spinning webs of ink. One critic has called it 'a supersnoop's dream.' (Creates pg). "The Defense Department's Total Information Awareness program would be authorized to collect every type of available public and private data in what the Pentagon describes as one 'centralized grand database'" (Creates pg). Columnist, William Safire, compared this database to Orwell's Big Brother government. Into this computerized dossier on every citizen's private life is added "passport applications, driver's license, bridge toll records, judicial and divorce records, complaints from nosy neighbors...plus the latest hidden camera surveillance" and it does seem that Big Brother is here (Creates pg).

Works Cited

Big Bother." Birmingham Post. September 06, 2000; pp 9.

Creates new agency to track private citizens through most electronic means Homeland bill 'a supersnoop's dream.'" The Washington Times. November 15, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Homeland+bill+%27a+supersnoop%27s+dream%27&title=Creates+new+agency+to+track+private+citizens+through+most+electronic+meansHomeland+bill+%27a+supersnoop%27s+dream%27++&date=11%2D15%2D2002&query=homeland+security+bill&maxdoc=67&idx=25.(accessed 11-30-2002).

Lawrence, Beverly Hall. "SOMETHING IN THE AIR / For years people have tried to keep their homes odor-free; now they're spending big bucks to make them more fragrant SIDEBAR: Making sense of the Scents." Newsday. February 13, 1997; pp B30.

Orwell, George. 1984. Penguin Putman, Inc. 1981; pp

Quirk, Barbara. "Sense of Smell Plays a Big Role." Capital Times. June 02, 1998; pp 1D.

Traynor, Francis. "Big Brother 2002 is Far More Worrying Than 1984." Daily Record.

July 27, 2002; pp 6,7.… [read more]


Birth Control Term Paper

… Research is on-going to refine and invent more types and safer birth control methods. It would be fair to say that without the pioneering spirits of our great-great grandmothers, this may not have been the case.

Personal Stand on Birth Control believe that birth control is a private matter between partners. I believe that any type of birth control which prevents conception is moral and acceptable. I do not, however, believe that abortion or the "morning after" pill is morally acceptable forms of birth control.

Abstract of Birth Control - Then and Now This paper traces the history of birth control from ancient to modern times. Several types of birth control devices and concoctions are described and the attitudes of different groups of people concerning birth control are discussed. The pioneers of the birth control movement of the late 19th and 20th centuries are named and their efforts are described. The author concludes by stating her own view of birth control.

Craig, Debbi. 2001. Birth Control Through the Ages article (online). Available at http://suite101.com;Internet; accessed 15 November 2002.

London, Kathleen. 2000. The History of Birth Control (online). New Haven, CT: Yale University available at http://www.yale.edu./ynti/curriculum/units/1982/6/82.06.03.x.html;Internet; accessed 16 November 2002.

3. The History Channel. 2001. The History of the Birth Control Movement (online) available at http://www.historychannel.com/perl/print_book.pl?ID=75708;Internet; accessed 17 November 2002.

4. Gordon, Linda. Woman's Body, Woman's Right, Birth Control in America. New York: Penguin Books, 1974

London, Kathleen. 2000. The History of Birth Control (online). New Haven, CT: Yale University available at http://www.yale.edu./ynti/curriculum/units/1982/6/82.06.03.x.html;Internet; accessed 16 November 2002.… [read more]


Connotative and Denotative Meanings Term Paper

… No means no!" became a slogan for individuals who were trying to raise awareness of the high incidence of date rape in American society. The slogan was used to impress upon women, and men, that women had the right to decline sexual advances.

Interestingly, the word "no" is used twice in the slogan "No means no!." The first instance of the word is as an adverb, indicating refusal or denial. The second use of the word in the slogan is also as an adverb, again indicating refusal or dissent. When put in the context of a date-rape situation, the slogan is meant to indicate that a woman's expression of refusal should be taken as an immediate and undeniable indication of her unwillingness to engage in sexual activity.

In the context of sexual relationships and sexual power, the slogan was designed to show that women were empowered to dissent or say no to a male who was pressing sexual activity on the female. Traditionally, women were often felt to be playing "coy" or simply feigning disagreement, while they secretly "wanted it," or wanted to engage in sexual activity despite their verbal disagreement.

The widespread use of the slogan "No means no!" turned that assumption of female compliance on its head. As such, in the specific context of the sexual arena, a woman's use of the word no began to indicate a much stronger dissent or refusal to engage in sex. As such, this is a situation where public education and widespread use of a specific slogan have helped to change the connotative meaning of a word in a specific context.

One of the most common connotative meanings of "no" is seen in the association of the word with the images of a petulant toddler defying their caregiver. In this situation, a screaming, crying child shouts "No!" emphatically denying any attempts by the parent to pacify the child. The child is often having a temper tantrum and is usually inconsolable.

The denotative meaning of the word "no" in this situation is clearly one of refusal or dissent. However, the connotative meaning is much richer, and more deeply textured. The connotation in this common scenario is one of unreasoning, almost primal defiance. The connotative meaning also includes that of outspoken and clear defiance of authority, and an assertion of independence. In addition, in this situation, "no" begins to mean petulant and annoying behaviour.

Certainly, an examination of the seemingly simple English word "no" shows that complexity of denotative meanings that can occur with even such a common and simple word. A further exploration of the word "no" also exposed a wider wealth of nuance and expression in the connotative meanings of the word. In conclusion, the exploration of this common and apparently simplistic word exposes the true complexity and depth of word meaning and use in the English language.

Works Cited

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. MERRIAM-WEBSTER…… [read more]


Glimpse Into the Mind Term Paper

… He was arrested a second time. His official charge was "subversive statements." Hermann was arrested and sent to fight the front lines in Africa. Hermann died in 1972 (Grossman, 2000). Meanwhile, Vladimir was living a life of luxury in Massachusetts.… [read more]


Ideals of Pornography Term Paper

… In this way Irving is begging us to understand that with the Puritans of the past we see the Puritans of today, with conservative and rigid views they are bring about a break in the ideals of the freedom of expression. And as Hawthorne writes and is quoted by Irving "Let not the reader argue, from any of these evidences of iniquity, that the times of the Puritans were more vicious than our own." ("Pornography and the New Puritans," 29 March, 1992).

Pornography is part of society, whether a person argues for or against it will forever be with us, man has an inherent desire to see naked photos, art or films of videos it is here to stay. Yet what does constitute as pornography within the twenty first century, with the limits and needs of mans passions and tastes constantly widening soon there will be no natural form of pornography it will only exist in the minds of those small minded individuals who have no real insight into the pleasure it brings in viewing another person's body.

Sadly as noted above man's desire is ever growing and the need for more kink interests are widening ever more, so much so that the perversity of seeing naked man and woman making love on celluloid is no longer enough for some and they have turned to their darker needs of child, animal, Sado-masochism and snuff sex for entertainment (Strossen, 1995). It is the sad collection of perverts that are producing the later type of entertainments that brings the artistic elements of pornography down into the gutter.

References

Anonymous (2001) In Defense of Pornography [online] accessed at http://www.stardestroyer.net/Mike/RantMode/Porno.shtml

Bailey. F. (2000) Sex Sells: Pornography: The Secret History of Civilisation [online] accessed at http://www.melonfarmers.co.uk/sssecret.htm

Irving and refs as provided by student re

Stevenson J.H (2001) the history of Pornography [online] accessed at http://www.tranquileye.com/historyofporn/

Strossen, N (1995) Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights [online] accessed at http://forms.aclu.org/Store/Store.cfm?ID=78&c=3… [read more]


Government Role in Abstinence Education Term Paper

… The Institute of Medicine published a report declaring that abstinence only programs have proven to be "poor fiscal policy." James Greenwood, in a letter to President Bush stated "there is no evidence that abstinence only until marriage programmes work." U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher argued that the best way reduce teen pregnancy and STD rates is to combine both abstinence only ideals with safe sex programs. However, even programs that couple the teaching of abstinence as well as safe sex are not eligible for government funds. Deborah Roffman, author of "Sex and Sensibility" stated: "The abstinence-only approach is not realistic. Fifty per cent of kids have already had intercourse." The money that is spent on abstinence only programs could be more efficiently and effectively used in a program that teaches both abstinence and safe sex. We can reduce the expenditure on welfare programs for young parents and health care expenditures used for treating the numerous cases of STD's among our youth by providing them with the tools to make safe, responsible choices. Abstinence only programs expect children to behave as if this were an "ideal" world, free of influence and temptation. We all know that this utopia does not exist, if we continue to fund such programs, their ineffectiveness will render our tax dollars non-existent as well.

Not only are abstinence only education programs unethical and a waste of taxpayers money, they censor potentially life saving health information. It is inevitable that some children will have sex; this is by no means an ideal world. By withholding the information necessary to protect them from disease and prevent pregnancy, abstinence only education risks the lives of America's children. By teaching that condoms, birth control and other devices are ineffective, children will be inclined not use them. Quantitatively, 90% of Americans have sex outside of marriage, according to the American Civil Liberties Union. It is irresponsible not to equip children with the tools that have the potential to save their lives.

The President deserves an A for effort but an F. For tactic. Yes, there is a big problem among America's youth, too many babies are having babies. But to ignore the fact that children are having sex is akin to putting a blindfold on while driving...you will accidents will happen. Abstinence only programs do nothing to address the real issue of today's youth which are: lack of guidance, few positive role models, lack of self-worth, low self-esteem and a general shift in what is considered acceptable from what previous generations considered socially acceptable. Abstinence only programs are ineffective, discriminatory, unethical and put children at significant health risks. President Bush and supporters should cease exclusive funding of abstinence only programs as taxpayer's dollars could be better used for programs that teach both abstinence and comprehensive sex education. In conclusion, America needs to stop supporting censorship and imposing Christian values on those who do follow the same ideology. Children have the right to a fair, unbiased education that gives them all the information… [read more]


Proposition Statement Term Paper

… But I'm even more horrified to hear that people attempting to protect our supposedly impressionable minds banned such classics as The Catcher in the Rye and Huckleberry Finn.

The Opposition

Opposing views/rebuttals:

Some point to the rise in eating disorders and low self-esteem, for instance, amongst young girls as a media created phenomenon. Peggy Orenstein, in her 1994 book Schoolgirls states that "middle school is the beginning of the transition to womanhood and, not coincidentally, the time of greatest self-esteem loss." She states that exposure to the images of young, passive, slender girls in the American media plays a key role in this.

Rebuttal#1: Self-esteem is not just culturally produced -- what about the environment that gives validation to these media images? Why did such media images become popular in the first place? Why do certain consumers prove so susceptible to them for psychological and cultural reasons?

Rebuttal#2: Orienstein herself admits that subtle factors such as teachers favoring boys play a crucial factor.

Opposing view #2

Some say, it's not free speech -- just pornography. "I know it when I see it," said one circuit court justice quoted in Bob Woodward's book on the Supreme Court The Brethren, in explaining why he wished to censor certain images.

a. Rebuttal #1: Even courts admit subjective judgement, no absolute standard of what is offensive.

b. Rebuttal #2: One's person pornography is another person's free expression. What about lesbian pornography, for instance? The people who attempt to ban what they dislike in the media may end up having their own expression threatened. The constitutional scholar Catherine MacKinnen, an advocate for banning pornography, saw her own works banned in Canada by the law she advocated, rather than the type of violent pornography she expected to see banned, according to the internet magazine The Ethical Spectacle.

Solutions

Personal Solutions:

Instead, support free speech in all its forms, so that your own free speech will be supported.

Successful Solutions:

Compare our own governmental system to that of more repressive regimes. Have to tolerate excesses of free speech to enjoy benefits.

A clear plan of action.

What is so frustrating is that opposition to censorship not always clear plan. Sometimes it's the opposite -- tolerating what you dislike so you have your own rights in tact to express yourself.

III. CONCLUSION

Review:

Don't give into that impulses to say ban it when you see something you dislike!

The problem:

The problem is not the existence of exploitative media; it's that people don't speak out enough against it.

The causes:

The causes are too deep in our culture to be corrected by the cosmetic surgery of censorship.

Personal efforts:

Everyone needs to make a personal resolution to speak out everyday when they see something they don't like.

Reiterate opponents' views/reinforce proposal:

This might feel more difficult and frightening than advocating banning.

Remind audience of solution:

But engagement not censorship is the ultimate defense.

Remember that example about 'fire in a crowded theater?' You know what that was in… [read more]


Big Daddy, in Tennessee William Term Paper

… ..His language is as salty as the audiences would allow -- shocking for the period. Though a redneck who dropped out of school at the fourth grade, he is shrewd and sensitive in many ways. Having lived and worked in a variety of places, he is more worldly wise than the more sheltered members of the family. He recognized, when he first arrived at this plantation, that his employers were gay, but made no moral judgments"

Tischler 84).

Big Daddy interacts with all the other characters in the play; they are all "depicted 'largely in terms of their relationship to him' (136)" (Crandell 112). He is the one that tells Brick he is drinking himself to death because he cannot face himself. Cat (Maggie) kneels to him in the last scene, relating to him as if he were a king, and telling him that she is pregnant, although she has not yet slept with Brick. She treats him like a god, and indeed, Big Daddy is somewhat like a god in this play, he is the god of his own little kingdom, and like any god, he wants to make sure it will go to the next god who can do it the most good.

Brick is central to Big Daddy's character, because he is the most troubled son. Gooper and his wife are just mean-spirited, but Brick is lost. "Why is it so hard to talk?" he asks at the beginning of the play, and that is another theme that revolves around Big Daddy. For all his loud-mouthed bluster, Big Daddy cannot say he loves his sons, or his wife, for that matter. He is sadly lacking when it comes to real communication, and that is a central theme of the entire play. "Mr. Williams in this play is interested in something far more significant than one man's psychological make-up. He is interested in what may and may not be said about the truth as a motivating force in human life. The play is thus less psychological than moral in orientation" (Crandell 129).

Big Daddy is a big character, and one that carries this play. His importance is so real that Williams rewrote the last act, adding Big Daddy to the scenes, when in the original play; Big Daddy disappeared after the Second Act. Big Daddy had a huge appetite, not only for food, but also for living. However, "His real hunger is for immortality. In this family immortality is not a promise of an afterlife in heaven or hell. It is holding on to the property, continuing the family line -- the seed of Big Daddy Pollitt" (Tischler 89).

Works Cited

Crandell, George W. "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof." Tennessee Williams: A Guide to Research and Performance. Ed. Philip C. Kolin. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. 109-121.

Crandell, George W., ed. The Critical Response to Tennessee Williams. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Editors, "Works of Tennessee Williams: Commentary on Cat on a Hot Tin Roof." Monarch Notes.… [read more]


Avoiding Overpopulation in the U.S Term Paper

… Second, they urge that the couple consider whether they need genetic counseling. Third, the mother needs to increase her folic acid intake before she conceives. They note that adding folic acid to the diet, either as a vitamin or by modifying the diet, reduces the incidence of some common and serious birth defects such as spina bifida by 80% (PPFA, accessed 2002).

They also urge the mother to have one normal menstrual cycle if she has been using birth control pills or other medical intervention that interfered with ovulation (ex: Norplants®). With the Depo-Prevara® shots it's necessary to wait longer. This is so the woman can be certain of when she conceived, and hence, what the due date can be. If a pregnancy becomes compromised in some way, that information can be vital to the baby's health. A barrier method of birth control can be used during any time when the old birth control method is no longer effective but the parents aren't ready to conceive.

Finally, they urge both parents to get physically fit, including quitting smoking if one or both smoke. Cigarette smoke, even second hand smoke, can compromise the baby both before and after birth.

Children born without planning, especially to unwed mothers, are more likely to live in poverty, to be abused, and to have developmental problems. These difficulties stem from a whole range of problems that often accompany an unexpected pregnancy.

Bibliography

Carter, Tom. March 22, 1999. "To Birth, or Not to Birth?" Insight on the News.

Koshar, Jeanette H. 09-01-2001. "Teen Pregnancy 2001-Still No Easy Answers." Pediatric Nursing, 27(5): 505-512,

Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) "Mission Statement. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/

Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) "Fact Sheet: Pregnancy & Childbearing Among U.S. Teens." http://www.plannedparenthood.org/library/TEEN-PREGNANCY/teenpreg_fact.html… [read more]


Gay Couple Walks Hand- Term Paper

… Most civil rights proponents, though, would still argue that this man should be disciplined because his words were "intended to insult or stigmatize...addressed directly to those insulted or stigmatized, and [made] use of insulting or 'fighting words'..." (p. 344).

There are many differences between the civil liberties perspective and the civil rights perspectives on the First Amendment. Each takes a different view of what constitutes "real" harm, each strives for a different sphere of influence, each has a different perspective regarding "invalid" or "wrong" ideas, and each has different focuses in reconciling the individual's right to freedom of speech with the government's duty to protect its citizens from injury.

With so many opposing beliefs, it should be clear that the civil rights point-of-view and the civil liberties point-of-view are dramatically opposed with little if any room for compromise. In his article, for instance, Grey describes the obstacles he encountered trying to word an anti-harassment policy at Stanford: "Many students of color and other civil-rights advocates at Stanford have opposed it...as too weak an anti-discrimination measure. At the same time, narrow as it is, the proposal retains enough of the civil-rights approach to trouble most civil libertarians" (p. 344).

Grey, refreshingly, does not try to create common ground where none exists. He describes the conflict between civil libertarians and civil rights proponents as a "plural, sometimes incommensurable, structure clusters of values and principles..." (p. 341). Later, he reiterates that "[T]hey seem to me to be really sides -- mutually incommensurable perspectives -- rather than the poles of a well-defined continuum along which negotiators may approach each other in search of a solution that measurably splits the difference between them" (p. 344). Grey's solution in creating Stanford's anti-harassment policy was to try to acknowledge both sides of the issue. "The provision is an attempt to accommodate competing values, to mediate the incommensurable conflict of civil-liberties and civil-rights approaches on this issue...I do believe that some such accommodating solution, as against a 'principled' choice implementing one approach to the exclusion of the other, is needed" (344). As mentioned above, Stanford's policy, which states the contradiction outright between civil liberties and civil rights upfront and severely limits the types of speech considered discriminatory or harassing, has drawn criticism from both civil libertarians and civil rights proponents. In the end, there is no perfect solution, but, as Grey states, it is important to be aware of both sides of…… [read more]


Sexual Homicides Term Paper

… The exploration includes definitions and well-known examples of such acts. The book's focus is on serial homicides and the lust crime personalities. We are taken through the findings of long-term FBI studies as well as introduced to the study of serial sex killers. The authors use interviews with serial killer to gain insight into the minds of sexual deviants and what causes them to cross the line into murder (Ressler, 1995). The killers in the book have various disorders of sexual deviances, such as have been described here, and they openly discuss how they were driven to commit the murders and why they feel they did it.

While we are commonly aware that many sex serial killers had dysfunctional upbringings the authors of this book allow the telling of their stories by the killers themselves. We are given an insightful peek into the horrors many of them suffered at the hands of mentally ill parents and we begin to understand the blueprint of the killer.

In Sex Crimes by Ronald Holmes we are given a similar look however, he presents the fact of deviancy. With less statistical information and more gory detail. Events of the acts themselves are described in close detail and the reader is led to understand just how victimized the victims of these predators are.

CONCLUSION

Sexual deviancy is something that is often joked about in high school lockers rooms, and giggled about in the cafeteria at school, however true sexual deviance is no laughing matter. The serial sex killers in this world are predators of the worst kind. They practice their murderous ideas on innocent victims for no other reason than to be satisfied sexually. It is important that we continue to study serial sex killers so that we gain better insights to their make up and patterns. In the future this knowledge may allow us to target, and stop them before they have a chance to act. Sexual deviancy is a personal and private desire. Until it crosses the line into criminal behavior those who have deviant desires are not a threat to anyone, however once that line is crossed they can cause significant damage to entire populations by actual acts, causing fear and reminding us that we aren't all wired for decency.

REFERENCES

Holmes, Ronald. Sex Crimes. (Sage Publications, 1991)

Ressler, Robert, Burgess, Ann, Douglas, John, Heafner, Horace. Sexual Homicide: Patterns and Motives (Simon and Schuster 1995).

Solita…… [read more]


Labeling of Individuals Term Paper

… There is also the case of people in need of help being labeled and this labeling preventing them from getting that help. The prime example of this is in relation to mental illness.

This issue is discussed in detail in Goldberg's "Speaking With the Devil - A Dialogue with Evil." In this work he explains how labeling people as 'criminal psychopath' or other terms, does not mean that the individual is understood. It only serves to make the assessor feel that the illness is understood and in doing this decide not to make an effort to truly understand. The patient gets no worth or help from being labeled as such, the labeling only makes the labeled and the labeler feel that there is nothing that can be done. It is essentially an excuse to accept the behaviour as abnormal and do nothing to rectify it.

The one area where the labeling is seen as beneficial is where it is not seen as a solution. Labeling is able to group certain people together, by doing this one person's situation can be compared to others like it and useful information can be obtained from this. In this way, labeling is a tool to be used on the way to a solution, not as a solution itself.

This same concept applies to labeling as a whole. Labeling someone as 'gay' does not mean that this person is understood. It may mean that being 'gay' is part of who they are, but it is no reason to assume that they are known and think about it no further. For labeling to be of benefit it must be thought of as a tool to use in understanding others. This applies both to those being labeled and to all people who react to labeled individuals.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, H.S. Outsiders. New York: Free Press, 1963.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. trans. Richard Howard. New York: Random House, 1965.

Goldberg, Carl. Speaking With the Devil: A Dialogue With Evil.…… [read more]

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