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Nationalism, Gender, Thesis

… ¶ … Nationalism, Gender, And the Nation

The objective of this paper is to answer the question of whether policies of nationalist government modernize gender relations or do they represent a traditionalist aim to preserve or reestablish unequal and pre-modern… [read more]


Gender Role Theory and Male Rape Victims Research Proposal

… Gender Role Theory & Male Rape Victims

GENDER ROLE THEORY and MALE RAPE:

This article describes and analyzes how researchers have studied rape, particularly focusing on male rape cases and its link to gender role theory. I utilized ten existing… [read more]


Society - Gender Theory Theoretical Approaches Thesis

… Society - Gender Theory

THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO GENDER

Human behavior is influenced tremendously by different elements of biology and culture. Even the most fundamental attributes of the individual, such as gender-specific expression is undoubtedly a combination of evolutionary biology, as evidenced by parallels between human behavior and that of numerous other higher animal species that reproduce sexually. Similarly, there is a powerful interpersonal basis for most aspects of human behavior, shaped by early life experiences (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).

Undoubtedly, the original basis for gender differentiation is biological, but within the human species, culture and social learning is the primary determinant of most outwardly observable gender-based social behavior. Society establishes and defines common expectations associated with gender and cultural practices, beliefs, and customs account for the tremendous variation apparent among different human societies and different ethnic groups (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

The Cultural Influences on Gender-Based Behavioral Expression:

In the late 1980s, social theorists West and Zimmer introduced the concept of doing gender, to describe the degree to which individuals express their gender in exactly the manner prescribed by their prevailing social environment. Rather than necessarily discounting the influence of biological and evolutionary factors, the concept of "doing gender" simply refers to the fact that social learning is responsible for shaping human behavior within the much more general direction established by biological gender assignment (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003). Therefore, when adult males express chauvinistic attitudes and repress their emotions and adult females experience shame in connection with their sexual urges, those represent just a few of many examples where the individual is merely acting out social roles shaped by cultural learning (Efthim, Kenny, & Mahalik, 2001).

Human intelligence is responsible for the much richer variety of cultural differences in different human societies than apparent in different societies of other animal species, and the extensive differences in cultural expectations, beliefs, and practices within human cultures includes the very definition of behaviors and attitudes that become characteristic of the two genders. In that regard, concepts of masculinity and femininity differ substantially among different ethnic cultures, as do beliefs and values that define acceptable behavior for members of each gender (Abreu, Goodyear, Campos, et al., 2000). In American society, evidence of the profound influence of social culture on behavior in general and on gender expression in particular is obvious when comparing characteristically male and characteristically female behavior inherent in the prevailing beliefs and expectations within ethnic cultures.

Anecdotal Examples:

One of the most prominent examples of socially influenced gender-specific behavior concerns the response of the individual to emotions. Generally, males are socialized from very early on to distance themselves from their emotions and to redirect their emotional energies outward and channel them into tangible release mechanisms, such as sports, superficial camaraderie, or productive work. Conversely, females are socialized to experience their emotions more fully and they are encouraged to express them directly. As a result, males often overcompensate for emotional issues as a means of avoiding dealing with them (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).… [read more]


Cinema and Sexuality Research Proposal

… Sex & Sexuality - Cinema Comparison

SEX and SEXUALITY: CINEMATIC COMPARISON on the surface, the two features, Live Nude Girls Unite! (2000) and the Notorious Bettie Page (2005) have little in common other than the very superficial similarities of principal characters who earn a living from their physical attributes in the fringes of the sex industry. Bettie Page is discovered walking on the beach in Coney Island in Brooklyn after which she becomes famous for her provocative photographs and the mid-20th century version of what would be considered "soft-core" pornography today.

Julia Query is a lesbian comedienne whose life is portrayed with particular focus on her employment as an exotic dancer and her difficult relationship with a mother who refuses to condone her daughter's involvement in the tamer segment of the sex industry despite her own lifelong dedication to protecting street prostitutes.

Both protagonists are profoundly affected by the hypocrisies in Western culture, especially in the United States during the mid-20th century, albeit in different ways.

Childhood flashbacks into Betty Page's early life reveal that she was raised in a devout Christian family in the Bible Belt (Tennessee), where she was sexually abused by her father and later gang raped after the end of a short unhappy wartime marriage.

Even after eventually embarking on a career in the soft-core sex industry, her character comes across with a preserved innocence that belies cultural beliefs and attitudes about "fallen" women, exemplified by a Senate subcommittee investigation into the industry resulting substantially from some of her work. Her innocence is represented both in her character and in her genuine perception of having done nothing wrong, but most of all by her apparent obliviousness to the primary prurient purpose and uses of her images.

Julia Query is less naive, but equally subject to the harsh realities of the gender- based…… [read more]


Expectations of Each Gender in Comprehensive and Abstinence Only Education Thesis

… Sex Education

Gender Bias in Sex Education: A Review

During the 1920s, education began to be viewed as the cure-all for social problems. One of those social problems was a lack of correct sexual knowledge for school-age children and adolescents.… [read more]


Gender Inequality Thesis

… Gender Inequality

One of the most accurate definitions of gender was given Ridgeway and colleague (1999) where he explained that gender was simply a structure where by a society was able to define the social differences within people and their… [read more]


Gender Identity Disorder and George A. Rekers Term Paper

… Gender Identity Disorder

The site at http://www.leaderu.com/jhs/rekers.htm is sponsored by a George a. Rekers, Ph.D., whose academic credentials lend some credibility to the information on the site. Dr. Rekers provides his credentials beyond academic certification, and his credentials are indeed… [read more]


Thinking Through Queer Identities in the Film Being John Malkovich Term Paper

… Film Being John Malkovich

Sexuality must not be thought of as a kind of a natural given power which tries to hold in check, or as an obscure domain which knowledge tries gradually to uncover. It is the name that… [read more]


Gender, Sex, and Gender Socialization Term Paper

… gender, sex, and gender socialization in the western world in the twentieth century and how public intervention may produce effective policies and practices with a focus on childcare

This work intends to define the terms 'sex', 'gender' and 'gender socialization' and how these three concepts are related to each other. This work will answer the questions of how these three concepts are related to one another and provide three specific examples. This work will further answer the question of 'what ways do traditional gender expectations facilitate personal development, and in what ways do they inhibit personal development. This work will further select four photographs of men and women from a newspaper or magazine that shows: (1) a woman performing traditional female activities; (2) a woman performing nontraditional female activities; (3) a man performing traditional male activities; and (4) a man performing nontraditional male activities. This work will provide an interpretation of each picture. This work will additionally answer the question of 'what has been the common characterization of family in the Western world in the twentieth century and why has it been idealized as a private world - that is, one where conflicts are supposed to be self-contained and without intervention from the state? This work will examine why feminists support the idea of public intervention in family policy and will analyze the history of childcare in the twentieth century and using child care as an example, discuss ways that public intervention can produce effective policies and practices.

DEFINITIONS & TERMS

1) Sex: The defining value that labels human beings either male or female based on physical/biological elements.

2) Gender: The work entitled: "Global Women Writers: Key Terms and Definitions" defines gender as: "A culturally shaped group of attributes and behaviors given to the female or to the male. Contemporary feminist theory is careful to distinguish between sex and gender." (2008)

3) Gender Socialization: societal formation developmental process of molding the individual into a prescribed gender specific role model through entrenchment in the psyche of American socialization historically and traditionally. (Married Women's Employment, Gender Socialization and Divorce Rates, nd)

I. HOW SEX, GENDER and GENDER SOCIALIZATION ARE RELATED

The work of Kryzanowski and Stewin (1985) published in the International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling in the work entitled: "Development implications in Youth Counseling: Gender Socialization" relates that research in the area of psychology "has generally supported the contention that the development of gender appropriate behavior is encouraged by socialization processes. Commencing from birth, male and female children are reared and socialized differently. In recent years there has been a trend toward the acceptance of less stereotyped roles (androgyny) in order that children may adapt more easily to the demands of the environments in which they live." Sex, gender and socialization can be clearly seen represented in the Chinese foot binding or the Western corset or as stated in the work of Hsieh (1996) entitled: "Putting the Sex Back into Gender" states: "Each device of beautification restricted her freedom and… [read more]


Understanding Gender and Negotiation Term Paper

… ¶ … Gender and Negotiation

Negotiation takes place on a variety of subjects and at numerous levels in business, social, and personal interactions. Negotiation is a process of exchange between two or more parties, and is often times reduced to… [read more]


Gender Awareness Term Paper

… Gender Awareness

Gender governs almost every social and political sphere. Personal identity depends on largely gender. Interpersonal relationships and communication also rely on gender cues. Gender norms determine behaviors ranging from speech patterns to body language. However, awareness about how strongly gender impacts human behavior remains limited. Part of the reason for the limited awareness about gender is that masculinity is considered the norm. We still hear people saying "a lady doctor" or "actress" when in neither case does being female impact the meaning of the professional standing. Nagel notes that masculinity underlies nation-state formation in ways we have yet to fully acknowledge in the essay "Masculinity and Nationalism."

Moreover, the income inequity between male and female professionals is one of the most disturbing manifestations of a male-dominated society. The glass ceiling also prevents many women from occupying positions of power from which they would be better able to maneuver financial, political, and social resources toward creating widespread social change. Therefore, Gender Awareness Week is an opportunity to expose the hidden and not-so-hidden remnants of gender bias.

Gender awareness means more than an acknowledgment of inequality between the sexes. Even among each gender binary group, males and females, we experience a continuum of gender identity. Not all females like pink and sleep with men. Some wear plaid and sleep with women. Similarly, not all men like football. Some prefer interior design. Gender norms inhibit free self-expression, limiting an individual's ability to transcend the binary of male-female. The result is that many non-conformist men and women are socially isolated and ostracized.

Transgender, gay, and lesbian communities increase gender awareness. Gay pride celebrations do too, even though sexual orientation and gender are actually different topics. The reason why sexual orientation always comes up in any discussion of gender is because males are socialized to sleep with females, and females are socialized to sleep with males. heterosexuality…… [read more]


Dichotomies of Our Gender System Term Paper

… Dichotomy of Our Gender System

While the idea that we live in a black-and-white universe may be comforting for some, reality continues to disrupt this assertion. Even the categories of "male" and "female" - a dichotomy that very few ever… [read more]


Difference Between Sex and Gender Term Paper

… Gender

Sex and Gender

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of sex and gender. Specifically it will discuss the difference between sex and gender and whether they are a biological or social construct. Sex and gender are really two very different things, as the topic of transsexuals shows. Simply because a person is born one sex or another does not guarantee they are the "right" gender for their biological needs and wants, which is why so many people choose to change their sex through artificial and surgical means. Sex is purely biological, sex is decided when the baby is first conceived in the womb, but gender is a product of society and what society believes about "male" and "female."

In her book "Self-Made Man," author Norah Vincent writes, "Gender identity, it seems, is in the genes as surely as sex and identity are, but we don't know why the program deviates. Maybe a crossed wire somewhere, or the hormonal equivalent" (Vincent 6). I believe that gender is in the genes, and I also believe that gay and lesbian people are wired differently, not in a bad way, but in a different way that is biological and leads them in a less traditional lifestyle that is not accepted by society. Gender is essential for procreation and life, but the social norm of gender is not essential, it is simply a construct society has created regarding "men" versus "women" and all that means. Gender is basically about reproduction and biology, while sex and identity are all about society and what society believes about men and women.

Vincent's book and the film "Transamerica" both explore issues of gender and sex in surprisingly similar ways. Vincent transforms herself into a "man" to see what living as a man is like in our society. She discovers that men treat each other very differently than they treat women, and that living as a man is not as difficult as she thought it would be. She is a lesbian in real life, and so, has some masculine tendencies that helped her with her disguise, but she still found many differences in how she was treated, simply because people thought she was a man. For example, she joins a bowling league, convinces the members she is a man, and spends eight months bowling with them and learning about how they interact with each other and their families. She writes, "As I tried to be one of the guys, I could feel myself saying and doing the very things that young men do as teens when they're trying to sort out their place in the ranks" (Vincent 39). She discovers that she desperately wants to fit in as a man and be accepted, and she finds that many of the men she meets are not nearly as "bad" as she had initially thought. In fact, she talks with affection about many of them. Her gender was different in this book, but inside, she… [read more]


Human Sexuality and the Internet Term Paper

… ¶ … human sexuality and the Internet. There was one source used to complete this paper.

Cyber-Sex and Human Sexuality

The advances in technology recently have brought mankind to heights never before dreamed possible. Today, with the click of a… [read more]


Gender Identity Disorder Term Paper

… GID

Gender Identity disorder has received a great deal of attention in recent years. The purpose of this discussion is to emphasize current treatment strategies for clients affected by Gender Identity Disorder. The discussion will include a review of the… [read more]


Sexuality in Older Adults Term Paper

… ¶ … sexuality in older adults. The writer explores a specifically chose article and outlines its content and conclusion with regard to the sexuality of older humans. There was one source used to complete this paper.

Throughout modern history, the issue of sexuality has always belonged to the young. Commercials, television shows, and movies have worked to build a strong case for human sexuality in those who are under retirement age. While it was acknowledged in passing that order people are capable of feeling and having sexual relations it was usually a topic that was ignored. In more recent years however, human sexuality among older people has moved to the forefront of attention. Commercials advertising pills that can help sustain erection, advertisers for doctors that treat erectile dysfunction and other vehicles have made the world realize that the older generation is still interested in sex. As researchers begin to examine this fact one study looks at all aspects of human sexuality in people over the age of 65, and concludes it is part of a healthy and fulfilled lifestyle.

The article explores the myths of society present in the thinking about older adults and sexuality.

This article was of interest to me because I plan to work with seniors as part of my career and with the commercials and other ideas regarding human sexuality in older adults I believe this article will help me form educated opinions about the topic.

One of the first things it does is discuss the myths that currently surround the topic which include the idea that older adults are not interested in sexual relations, those who do express an interest are not normal and it is not acceptable for older women to marry younger men though the other way around is perfectly acceptable (Huffstetler, 2006).

With these and other ideas about older human sexuality being accepted by society there is a mindset that men and women should be separated by gender in nursing homes once they attain a certain age. This mindset has also led to married couples being separated from each other in the same home.

There were several facts used to support the author's ideas in this article. One of the first facts that is brought to light is the historical belief that sex was at one point only to be used for the purpose of procreation. Atone pointing history, as the article points out, people beyond childbearing years who engaged in sexual relations, even with a spouse were sinning.

The middle 1800's saw a scientific interest in the sexuality of people, however, even at that time and until two decades ago it was still believed that older people were not interested in having sexual relations with each other (Huffstetler, 2006).

Studies have contradicted this belief for many years.

Several studies have validated the view that sexual activity continues late in life for both men and women reported that 70% of 70-year-olds are sexually active at least once a week. As early as… [read more]


Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Term Paper

… Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality that people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories is that men and woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological components in the body (Kimmel, 45).

Kimmel points out that biological theorists suggest that biology provides mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need to build create and form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus inborn or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of Gender

Psychological theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than biological ones. Psychological theorists tend to suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that creates gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading psychological theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological theorists would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective of gender theory suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what Kimmel suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how people can learn gender tendencies such as homosexuality and then revert to another gender identity once they are grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural differences in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender identity more so than biological or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows that cultural rather than biological tendencies can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ across cultural boundaries, hence psychological theories are also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and Gender as a Social Institution

Kimmel supports the notion that gender is a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Guinea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role as masculine and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific manner based on socially constructed factors rather than biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed theory suggests that mankind is capable of creating their own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain cultural norms, values and beliefs… [read more]


Gender Sociology Term Paper

… Gender and Society

The Biologically-Based Gender Argument

There are many biological arguments regarding gender. While controversial at best there are many proponents of the biological perspective on gender differentiation. Biological research suggests that gender is innate. Male homosexuals for example… [read more]


Social Context of Gender Term Paper

… Gender and Sexuality

There are two very common and compelling themes in these readings. One is violence, and the other is inequality. While we pride ourselves as a country that accepts all, and is a "melting pot," in reality that is simply not the case and these readings all point to that. Whether the author is male or female, black, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American, many of the thoughts and ideas are the same. These people are still treated as second-class citizens in many ways, they have far fewer opportunities than whites, and they are angry about it. These readings go further, however. They also indicate the difficulties just about anyone who is "different" face in America. Jews, the handicapped, prostitutes, gays and lesbians, women, the overweight - it does not matter how you are different, just that you are different, and so not acceptable to the bulk of American society. That bulk that makes many of the rules are white males, and they have more "privilege" and more advantages than just about any other group in America today.

It is easy to see why…… [read more]


Gender and Identity Term Paper

… Postmodernist theory suggests that socialized roles are not static, nor are they transmitted faithfully to individuals, but rather the individual interacts dynamically with the role. "Children [have] agency in learning gender. They are not passively 'socialized into a sex role...… [read more]


Human Sexuality Glbtq the Glbtq (Gay Lesbian Term Paper

… Human Sexuality GLBTQ

The GLBTQ (gay lesbian bisexual transgendered and questioning) community is defined by the interests and concerns of a number of different members of this group. While there are a number of issues of joint concern to members… [read more]


Gender Have Influenced the Historic Term Paper

… The gender stereotypes of female and male remain deeply entrenched within our society. Women continue to be marginalized by society, and are marked in the west, even today. In contrast, men are in the mainstream of western society and seen as normal and enjoy associated privileges.

In her article "The Egg and the Sperm" Emily Martin describes how cultural stereotypes continue to influence scientific literature today. She notes that scientific literature describes male sperm as aggressive, while the female egg is a passive recipient. In fact, many of the scientific facts do not support such a characterization as sperm are weak, and the egg is active during fertilization.

The modern reaction to the intersexed (those who are genetically ambiguous in terms of sex) reveals a great deal about our deeply held attitudes about gender and sex. Today, the idea of intersexed seems to create a great deal of discomfort within society, revealing our deep-seated need to continue to define based on gender differences.

Social construction also continues to play an important role in modern society, and within science. Society continues to see women as possessing of a strong maternal instinct, for example, a social construction that is deeply revered in our society. The gender dichotomy still present in society thus means that men are largely seen as not nurturing. As such, this gender dichotomy has resulted in women being are seen as marked subjects in society. Women's maternal work, such a childcare, or even nursing (both paid and unpaid) is largely marginalized by society.

It is this idea of women as nurturing that often places women in opposition to careers in science, as the demanding world of scientific research is often seen as in direct opposition to women's innate maternal drive to have children. Interestingly, male scientists are not held to such standards, and having children is not necessarily seen as a conflict for male scientists.

In conclusion, the ideas of gender continue to strongly influence both scientific literature and the practice of science today. Based on notions of gender that developed during the Enlightenment and the Victorian era, science has a long history of incorporating gender norms and sex dichotomies into science.

Works Cited

Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.

Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making…… [read more]


Health and Human Sexuality Term Paper

… Most human development models correctly identify that the family is the primary matrix of identity formation. Research in almost every field has validated that the positive or negative adaptation of the individual is first and foremost created by the relationships within the family. In the case of self-esteem, we know, and understand that specific actions in the family build positive self-esteem, or harm the creation of the same. In the area of physical health similar nutritional variables have been identified, and no one argues about the existence of positive and negative physical growth curves. The same developmental assumptions should be applied to gender identity formation, and Elizur and Ziv give evidence for the needed change.

According to the authors, as GLB youth grow up, the family, which should be an important factor in gender identity formation, is not the source of social and emotional support. The authors say that "Unlike most human development models that consider the family to be the primary matrix of identity, the same-gender identity models... perceive the family role as rather peripheral GLB." The authors go on to suggest that the lack of support is responsible for the maladaptive behaviors. Based on an understanding of the developmental nature of the primary family on other self-perceived identities, I would like to suggest that the alienative family dynamics may have had a causal influence out he gender identify formation process, rather than a limited, and reactionary influence over the person's feelings about himself. If gender identity formation is a developmental process, then in order to make corrections for the widespread variance to suggested models, researchers need to take the processes and assumptions which are accepted in the emotional and physical areas of human development, and apply them to gender identity development. By accepting that there may be a normal identity development curve, which is male identity to be formed in a male body, and female identity to be formed in a female body, researchers may take a step toward solving the problems of maladaptive behaviors, and find the tools to help the GLB person take responsibility and control back over their own lives.

Bibliography

Family Support and Acceptance, Gay Male Identity Formation, and Psychological Adjustment: A Path Model.

Family Process, Summer, 2001, by Yoel…… [read more]


Sex and Gender Six Feet Term Paper

… Ruth succeeds in shedding her role as wife when she asserts her newfound independence to Nikoli: "I'll be your friend and your lover but I'll never be your wife." Ruth's character mirrors the common attempt to break free from societal norms.

David Fisher's personal battle to come out of the closet shows how amazingly difficult it is to be gay in America, despite shows like "Queer Eye for the Straight Guy." Many major network sitcoms have made it almost trendy to be gay, while Six Feet Under demonstrates the colder reality beneath the surface. Especially because he is a deacon at the local church, David has a hard time with the shame and stigma that accompanies being gay. The show reflects the inability of religious institutions to embrace all members of the human race equally, regardless of sexual orientation. The show also depicts gay men in close relationships without focusing exclusively on the sex. In this manner, Six Feet Under provides one of the more realistic visions of what it is like to come out of the closet and to be openly gay in America.

However, Six Feet Under is totally unique among American television shows. Partly because it is on cable television and has a limited set of viewers, the show does not drive American culture, creating its trends, values, and norms. Many major network dramas and sitcoms do drive American culture by informing viewers about how they should look, dress, think, talk, and feel -- and of course, what they should buy. Women are constantly being barraged with unrealistic body types created by plastic surgery as well as images of the ideal companion for the American male. The American male is likewise told constantly how to behave, especially around women. Six Feet Under, episode 13 in particular, is not one of the shows that attempts to create cultural trends or norms. Rather, this episode is more truly a reflection of American culture; it just so happens that the culture it reflects was itself influenced by television.

Works Cited

Knock, Knock." Episode 13 of Six Feet Under. Written, Directed, and Produced…… [read more]


Sociology and Feminist Theories Term Paper

… Of particular interest to the casual observer are the differences in relational dynamics and social interaction and perception between African-Americans and white Americans. African-American societies are by far one of the most dominant societies in the U.S., and have also been subject to different stereotypes and stigmas that have been existing for many years.

In fact, racial and gender differences are the most common forms of stratification that society tends to look in an individual. In the case of the American experience, African-American males are perceived differently by society as compared to white American males and females, as well as African-American females. In Myra and David Sadker's article entitled, "The Miseducation of Boys: Changing the Script," the authors discuss the significance of race and gender as determining factors that affect and change the social construction of African-American males' assumed roles and behavior in their society and social/societal interactions. The article is divided into three segments, focusing on the topic of African-American male diversity among other people in the society: stereotypes of male roles and behavior, effects of instilling these stereotypes in the psyche of African-American males, and the challenge of instilling a "new model" of role taking and behavior character of males. Using the theories of Social Learning Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, this paper discusses how role taking and behavior modeling affects the way African-American males perceive themselves as individuals in their society. Through these theories also, the authors' proposal and challenge of instilling a now model of role taking and behavior character among African-American males are given in-depth an analysis and discussion.

The Social Learning Theory, whose main proponent is psychologist A. Bandura, posits that "human behavior is learned through modeling." Stages of human behavior modeling are the following: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. In Sandker and Sandker's article, it is evident that SLT is one main factor why African-American males grow up believing that they should stick to the stereotype images of men that they have acquired as "models" of their behavior and character. Because of this, the stereotype of an black American male as a tough and masculine guy with strictly no effeminate characteristics prevailed, and 'outsiders' or males who do not conform with these models of a black American males are called a "fag," similar to the scenario presented in the authors' case study at the Morningside Elementary School in Maryland. Symbolic Interactionism by G. Mead, meanwhile, argues that humans are active conforming objects of socialization, where an individual's subjective perception of a role that s/he perceives as desirable and appropriate for his perceived personality and identity is developed, or becomes the individual's role (a process called 'role-taking'). The role of a tough black American male is the prevalent roles assumed by most black American males, and the role of a man that has "access to stigmatized part of themselves -- tenderness, nurturance, the desire for connection, the skills of cooperation" is still being challenged by a society that has grown up assuming the roles… [read more]


Gender Norms, Values, Identities, and Roles: Mohave vs. Western Society Research Paper

… Along with the construction of gender, society imposes certain expectations and norms;

i) There are only two gender categories

ii) Membership in either gender is general

iii) An individual's genitals determine their gender

iv) An individual's gender is invariant

v)… [read more]


Issues in Sexuality Term Paper

… Of course not all popular news sources are entirely without value. The New York Times and other newspapers of record often have valuable information on the subject of a variety of culturally-related issues. While even popular sources of great repute cannot act as a substitute for peer-reviewed sources, they do not have to be automatically discounted, either.

In regards to this particular issue, neither source should be regarded as providing conclusive evidence that students are turning to the sex industry en masse to fund their educations. However, the issue does seem to warrant further study, given that it does seem clear that more and more students are struggling financially during and after college. The shift in attitude towards selling one's body for sex is itself interesting, even if it does not affect the material reality of students to the degree suggested by The Daily Mail.

Finally, the question of bias inevitably arises. The Daily Mail is explicitly critiquing government policy and the article (although not an editorial) seems to be calling for some kind of change to take place regarding student funding. Also, the idea of students selling their bodies for sex might be raised as a way to sell newspapers. However, this does not mean that all peer-reviewed articles are without bias: researchers can also be swayed by availability of funding, the desire to prove a particular hypothesis, and also a desire to either prove or disprove popular contentions in the field. This means that regardless of the source, a researcher must be vigilant about screening for bias when evaluating information.

If I were to conduct research on this sexually-related topic, I think both sources might be potentially useful but only as starting-points for a larger investigation into the…… [read more]


Biological and Social Theories of Gender Essay

… They do acknowledge that there are, generally, external sex-based differences between male and female that lead to the early assignment of a biological sex to a child. However, they look at those differences as merely a foundation for the gendered expectations that are linked to the child's behavior. The constructivists find support for their position of gender as a construct by examining social traditions that seem to have a more fluid approach to gender construction. For example, biological females may live as males under certain conditions, and are, in turn, treated as males by the rest of their culture.

This concept of gender suggests that biological sex is not determinative of gender, but is merely the starting point for gender. Each individual uses social discourses, including expectations and norms, to create their own meaning of what it means to be masculine or feminine. As a result, one expects some variation in what it means to be masculine or feminine depending upon underlying cultural norms. Not only does culture influence how someone interprets gender, but gender, in turn, influences how people perceive their social status within their culture. Moreover, under the social constructivist approach, gender is fluid over the course of a lifetime. Furthermore, gender is seen as a continuously produced throughout a lifetime because people construct their behavior and experience as a cultural lens of gender. Furthermore, gender segregation becomes an intentional part of gender, both through cultural expectations and through self-selection by members of different sexes. For example, in modern U.S. society, academic achievement has become feminized, so that boys may reject academic achievement.

Some people would suggest that biological and social construct perspectives are diametrically opposed because one of them suggests that gender is innate while the other suggests that gender is the result of social conditioning. However, neither of these approaches suggests that either biology or culture is entirely responsible for gender. The nature vs. nurture debate is, in fact, not really a debate. Modern theorists from both perspectives realize that the question is not nature or nurture, but "how do nature and nurture each impact gendered behavior?" As a result, these different approaches are not conflicting. Instead, they co-exist very well. In fact, when viewed as components in a system of gender development, they help explain how gender constructs develop. Both of the approaches begin with the notion of biological gender, most typically determined by examining physical genitalia as indicia of biological gender. They then suggest that cultural norms, based upon this physical assessment of gender, continue to shape gender. That there are anatomical differences in brain structure for males and females does not belie the idea that culture influences gender, because these anatomical differences could be partially innate and then reinforced over the lifetime by gendered behavior.

By examining multiple theories of gender, what becomes clear is that gender, and, to a lesser extent, biological sex, are not the rigid concepts that they are believed to be. There are norms that are associated with both… [read more]


Depictions of Stigmatization in Cinema Essay

… When she is forced to cut her hair and wear male clothes to hide from the IRA in the film, Dil experiences this as a profound disruption in her sense of self, despite the fact she is physically male.

Ironically, because Dil can pass as female and tries to do so as a transgender woman she experiences less overt stigma than does Crisp who is openly harassed when he dyes his hair bright red or wears makeup. Crisp's status in an indeterminate gender category causes him to be more stigmatized than a transgendered person or someone whose gayness is not proclaimed to the world in a homophobic society. However, even in Maurice, shame and stigmatization is still possible when a gay man is 'caught,' given that homosexual acts are legal crimes. Simply to be openly gay puts someone outside of the pale of society, regardless of the persona the individual adopts.

Goffman notes that obviously stigmatized people, if they cannot or do not wish to conceal their stigmatized status, have a number of tools at their disposal, one of which is humor. It is this humor, liberally adopted by Crisp, which enables him to survive and to actually make a living as a wit and raconteur. "The stigmatized should try to help reduce the tension by breaking the ice and using humor or even self-mockery" (Crossman 1). For Maurice and Clive, however, there is no self-mockery and Dil regards her status as a woman as something serious, not the subject of humor. However, even sometimes for Crisp the expected posturing of the stigmatized that the "stigmatized should either ignore or patiently refute the offence and views behind it" occasionally becomes too much to bear (Crossman 1). Crisp says when put on trial for his conduct: "my appearance sets me apart from the rest of humanity. It is not easy for me to make human contact -- with strangers it is almost impossible." For Maurice and Clive, human contact and social respectability is available, but only at the price of total concealment. Clive chooses social approbation while Maurice chooses to cast away the conventional trappings of social approval in a quest for his 'true self.'

The relationship between Maurice and Clive and later Maurice and Alec have an emotional depth in contrast to Crisp's passionate relationship with his own appearance and even the relationship in The Crying Game, which seems to be founded more in guilt than actual romance. The film with the closest parallels to Maurice is that of Therese and Isabelle, which depicts the lesbian relationship between two girls at a boarding school. But unlike this tale, Maurice's life is clearly forever altered by his encounter with Clive -- he is able to acknowledge his sexuality, even though Clive is not. It is this security and acceptance of his love for men and his unwillingness to play a heterosexual role (or even a feminized role) that makes Maurice so threatening to heteronormativity, even though his sexuality is not worn… [read more]


Japanese Queer Literature Review

… Japanese Queer

In "Is There a Japanese Gay Identity?" Mark McLelland (2000) examines the depiction of male homosexuality in Japanese popular culture, focusing on modern and postmodern (twentieth and twenty-first century) manifestations. Addressing sexual identities and cultural norms in Japan… [read more]


Race, Gender and Social Equality Research Paper

… Urban poverty problems are aggravated by the isolation impact of residential inequalities. Employment and education disadvantages, loss of commercial and business facilities, housing dilapidation, social and crime disorder, unwed parenthood and welfare depend are some of the social problems persist in the segregated ghettos.

Poverty in the ghetto has imposed costs on all urban residents. The social ills of drug abuse, gang life, school dropout, and teenage pregnancy have left minorities with a feeling of powerlessness. This is because they are stranded with no possibility for change. Looking at housing facilities, black families with low incomes are facing non-existent or poor security measures, rat infestation, leaking ceilings, no hot water, or heat, crumbling stairwells, and high incidences of poisoning.

The urban city is isolated thus; it inflicts intense hardships on children from poor minority families. Isolating the youth from the ill social effect and the concentrated ghettos has underscored the existence of inadequacies and proven beneficial in this racially segregated city. Studies have been fronted comparing the life of black minority students in scattered site housing with students from wealthy families living in the city's ghetto. While the two sets of samples were initially identical, after being removed from ghetto schools, black children from minority families achieved higher grades, sustained lower rates of dropout and sustained high college attendance rates relative to those who were left in the ghettos.

Gender and sex inequality

In spite of the dominant manhood rhetoric, they are suffering from socially oriented gender stereotypes. As a result, men are gaining much from the gender equal society. This sort of stereotype has exerted pressure on men to become tough and the breadwinner. This has resulted in labor conditions, which are harsh and involve violence, jury, imprisonment, and crime. Men have also been led to practice unprotected sex, jeopardizing the well-being of their partners, and themselves.

Men have become victims of various manifestations of institutional and personal violence. They have gained a much from shifting towards gender equality; this has been one of the most important steps in reducing violence. Addressing different form of discrimination, including homophobia against men due to their sexual orientation undoubtedly results in positive impacts on the promotion of gender equality between men and women. This is so because each gender is challenged. In the city of San Leandro, men have a tendency of missing a wide range of experiences and emotions that are socially valued and immensely rewarding because of gender stereotyping. For instance, in this city men are not likely to assume a substantial role in child caring or to express their vulnerability to distress. They are socially pressured to maintain their stereotyped masculinity notions. This implies that men often suppress this human persona aspect. Obviously, shifting towards gender equality does not imply loss of masculinity. It means men will collectively share and participate in the broader, safer, richer, and healthier cultural experience.

Conclusion

For San Leandro city to achieve Race, gender and social equality, it needs systemic changes in social interaction… [read more]


Sexuality and Health Question Essay

… Sexuality and Health Question Set

a.) Is sexuality essential for individual health?

I would not say that an active sex life is essential for an individual's physical health, but it can definitely be beneficial for one's emotional health. While sexual activity can often result in adverse consequences in terms of disease transmission, abstinence poses no known health risks, so sexuality is not essential for individual health. The emotional bonds and connections fostered during sexual activity, however, can prove to be beneficial in terms of overall well-being, by providing pleasure, increasing confidence, and building self-worth, provided this activity is conducted responsibly.

b.) Is sexuality essential for a long-term committed romantic relationship?

This question is highly dependent on the circumstances in which each relationship is formed. For a devoutly religious couple, for instance, sexuality is not essential in assuring the success of long-term committed romantic relationship, and in fact, sexual activity may actually sabotage the relationship before it has been given a chance to flourish. Even so, once Christian couples are married, a certain degree of sexuality will likely be essential to the success of the marriage. On the other hand, for secular couples who have no mandate to abstain from premarital sex, the bonds between man and women are often based on a vigorous and enthusiastic sex life. This is because sexuality is universal to the human experience, and sharing this experience with another individual satisfies a societal standard.

c.) How do you think "casual sex" (a.k.a. sexual contact with someone who you are not committed to romantically) impacts a person or a relationship?

When a committed relationship begins between two people who have previously engaged in casual sex, these prior liaisons can often prove to be problematic. Natural feelings of jealousy and resentment can infect even the most loving relationships when the subject of casual sex, and its…… [read more]


Sexuality Addiction Sexual Addiction Hypersexuality Term Paper

… My problem started when I was a young, and the problem was enhanced by family problems that I encountered following my parent divorce. In this regard, I would say that, the society is to be blamed partly for problems facing it. My problem began from the family level, and sexual addiction is not something that was I was born with. Family problems and neglect led me into this predicament, and these things can be controlled to prevent more young boys and girls from engaging into irresponsible sexual behaviors. The problem can be curbed from the grassroots without having to wait until it is too late to engage the services of a therapist. I have been in this situation for almost fifteen years and I came to realize that I had five years ago. I am proud that am I sober now and do not have relapses.

Interviewer: What advice would you give to the sexual addicts, young people, parents and the entire society?

Interviewee: I would advise young girls and boys to uphold good moral conducts and learn to deal with issues affecting their families in a more favorable and civilized manner. For those who are addicts, I would tell that there is hope and they can work towards changing their lives positively. To parents, let bring up our children in the right manner possible and to the society, advocate for and uphold good moral behaviors

References

Coombs, R. (2004). Handbook of addictive disorders: A practice guide to diagnosis and treatment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hess, S. (2011). Diary of sex addict. Texas: JMS Books LLC

Lowinson, J. (2005).…… [read more]


Library Search Term Paper

… Abortion

A landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision regarding abortion occurred in 1973: Roe vs. Wade. The Supreme Court decided that abortion in the U.S. is legal during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. The pregnant woman has the legal right to… [read more]


Gender and Consumerism Thomas Hine Term Paper

… In the text by Schor, one of her main points is that marketers aim to make consumers feel powerful. Power is very closely related to gender. There are a number of power dynamics connected to gender; those dynamics and their meanings shift from culture to culture. Marketers should know how each gender fits within constructions and meanings of power within each culture. In American culture, power as represented in products differs from the male gender to the female gender, and people who occupy genders outside of the primary two-gender paradigm/spectrum.

Twitchell states that Americans love materialism and participation in materialism makes people feel good and superior. Knowing this, it makes sense that so many women are shoppers and that women enjoy shopping so much more than men. Women in American culture are subordinated to men. Women occupy lower status than men. If shopping is an activity that within some cultures, is connected to power, feelings of self-esteem, and superiority/subordination, it makes sense that women within this context would shop so much more than men. Shopping is a way for women to feel more power within a culture that subordinates them and makes them feel less superior. In large numbers and across generations, women shop to feel better and to feel less subordinated than they feel generally.… [read more]


Gender Roles Exemplified by Luann Platter Essay

… Gender Roles Exemplified by Luann Platter in "King of the Hill"

One of the most popular animated sitcoms on American television in recent years was "King of the Hill," featuring the Hill family, consisting of Hank, the father, Peggy, the big-footed (size 16) mother, Bobby, the young and chubby son who is fond of fruit pies and a love-stricken and pretty niece, Luann Platter (Thompson, 2009). Although many of the characters on "King of the Hill" depict stereotypical gender roles, nowhere is this more pronounced that with Luann Platter. The daughter of Peggy's brother and a substance-abusing, swinger mother who was imprisoned for stabbing Luann's father with a fork, compelling Luann to come live with the Hills "until she sorts things out" in the series' first episode.

Although Luann demonstrates a natural talent for automobile mechanics when she tells her Uncle Hank that she fixed his car while casually wiping the grease off her hands, but her male-oriented mechanical talents are quickly dismissed by the redneck friends of Hank as well as Hank's father, Cotton Hill, who suggests that trying to teach women to fix cars is "like trying to teach monkeys to read." Enrolled at a local beauty school, Luann's assumes the more stereotypical role for women in Texas but it is apparent her talents are not in hair dressing. Her efforts at beauty school are not only subpar, but downright terrible until she joins forces with Bill, the Army barber, in a subsequent episode where she finally excels.

Unfortunately, Luann's troubles only continue to worsen after she moves in with the Hills, beginning with a breakup with her seemingly worthless boyfriend, Buckley, only to actually lose him outright permanently in an explosion at the "you-get-a-lot-of-batteries-for-$4" Mega Lo Mart caused by Buckley's mishandling of valves on the propane tanks in his department. Following a series of encounters with Buckley's angel, Luann receives a message from none other than Jesus himself that her destiny is not in hair dressing, but he refuses to say precisely what it is, leaving it to Luann to figure it out on her own. Luann experiences…… [read more]


Gender Messages Gender Roles Essay

… 7). Counselors also are part of the gender role socialization process because they tend to channel male and female students into stereotyped fields; in fact girls are often encouraged not to take college preparatory classes in mathematics and sciences (Long, p. 8). Gender Stratification: women are often blamed for the inequality they experience in society, but rather than "…directing efforts toward radical social change, the solution seems to be to change women themselves"; for example young women may be expected to say that if they want to truly be liberated, "…we'll have to act more aggressively" (Long, p. 8).

Gender role association learned from the media

Society's assumptions and attitudes about gender are portrayed in the media. For example, male role models are present "…in greater numbers than are female" with the exception of soap operas (both men and women are seen in equal numbers) (Long, p. 9). In prime-time television programs females "tend to be much younger than males" and males are more likely to be case in "serious roles" and females often play "comic or light roles" (Long, p. 10). While males in prime time television shows are "…smarter, more rational, more powerful" and stable, females are "more attractive, happier, warmer, more sociable…and more useful" (Long, p. 10). Gender Stratification: Men are portrayed in television commercials in far greater numbers than women and men are represented as occupying a "disproportionately high percentage of the workforce," and men are seen in a "greater diversity of occupations" with higher-status positions in the workforce (Long, p. 9).

In conclusion, whether in schools, at home with the family, or through the media, gender role socialization processes are very powerful in American society. Males and females are portrayed in different contexts on television, they play different gender roles in school and in the home, all of which is not shocking but it is pertinent to the discussion of fairness and understanding in matters of gender.

Works Cited

Brym, R.J., and Lie, J. (2009). Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, the Brief Ed:

Your Compass for a New World. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Lee, J.W., and Ashcraft, A.M. (2005). Gender Roles. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers

Long, R. (2011). Social Problems /…… [read more]


Advice Book. Book Report

… ¶ … advice book. This advice book should be about dating, relationships, marriage, sex, etc. The first two pages should give an overview of your book, main points/topics discussed/etc.; the last half of your paper should focus on addressing stereotypes… [read more]


Pornification of Women in Western Term Paper

… (Groote, 2011) After a study done on 120 male undergraduates revealed that subsequent to watching an aggressive erotic film, they would like to assert aggression against female through electric shock. Thus the result indicated that after watching the aggresive-erotic film… [read more]


Identity Self-Identity or Self-Concept Essay

… Because of this, an individual is treated as being of a certain gender (e.g., males are treated as if they believe they are males and vice versa). This gender binary limits the cultural expectations of males and females and interacts with cultural notions of gender roles to influence the child as to their own gender role and gender identity (Gagne and Tewksbury 1998). The gender identity begins is formed around the third year of life before the child believes that their gender is permanent (Money 1985). Gender identity is formed as children search for approval and social cues as to how to act although gender identity can be fluid when children are young cultural pressures discourage such fluidity and encourage binary gender identities and children. The development of gender identity begins early as parents choose sex-specific names, clothing and toys, and even plans for the baby once gender is known. The development of gender identity reaches a critical point in childhood due to such cultural influences (Money 1985).

Through culture children learn to understand the concept of gender, learned gender expectations for roles and attitudes toward the opposite gender, form their own gender identity, and identify with parental notions of gender identity and gender role of (Spack et al. 2012). Gender roles are defined by culture and play a large part in the gender identity of the child.

Gender roles are fostered by parents and reinforced by parents and culture. Throughout the formative years especially school the child's gender identity is reinforced by the gender role. Preferences for same-sex playmates usually occurs around three to four years of age and the gender role influences gender identity the of this mechanism. In school-aged children the rules governing play, dressed, interactions, and acceptable behavior are determined by cultural gender roles and this contributes to the child's notion of their gender identity (Spack et al. 2012). By the age of six children typically have the understanding that their gender (biological gender) is a reversible and culture has indoctrinated in them a sense of gender identity strongly influenced by the cultural values and norms assigned to gender roles (Gagne and Tewksbury 1998).

Of course, some children struggle with this and develop gender identity disorder. In adolescence, peer pressures become important in determining gender role and gender identity and as the child gets older they may rebel from the more traditional cultural notions of gender role and gender identity (Spack et al. 2012).

References

Gagne P. And Tewksbury R. 1998. Conformity pressure and gender resistance among transgendered individuals. Social Problems 45(1), pp. 81-101.

James, W. 1890. The principles of psychology Vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt.

Markus, H. And Nurius, P. 1986. Possible selves. American Psychologist 41 (9), pp. 954-969.

Money J. 1985. Pediatric sexology and hermaphroditism. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 11(3), pp. 139-156.

Shavelson, R.J., Hubner, J.J., and Stanton, G.C. 1976. Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research 46, pp. 407-441.

Solomon, M.R. 1983. The role of products as social… [read more]


Scientific Approaches to Hookup Essay

… While this means that some friendships become sexually charged and lead to "friends with benefits" (one senior from Illinois told me that most of her friends have hooked up with one another), a good number remain platonic." (Lewis, 2004).

Nevertheless,… [read more]


England Faces Modern Britain Essay

… The issue which is raised parallel in the article is related to the Church of England. It all started when English Anglicans formally had made an appeal to the government not to allow same sex marriages in church. The established Church of England will be hampered by the consecration of the women bishops. This issue is of bilateral opinion which is held against traditionalists of the High Church and Evangelicals (Conservatives). The Amendment proposed according to 5 (1) (c) which states that a women bishop should be refused if a male bishop could be required sharing the same belief. Majority of the liberal Anglicans are of the opinion that the ranks of the male bishops will be protected by the right of perishing to refuse a female.

The first female priest was inducted or ordained almost 18 years ago, and since then the numbers have just kept on rising. Almost one third of the 11,000 women joining Church, have joined the Church of England. The article has compared this staggering figure with soccer again as it mentions that only five out of the 20 English Clubs have female directors.

The attendance of the Church is on a constant decline and the Premiership is lucrative business therefore the link that has been formed in the article is quite interesting as the two contrasting faces of the English culture are facing similar kind of issues. The battle between the traditionalists and modernists is still on and is competing on various issues of racism, sex, gender biasness and ethnicity.

References:

Ashurt, M. (2012, 13th July). England Faces Modern Britain -- From Race and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay Rights. International Herald Tribune

Wallman, S. (1977). "Ethnicity…… [read more]


Gender and Smell Recognition Research Paper

… There are a number of reasons those numbers might not be significant, even before considering the flaw in the design. First, there was no attempt to match the subjects on demographics such as health, age, or race; all factors that are believed to impact olfactory ability independent of age. Second, the study groups were relatively small, and it can be difficult to attain statistically significant results when working with such a small sample.

However, the real discussion has to involve an examination of the flaw underlying the entire research project. Males were asked to smell perfume samples, with the assumption being that men might be more in-tuned to smelling perfumes, which are scents that are associated with females. In contrast, women were asked to smell cologne samples. However, there was no way of determining whether the cologne and perfume samples were of equal strength prior to dilution. Moreover, while some of the prior research suggests that there might be a gender component to the recognition of certain scents, there is no evidence that those scents are those that were included in either the perfume or the cologne. Therefore, comparing the recognition levels of the perfume and the cologne was an invalid design. There was no control group, and comparing the two results actually provided no insight into gender-based scent recognition.

Conclusion

There is substantial evidence, both experimental and anecdotal, suggesting that females, particularly reproductive-aged females, have better senses of smell than their male counterparts. This research design attempted to verify that hypothesis. However, flaws in the research design made it impossible to truly compare the results attained from the male and female groups. Moreover, the results that were attained, while demonstrating a slight female superiority, were not statistically significant. This experiment should be re-run with a larger group of subjects, matched on demographics, and testing all subjects on both the cologne and perfume samples.

References

Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.

Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory:…… [read more]


Heteronormativity Femininity and Heteronormativity in Understanding Essay

… Heteronormativity

Femininity and Heteronormativity

In understanding the meaning of femininity, it is also critical to have an understanding of the concepts that composes it. Femininity as understood in American culture is the manifestation of womanhood, any characteristics that make a person look or act like a woman. Further, the achievement of "true womanhood" as understood in earlier Western culture are rooted in the ideal characteristics of a woman during the late Victorian Period of the 19th century: "piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity" (Brannon, 2005:162).

In fact, up to the 19th century, women are idealized based on these four characteristics (purity, piety, submissiveness and domesticity). Men, meanwhile, are considered the direct opposites of women, and generally manifested the following characteristics: "stoic, aggressive, dependable" and simply, "not feminine" (164). These ideals determined and imposed by societies during this period (towards late 19th century) have created an impact in the way that women and men looked at their roles in their respective communities. In the case of women, it is to create the fulfillment of indeed, becoming a true woman, which is to act pure, pious, submissive, and become domesticated in her ways and lifestyle. The same adherence to the socially-expected and -- accepted characteristics applies for men. In effect, what occurs is the fulfillment of social expectations of how men and women should behave, therefore reinforcing the stated stereotypes of men and women to communities. This creates a vicious cycle wherein people think about males and females in a stereotypical manner, and behave/act in the same manner because of these stereotypes.

The personification of the "true woman" has been a very popular concept that even advertising exploits these stereotypes. Advertising remains susceptible to illustrating women through its 'true womanhood stereotypes'; similarly, it is just as susceptible of showing men as having an aggressive, non-feminine nature. The use of sexuality in advertising appeals to society's sensibilities as it tries to determine femininity and masculinity socially and historically. Unfortunately, advertising would always fall back to the traditional depiction of males and females even after it was determined that 'true womanhood and manhood' concepts are actually gender stereotypes that limited male and female roles and behaviors.

Because of this traditional and…… [read more]


Cybersex Schneider A) Quotes Research Paper

… Internet addicts, whom Young compared to pathological gamblers, tend to seek sexual and relational fulfillment through fantasy-oriented Internet encounters." (p.136) This is important because it gets at the heart of the confusion -- that, to a certain degree, what is… [read more]


Gender Stratification Research Paper

… Gender Stratification

Talk about gender roles in the United States; give examples of roles for men and women in our culture?

The ethos of the American society has been informed by two main influences: One the Puritan Christian values inherited from European immigrants primarily from England but also other places and two the harsh conditions the immigrants faced in the wilderness of a new land which necessitated a protected environment for what was deemed as the weaker sex. Christian society in its essence was a patriarchal society and the same traditional patriarchy was carried across the Atlantic by the early colonists. The primordial roles of the man as the hunter/gatherer (and by extrapolation merchant, soldier, ruler) and woman as the homemaker and mother of the man's children have been ossified to an extent that even in this advanced age, we are unable to break through it entirely.

The role of the housewife- epitomized by the useless chatter and banter of the Desperate Housewives- still remains the rule whereas the lawyer, the judge, the doctor or the pilot etc. are the exceptions. Even in the workplace till well into the 1990s the main role of women was that of a personal assistant or a secretary or a nurse but never something serious like a doctor or a lawyer. This of course has changed quite a bit but herein lies the rub i.e. women now have to juggle roles i.e. be a homemaker and a successful professional. Added to this is the issue of compensation which remains a sore point for women. Most women earn up to as much as 25% less than men for similar roles. Unlike Europe there is no equal status legislation to outlaw blatant differentials in pay based on gender. Therefore while women have charged forwards to share in traditional male roles, by and large the men in our society remain committed to their hunter gatherer role and have no role in what was and still continues to be a traditional female territory, almost out of condescending spite for women.

2. Discuss gay marriage and why people accept and resist this notion. What is currently being done to gain the right to marry for all couples?

The idea that two men or two women can be each other's companions sexually and indeed as part of a long-term relationship threatens the established gender roles that have been drummed into us since time immemorial. Perhaps more accurately it threatens the very basic economic structure of society i.e. property and inheritance. Marriage was an exclusivity contract to ensure the accurate determination of inheritance. After all somebody had to inherit the cave. A woman with multiple sexual partners meant paternity disputes. Gay marriage outflanks all of this and creates a brand new paradigm -- one could say it is the Copernican Revolution of our understanding of marriage. The resistance to gay marriage, often disguised as religious, when pierced shows that the real reason has to do more with the functional aspect of… [read more]


Social Bodies Essay

… Foucault and the Current Discourse of Sexuality

The "History of Sexuality" as posited by Foucault, purportedly is an attempt to disprove the notion that westernized society has been inhibited and repressed sexually for centuries and that the notion of sexuality… [read more]


Revolution of Sexuality in Sweden and Europe During the 20th Century 1960s Essay

… ¶ … sexual revolution assumes that it was the decade of the 1960's that marked the onset of its occurrence. Even though it is believed that the sexual revolution occurred in the 60's, there is a lively debate among academics and others interested in the subject as to whether there ever was a sexual revolution. Some believe that the actual revolution occurred much earlier in the 1920's and that what occurred in the 60's was just a reaction to what actually took place in the 20's. Others believe that the supposed sexual revolution was merely one of several social revolutions that occurred in the turbulent 60's decade (Smith). Regardless of whether or not a sexual revolution actually occurred, most people believe that it did so for purposes of argument it will be assumed that it did.

The 1960's were a time of profound change (Allen). Throughout all of Western Europe and the United States there were changes occurring everywhere. Whether it was hairstyles, clothing, suburban life, or family structure change was a part of everyone's life and the changes that occurred in the 60's were radical. Entering the decade, married couples were expected to be monogamous and to be fruitful by reproducing as frequently as possible. Large families were the order of the day. Contraception was illegal and so was abortion. Contraception clinics were just beginning to be organized and their principal clients were married couples. The most common contraceptive was the use of a condom, followed closely by withdrawal and douching. Asking an unmarried woman about their sex lives was deemed unthinkable. Masturbation was considered self-abuse and homosexuality was rarely, if ever, discussed and considered by nearly everyone as unnatural, immoral, and likely a sign of deep seeded psychological problems (Christensen).

The change that occurred in the 1960's was so profound that midway through the following decade the sexual attitudes throughout the world had changed almost completely. Contraception was now legal for not only unwed mothers but also for teenagers and available even over the counter. Ads appeared on a regular basis in the most prestigious publications advertising contraception products with the products themselves being available in grocery stores. Abortion had become legal in all jurisdictions and the stigma attached to unwed motherhood had been nearly eradicated.

These changes reflect why the decade of the 1960's must be considered a revolution. The changes that occurred called into question taken-for-granted ideas regarding gender and sexuality and they also called into question the relationships between men and women. For the most part, by the end of the 60's men and women were virtually equal in at least one respect: they were both free to conduct their sex lives in much the same way and the law and social policy supported them doing so.

Because of the changes that occurred in the 60's, sex became possible for women in the same way that it had been available for men for centuries. With contraception widely available and abortion now available as a backup,… [read more]


Boys Don't Cry by Kimberly Pierce Essay

… Boys Do Cry: Hilary Swank and the Politics of a Pronoun," Jean Bobby Noble discusses the movie Boys Don't Cry and the real-life events behind the movie. Noble approaches the movie by focusing on Teena Brandon's masculinity. In fact, Noble… [read more]


Sex Crimes Sexual Essay

… There, in this regard, various associations of pedophiles who claim pedophilia as a way of life and human sexuality, therefore, naturally accepted by society. Pedophilic behaviors are very heterogeneous, from harmless or almost harmless, even those that reach levels that… [read more]


Horror Film and Gender Roles a Formal Research Paper

… Horror Film And Gender Roles

A Formal Analysis of Gender Roles in John Carpenter's Halloween and Guillermo del Toro's Mimic

According to Katherine Bennhold (2009), the Women's Movement of mid to late twentieth century America opened the world of science… [read more]


Spread of HIV / AIDS Has Highlighted Essay

… ¶ … spread of HIV / AIDS has highlighted how sexuality is at the intersection of biological and social forces. How has the HIV / AIDS epidemic contributed to the production of certain sexualized social categories and identities? How have… [read more]


Sex Power and Intimacy Term Paper

… Sex, Power, Intimacy

How does Beyonce's "If I were a Boy," music video illustrate the key concept -- "social origins of desire"?

In Beyonce's song entitled "If I were a Boy," the singer says that if she were male, she could "throw on what I wanted then go," drink beer (and presumably not care about her figure), and also turn off her cellphone (and presumably not care if her boyfriend called). Implied in her song's message is that because she is a 'girl' she has to carefully monitor her appearance and prioritize her success in relationships over her real, true feelings, interests, and desires. Her desire for her 'boy' is not about the special nature of the man she lusts after, but because as a woman it is assumed that without a man she is less worthy of social value, and is somehow incomplete.

Also implied in Beyonce's song is that despite the fact that she is not supposed to want to wear casual clothes and no makeup, eat and drink what she chooses, and to chase after boys and not care or be judged by other people -- she does want all of these things. However, the social constraints of the female role prohibit her from being carefree. She cannot fulfill heterosexual norms of attractiveness and expect positive male attention if she does not model her desire in a certain way. That is the reason she longs for male attention -- without it she has no identity, given that attracting such attention is defined as what makes a woman in our society.

Part Two: The link "Orgasm" explores a recent finding re: differences between men and women regarding orgasm. What is that finding?

Male desire is often constructed as rapacious and unassailable. Female desire is supposed to be based more in feelings and emotional needs. The lack of expectation for a female to experience intense pleasure when enjoying sexual intercourse may be one reason that so few women are able to achieve orgasm, according to recent findings. Female sexuality is modeled as passive, male sexual activity is seen as active -- despite the fact that men are more often the passive receptors of oral sex. Ironically, many women require oral sex to reach orgasm, even though they…… [read more]

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