Study "Sexuality / Gender" Essays 111-162

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Sexuality Through the Life Cycle This Chapter Book Report

… Sexuality Through the Life Cycle

This chapter deals with the human's sexual development through all stages of life, and analyzes past and current theories of psychosexual development. The author begins by describing the long-held view of the sex drive, which supposedly influenced arousal and was hypothesized as an agent for driving procreation and much of human activity in the search of sex, thus perpetuating the species through built in individual desires. As sexual desire and sexuality are better understood form an objective light, however, this view has lost credence. Throughout the chapter, the author details the ways in which both experience and biological factors affect human sexuality, beginning at a very early age and continuing throughout the entire lifespan until death. Adolescence is still seen as a highly formative time for all individuals, and puberty is a major part of psychosexual development, but it is not the beginning of human sexuality as many might believe, just as passing into old age does not mark the end of human sexuality, sexual desires, or sexual activity.

The author strikes an excellent balance in this chapter between the physical (biological, physiological, chemical, etc.) factors at work in human psychosexual development and the psychological and experiential aspects of this development. This leads to a view of human sexuality as something that is both innate and universal yet undoubtedly learned and unique to each individual in certain aspects. Most importantly, perhaps, the author notes that human sexuality is in a state of near constant adjustment for most individuals.

Chapter 7: Sexual Individuality and Sexual Values

Building on information and principles from the preceding chapter, in this chapter the author attempts to provide a preliminary view as to how individual sexual preferences and values develop. He acknowledges early on in the chapter that studies into this area of sexuality are still very much in their early stages, and that the short answer is it is unknown exactly why some people might become gay or lesbian while others are attracted to the opposite sex, or why other sexual preferences and values develop as well. Also, like human sexuality as a whole, the sexual identity of an individual -- which can be said to be the sum of their sexual attitudes, preferences, values, and desires -- is not static, but rather is a dynamic feature of human life that undergoes regular if not constant adjustment and change by individuals. Many different factors pertaining to the development of sexual attitudes and values are discussed, including religion, family upbringing, overall political views, and others.

As with the preceding chapter, one of the most notable things in this section of the textbook is the degree of variability and the rate of change that can occur in the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual values. The author delves into several hot-button issues such as homophobia, abortion, and general sexual rights of underprivileged classes, dealing with them all in a highly objective and yet deeply informative manner. What emerges is the… [read more]


Gender Identity Disorder Gender Role Conflict Research Paper

… Gender Identity Disorder and Gender Role Conflict in Transgender Clients

Considering the powerful socialization of gender-appropriate thoughts and behaviors in society, gender identity disorder and gender role conflict are a common problem in transgender clients. Gender role conflict in its… [read more]


Sexual Development Thesis

… Orientation

Human sexuality

Orientation and brain development: Continuing controversies

The search for a so-called 'gay gene' that conclusively determines an individual's sexual orientation remains elusive. In fact, very likely it does not exist at all. Current genetic studies indicate that… [read more]


Gender Differences -- Nature vs. Nurture Memo Essay

… Gender Differences -- Nature vs. Nurture

Memo to Mr. Sam Lufti

Since the beginning of humankind, man and woman noticed the physiological differences between the sexes. However, much debate has centered on whether or not the more psychological aspects of… [read more]


Gender Analysis of the Pregnant Man Research Proposal

… Pregnant Man

Being born a biological female seems to confer the essential right to conceive and bear children. After all, mothers around the country ingest hormone concoctions to increase their chances of conception. Even if the result is octuplets, the… [read more]


Psychology - Gender Identity the Role Essay

… Psychology - Gender Identity

THE ROLE of HORMONES and BEHAVIOR in GENDER IDENTITY

In human beings and most other vertebrate animal species, behavior differs substantially between males and females. Hormones are primarily responsible for these differences; however, in the case of human beings, the sheer complexity of human cognition and learning increases the potential influence of society and other environmental influences on the behavior of the individual. Undoubtedly, hormones play a major role in gender identity, but probably in conjunction with external factors rather than in the one-dimensional way that hormones determine behavior in non-human animals.

Hormones and Gender Identity:

In humans and many other biological species, hormones begin to influence gender assignment long before birth (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). In many reptile species, for example, the process is relatively simple in that different external temperatures trigger the predominance of specific sex hormones that result in the gender selection of developing embryos, still within the un-hatched egg (Zuk 2002).

The process by which gender is determined during gestation is much more complex in humans, but a variation in maternal hormone levels is known to influence many aspects of gender identity and behavior. In fact, the statistical differences observed in various aspects of gender behavior related to birth order are mainly functions of the effects on the mother of previous exposure to male hormones from earlier births. Among other things, males with older male siblings are more likely to be homosexual than first- born human males (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Hormones exert their most profound post-birth influence on human gender identity during puberty when they trigger secondary sex characteristics that dramatically distinguish human males from females in appearance and behavior. After puberty, gender-identity-related behavior is directly determined by hormonal influence and even more pronounced than pre-pubertal behavioral differences. Prior to puberty and the onset of secondary sex characteristics, gender-based behavioral differences are influenced by hormones as well, but also by external factors in the social environment (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Environmental Influences and Gender Identity: Human behavior is extremely susceptible to social influences in every respect, including, but hardly limited to gender identity. At first glance, the gender-based behavioral differences observable in pre-pubertal children are usually consistent with those characteristic of adult gender-based behavioral differences. However, it is difficult to attribute these differences exclusively to biological factors since human children are…… [read more]


Sports Race Class Gender Thesis

… Sports Race Class Gender

The story of Katie Hnida is one of personal commitment and isolated sexism. Yet, her story speaks of a gender construct in society and especially in some closed circles, such as sports teams that reflects cultural… [read more]


Toy Store Visit to Compare and Contrast Boy Toys Versus Girl Thesis

… Running Head: Gender in a Toy Store

Gender in a Toy Store
Name
University
Abstract
One of the longest and most vociferous debates in the social sciences
is whether nature or nurture has a stronger impact on human development.
In… [read more]


Women's Studies - Gender and Society Notice Thesis

… Women's Studies - Gender & Society

Notice: This rush order was not taken by your requested writer within several hours of placement. Therefore, another qualified writer completed the order as per company policy to ensure that your deadline could be met.

GENDER ROLE QUESTIONS

Identify behaviors you think might be interpreted differently when displayed by male vs. female. For each one, explain why.

Virtually any behavior that is generally associated primarily (or exclusively) with one gender is susceptible to completely different interpretation when displayed by the other. For example, outward displays of assertiveness or authority in many "traditional" business environments are much more associated with male attributes than with female attributes. Therefore, an assertive style and the exercise of authority are both consistent with expectations of male behavior.

Conversely, those attributes are still less often associated with females in the same environment, despite considerable progress in the relaxation of certain gender-based stereotypes in the last several decades. Assertive women and those fulfilling their responsibilities in positions of authority are more likely to be labeled pejoratively as being "overbearing" or "cold."

2. Describe the greatest difficulty you believe researchers face when studying gender. What is the best precaution to take again this difficulty?

The greatest difficulty faced by researchers studying gender is the fact that so much gender-based behavior is attributable to both biological and environmental influences. By the time many observable behaviors possibly determined by gender manifest themselves in ways that can be studied, it may be difficult if not impossible to determine whether and to what degree each respective influence shaped the behavior.

Furthermore, researchers are, themselves, the product of their social environments as much as their subjects and, therefore, susceptible to some of the same learned social biases as the general public.

Certainly, there are evolutionary components to human development that resulted in biological differences between the genders. Likewise, the socialization process profoundly influences many types of behavior, including many of those associated with gender identification. The best precaution against this inherent difficulty is for researchers to maintain an objective perspective devoid of any a-priori expectations or differential characterizations of behavior in interpreting observed behavior.

3. What are some of the weaknesses and strengths of the instruments that have been used to measure masculinity and femininity?

The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire

PAQ) and the are both widespread instruments used to measure masculinity and femininity in adults. The BSRI consists of various adjectives considered desirable either for males, for females, or considered gender-neutral from which subjects…… [read more]


Crime and Gender Criminology Essay

… Crime and Gender Criminology

What is "doing gender"? Explain one way in which "doing gender" is related to violent crime.

Doing gender" is a concept put forth by West and Zimmerman (1987) that describes various behaviors and responses that are typically associated with one gender or the other. Examples of doing gender include everyday behaviors such as putting on makeup (for females) or pursuing purely "recreational" sex (for males) much more frequently than those same behaviors are observed in the other gender, respectively.

In the context of violent crime, doing gender has been suggested as part of the reason that crime, and violent crime in particular, are perpetrated much more often by males than by females. Males are more likely to react to personal struggles by ignoring them until erupting in violence; females are more likely to share their feelings with others and seek assistance instead of lashing out against others (or themselves). Males are also more likely to form delinquent or deviant associations that increase their respective propensity to…… [read more]


Gender Identity Thesis

… Gender Identity Defined

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze several essays from the book "Signs of Life in the U.S.A." edited by Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon. Specifically it will consider the debate over the… [read more]


Lesbians in U.S. History Thesis

… lesbians in U.S. history

Sexuality must not be thought of as a kind of a natural given power which tries to hold in check, or as an obscure domain which knowledge tries gradually to uncover. It is the name that… [read more]


Social Psychology of Gender-Based Sex Roles Term Paper

… Social Psychology of Gender-Based Sex Roles and Romantic Love in American Society

Different human societies define romantic love according to specific cultural beliefs about gender-based sex roles and social mores about sexual expression. In the United States (and much of… [read more]


Gender Behavior Term Paper

… Gender Behavior

The fabric of the human condition is the determination of sexual reproduction. For this reason and many others sex and gender, independently and together make up a huge body of human interest and an equal if not greater… [read more]


Gender-Based Sexual Inequality Gender Equality Term Paper

… ¶ … Gender-Based Sexual Inequality

Gender equality in the United States has achieved tremendous strides, particularly since the middle of the last century. Prior to that, female suffrage and the exigent need for assembly line and factory workers to support… [read more]


Cultural Role About Gender Term Paper

… ¶ … Cultural Role About Gender

Breaking the Gender Role through Dress and Appearance

Gender is a very tricky but prevalent part to modern society. In order to fully understand how deep the idea of gender is within our psyche, one must experience what it is to break one's assigned role in the gender dichotomy; "Gender is such a familiar part of daily life that it is usually takes a deliberate disruption of our expectations of how women and men are supposed to act and pay attention to how it is produced," (Lorber 1994). By breaking a common practice associated to my female gender, I got an idea of exactly how prevalent gender rules are in American society, and how disapproving our culture can be if we break those rules. Recently, I attended an event at a local club known for being seen looking your most fabulous. I went to this location dressed in baggy clothing, hiding any female physical features, and without wearing any make up. The reaction of the club goers was overwhelmingly negative compared to the next night, when I went to the same club in a tight dress and fully made up. By ignoring the notions allocated to my gender, in this case wearing make up and "female" clothing, I found myself basically ignored by the rest of the people in attendance.

Gender is not a physiological feature, "Both gender and sex are not equivalent, and gender as a social construction does not flow from genetalia and reproductive organs," (Lorber 1994). The physical differences between male and female are not responsible for the way we consciously assign character attributes to the male and female bodies. There are limitations to studying an individual brought up without notions of gender, but it is still clear that physical characteristics are not the main culprit in formulating gender identity. Transsexuals and transvestites are prime examples of how gender does not coincide with physical reproductive features. Although certain sex, these individuals are drawn towards a different gender.

Gender is instead instilled within our consciousness through our interactions within the society we were born into, "As a social institution, gender is a process of creating distinguishable social statuses for the assignments of rights and responsibilities," (Lorber 1994). Gender, therefore, defines individual human beings as either man or woman. Gender is one of the many ways we as humans classify and order ourselves. Other ways include financial status, race, and age. Like ones financial status in the world gender is instilled within us as young children, "By the time slum children are six or seven they have usually absorbed the basic values and attitudes f their subculture and are not physiologically geared to take full advantage of changing conditions or increased opportunities which may occur n their lifetime," (Lewis).

Despite the modern idea that gender prejudice is a thing of the past, it is obvious through breaking gender roles that the rules of behavior associated with male and female are still very much… [read more]


HIV and STD Behavior Interventional Strategies for Adolescents and Youths Term Paper

… HIV and STD Behavior Interventional Strategies for Adolescents and Youths

Teenage sex has been viewed as a social problem for some time, but the spread of HIV / AIDS in society has increased fears of what can happen if young… [read more]


Gender Homophobia Term Paper

… Gender

What issues involving straight women have been resolved since the 1920's in the United States, and which have not? What do you see happening in the future, and when?

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was an issue of public contention whether women should have the right to vote. It was argued that women would simply vote the way their husbands voted, and thus female emancipation was unnecessary and misguided. Now, at the beginning of the 21st century, a woman is likely to be a candidate for president for one of the major American political parties. The basic right of a married woman to take an active voice in politics is now a settled question. However, the role of the husband in such an arrangement still remains questionable.

After all, Hillary Clinton came to public, political prominence partly because of her husband, despite her own considerable qualifications as a lawyer and a U.S. Senator. While First Lady, despite her intelligence and drive, Senator Clinton's hairstyle, ability to bake cookies, and other talismans that exemplified her ability to embody conventional feminine domesticity were continually debated in the media. While it is no longer accepted to ask if a woman's time of the month might make her temporarily unable to execute rational decision-making, it is still uncomfortable for many Americans to envision a woman in power. Femininity is seen as contradictory with assuming a mantel of authority, yet a woman must be conventionally feminine to be acceptable to the American public.

This tension is seen in "Adam's Rib," a film that depicts two articulate attorneys on different sides of a case that is supposed to embody the male/female conflict in the eyes of the audience. On one hand, the woman is an equal sparring partner for the man, and has an unquestioned right to pursue a profession. On the other hand, her husband grouses that he prefers two sexes, a comment that essentializes the inherent qualities of women and men. Also, the female attorney wins in the courtroom, partly by using the defense that love and marriage is such an integral part to woman's identity that a woman cannot help but attack with a pistol when she perceives that her hearth and home is being impinged upon by another female. Then, although the husband loses his case in court, he manages to create a scenario outside of court to motivate his wife to exclaim that he has no right to turn a gun against her, simply because he suspects her of cheating on him, which essentially invalidates the point she was making in the courtroom.

The film is ambiguous as to who truly wins the debate, but suggests that when a woman attempts to take control of her professional life, her personal life and marriage may suffer. This embodies the tension between femininity and authority being suffered by Hilary Clinton in her many media trials by fire. Senator Clinton must be feminine and she must be powerful, but she… [read more]


Voices Let's Talk About Gender, Baby Essay

… Voices

Let's Talk about Gender, Baby": The Interplay of Dominant and Alternative Voices

The voice of Wendy Kaminer, author of the essay "Let's Talk Gender, Baby" is clearly dominant within this essay, since Kaminer's voice begins and ends the essay itself, and since the author is responsible for placement, and treatment (e.g., serious; ironical; satirical) of all other voices "heard" (more accurately, "quoted" or "referred to") in the essay. Still, other voices definitely take their turns as well. Some voices other than the author's sound as if they are being satirized or parodied by the author. For example, in the title itself, "Let's Talk about Gender, Baby," Kaminer's use of the word "baby" (an outdated synonym for "girl," or "woman") parodies sexist male speech. Clearly, then, the title does not represent Kaminer's own voice. Other voices, however, particularly those of real people, are used more earnestly, though, even when Kaminer sometimes disagrees with them. I will identify and analyze multiple voices used by the author in "Let's Talk About Gender, Baby": in terms of patterns in the way the author uses those voices; and in terms of how the author uses, and controls, the various voices (including her own) that are heard within this essay.

The first voice(s) besides the author's occur in the second sentence of Paragraph 1. The beginning of that sentence uses the author's own voice, but then two other voices are introduced. The sentence itself reads: "The results [of trying to purge sexism from language] have not always been pretty: 'He knows what's good for him' is a far more felicitous phrase than 'he/she knows what's good for him/her" (Kaminer, "Let's Talk about Gender, Baby," paragraph 1). The two other voices, each punctuated by quotation marks, are unidentified. One or the other (perhaps both) may even be the author's. The first might be described as a standard American "pre-feminist voice," perhaps from the time when the exclusive pronoun "he" was still widely and un-self-consciously used, and linguists, scholars, and others had just begun to object to its exclusive use. However, it is also true that even now, many people still use the exclusive "he" pronoun. This voice, then, could be contemporary as well. The second alternative voice in that sentence represents a feminist. By juxtaposing the two "voices" so closely, though, Kaminer (still the dominant voice) shows how clumsy the second voice sounds compared to the first. Kaminer trivializes the second voice. However, Kaminer's voice also soon re-emerges to partly mitigate its earlier trivialization of the feminist voice by adding, in the fourth sentence of this same paragraph: "Still, I'm grateful that common usage no longer completely ignores the existence of women with words like mankind" [emphasis original] (Kaminer). The implication is that Kaminer actually supports feminist speech, so long as it does not sound awkward or clumsy.

However, the author next criticizes (and parodies) the voices of "feminist language police" who use words like "woman" or "women" as adjectives (Kaminer, "Let's Talk about Gender, Baby,"… [read more]


Birth Control Including Abortion and Safe Sex Term Paper

… Birth Control/Safe Sex

As a young female of Japanese descent, birth control and safe sex are among the most sensitive issues I can discuss. Sexuality is a tender topic in most countries, for most age groups and genders. However, I believe that my ethnic and family background has had a strong impact on my decisions, values, and beliefs regarding safe sex and birth control. My parents did not discuss sex much if at all with me or my siblings. They did send me strong verbal messages against having sex too early and prohibited me from dating boys during much of my teen years. My parents also sent me nonverbal messages and cues that were chiefly derived from their Japanese heritage: that proper woman were to be passive participants in sex, were not to act sexual, and were not to take control of our bodies in any overt way. Therefore, what I gleaned about birth control and safe sex from my parents was very little. I did, however, learn from them that birth control was preferable to abortions, and also that condoms and other forms of contraception were good to use in order to prevent pregnancy. However, I did not learn from my parents about sexually transmitted diseases. I learned most of what I know about safe sex from school, the modern media, and from my peers. As a result of my upbringing, my education, my gender role, peer influences and the influences from popular culture, I have made conflicting, even sometimes contradictory, choices regarding birth control and safe sex.

Japanese popular culture sends conflicting messages about sex, which may be one reason why I have not formulated a cohesive approach toward the issues of birth control, abortion, and safe sex. I believe my Japanese friends have experienced similar conflicts in their own lives. For instance, when I was sixteen, one of my friends suddenly called me up and asked me to drive her to the clinic. She needed an abortion. I was shocked; I new she had been dating a guy for almost a year but I hadn't had sex yet and was frightened that something horrible would happen to her. She was alright, and her decision turned out to be the best one I am sure. I do not believe that teenagers should be raising children, at least in a modern society, and feel that abortion is the best option for teens who accidentally become pregnant.

A also feel that my friend's experience led her to make more conscious and conscientious decisions regarding using birth control. She went on the pill and has not had a pregnancy since then. However, I also noticed that because she is on the pill she does not feel she needs to use condoms when she dates new men. I'm sure she is not the only woman who feels more concerned about getting pregnant than about contracting a disease like AIDS. I have not opted to take the pill at this point in my… [read more]


Gender Sections I Specifically Agreed Term Paper

… Gender

Sections I specifically agreed with include "Patriarchy" (Part II, Chapter 17, p. 166-169), and "Anti-Gay Stereotypes" (Part VII, Chapter 107, p. 522-523). The premise in "Patriarchy" is that ours is a male-dominated society, where males are seen as superior… [read more]


History of Human Sexuality Term Paper

… While hearing the confessions of the people, the clergy often questioned the laity on the marital sex practices and placed restrictions on both the frequency and the suitability of the indulgence in marital sex. Certain days of the week were not suitable for sex and definitely not during the period of Lent. Too much of enjoyment of sex was looked upon as a sin, though not a mortal sin that could condemn you to the depths of hell.

Among the three states that a woman could be in virginity was considered to be the highest, followed by widowhood. Marriage ran a distant third. This reckoning would make women not too happy to place themselves in a position to go through sexual relationships. The clergy themselves supposed to be celibate did all they could to lessen the enjoyment of sex by women. The only countervailing factor to the powerful church was that the intellectual forces present took a more positive attitude to female sexuality. The then existing medical understanding was the existence of female sperm. For conception to occur it was necessary that a woman to ejaculate her sperm too. The presence of medieval manuals on the ways and means to go about this especially on the arousal of a woman and the various suggestions on foreplay confirm this. Though these manuals may not have had wide circulations, still the thought… [read more]


Bisexuality and Marriage Prejudice Term Paper

… Homosexuality itself may be easy to understand, because it is like heterosexuality in that it is sexual selection based on gender. Homosexuals may be envisioned as by hets as similar to heterosexuals of the other sex. Likewise, homosexuals can understand heterosexuality by empathizing with the opposite gender's feelings. But understanding a mindset where gender is not a major deciding factor may be incomprehensible. Thus bisexuals are seen as confused or in denial, merely because the observers themselves are confused by the bisexual state of mind. Moreover, this confusion leads to very negative stereotypes: "Images of the bisexual as promiscuous, needing multiple relationships in order to feel satisfied, untrustworthy in relationships, or as 'fence-sitters, traitors, cop-outs, closet cases,' reinforce the legitimacy of the heterosexual/homosexual binary and ensure the difficulty of publicly identifying as bisexual." (Mclean, 2001) It is a common misconception that just as monosexuals need at least one person of the desired gender to feel sexually complete, so bisexuals must need one person from each of the two desired genders to feel complete. This is an understandable confusion, but misleading in its implications. Because bisexuals are seen as especially promiscuous, they may be considered to be unfaithful and also more likely to spread diseases or immorality. Where many people of both binary orientations sometimes like to pretend that that homosexuals are "just the same" as heterosexuals accept with a different preferred gender, the idea of bisexuality conjures up visions of wild promiscuity which may not be justified.

Many authors blame this misunderstanding on history. For example, Kirsten McLean (2001) writes "Traditionally, Western society has divided sexuality into two categories -- homosexual and heterosexual." Such authors suggest that such a binary understanding of human sexuality was the norm until recently. Actually, nothing could be farther from the truth. Until very recently with the introduction of the idea of homosexuality, the norm for sexual deviancy was bisexuality. That is to say that people engaging in homosexuality were assumed to go both ways unless they were particularly unusual. For…… [read more]


Homosexual Interview Term Paper

… A: Same here then: I didn't know I was "gay," because I didn't know what "straight" and "gay" were, either, when I was little.

Probably around the exact same time you were pretending you didn't like little girls I was… [read more]


Theology Sexuality: Describe a Positive Term Paper

… Who helped you through this passage and how was it finally concluded?

There were several avenues that I turned to in my search for a solution. One, I spoke to my parents about the problem I was facing and heard… [read more]


Gender as a Role Term Paper

… To understand how the flawed analysis of gender of others can result in gross misconceptions, we must return to the classification of biological "sex" and the categorization that comes from that identification. The next step is to then note that gender is the activity that while attributable to sexual category and sex, does not necessarily mean it always works that way.

One can claim a sexual category that is inconsistent with that person's physical characteristics. Since sexual categorization can be ambiguous, what then of gender which is merely a higher level of identification that can be even more ambiguous? Only when a person is being analyzed in a tightly controlled situation interspersed with normative conceptions of how ones activities must correlate with their sex can we even begin to try to understand the concept of gender. Sexual categorization can depend on common sense for its validation or invalidation insofar as the person we are analyzing chooses common sense options by claiming a category consistent with his or her body's physiology.

Gender however, deals with acts and thoughts that are much more complexly related to different situations that cannot always be common sense derived. "Doing gender" and thus participating in activities that can be attributable to sexual category, is thus flawed in that by doing gender, contrived differences between males and females are reinforced. The problem is that these perceptions come from basic sexual and physiological difference rather than by concentrating on the natural and true actions that arise from such physiological changes.

Only reconditioning of our basic assumptions will remedy the failure of "doing genders."

Works Summarily Cited

West and Zimmerman, Do. 1987. "Doing Gender." Gender and Society…… [read more]


Gender Norms Blake Term Paper

… They all agreed with my statement and they also looked at me differently. The sense I got was that they were looking at me as if seeing that I really had something to offer for the first time. I sensed that they considered my voicing of opinion a sign of strength and something that deserved recognition. This was not actually stated, but after the meeting I continued to have the feeling that people believed I had more to offer than before.

The reactions to my norm-breaking behaviour actually gave me a greater sense of pride. I felt like I had done something good and like I deserved the respect I seemed to be getting from people. The main feeling was a sense that I was stronger and more capable than I had previously realized.

The first thing that I have learned from this experience is that gender norms can prevent people from really paying attention to people. I think when females take on the expected gender role of being considerate, their considerate opinions can be rejected just because they meet the norm. My opinion is that people are essentially responding by thinking, "of course she'd say that, she's a woman." I think the same applies to men and their gender norm of being tough. For example, many men have previously made statements not very different from the one I made. However, their statements have not been noticed by others like mine was. I think this is because when a male speaks in a tough manner his opinion can be rejected as being true because it can be assumed that he is only saying that because he is male. I think the main reason my statement made a difference is that people paid attention to it. I believe my statement was unexpected enough that people really heard it. My opinion is that people thought that if I believe in something strongly enough to speak like that about it, I must have a point and must be worth listening to. This aspect of gender norms is something I would not have considered before doing the assignment. Now, I believe that gender norms can cause an opinion that is in-line with those norms to be rejected, while an opinion outside of the norms is more likely to be accepted.

The other thing I learned from this assignment is that how you say things can determine how you feel about them. In this case I made a specific effort to speak in a masculine way. Speaking this way actually made me believe more in what I was saying and made me feel stronger. The interesting thing is that I didn't completely believe in what I was saying and yet speaking in a way that sounded tough made me believe in it. The end result was that I actually felt stronger and more confident for making my statement. This has made me believe that how things are said is as important as what is being… [read more]


Communicative Sexuality Pineau's Major Shortcoming Term Paper

… Pineau's conceptualization of sexual assault has two fundamentals, nonconsensual sexual action and lack of communication needed to establish that the action was consensual. It's difficult to see how most men and will be able to embrace the later element in her definition. Numerous books documented the communication gaps that exist between genders and many people don't feel comfortable discussing sex..

Pineau criticizes that the concept that when a woman behaves in a sexually teasing, tempting or open way, she is implicitly committing herself to having sex.

She does not believe that this is a non-verbal contract to have sex and believes that women should be able to be provocative without fearing assault. Yet, people communicate different with non-verbal communications being just as important as verbal for many people. Sending mixed signals is a really bad idea and makes it too difficult for out legal system to figure out how a male perceived a situation.… [read more]


Homosexuality in Shakespeare's Tragedies Elements Term Paper

… He may hate her most of all because she has stolen his fancied lovers, Cassio, and particularly Othello.

Later on, in Act III, comes the famous (or infamous) homosexual scene in which Iago purports to have engaged in sexual behavior… [read more]


Old, My Best Friend Term Paper

… We heard the doorbell ring and Matthew's father greeting her. Matthew commented that if his father was going to start dating women, he should get someone his own size. We laughed a nervous laugh.

We ate dinner quickly, piled the dishes in the sink, and headed for Matthew's room. When we passed the living room, Matthew's father called us back and introduced us to his friend, Sylvia. I know that my facial expressions must have divulged my shock as I approached them.

She had big upper arms, more like a man's than a woman's. Her neck was thick. Her voice was deep. Her ears were big. So were her hands. She was not very stylish. Her clothes were outdated and dull. After several seconds of gawking, Matthew's father told us to go, and we ran as if a wolf was chasing us.

The next day, Matthew explained to me what his father had explained to him about Sylvia. She was born a man, but was a woman inside. That is how he put it. Sylvia was soon to have surgery to change her sex, a procedure called transgender surgery. I was speechless. Is there really such an operation? I thought. Why would any man want to have his penis removed?

Although we started talking about something else, I could not shake the mental picture of Sylvia having his/her penis-ectomy. I do not think I had ever heard the word transgender before. I certainly had seen manly women and womanly men. However, it had never occurred to me that such people were not really the sex that they appeared to be.

Sylvia was going to have this horrifying surgery. For what? he/she is definitely not a pretty woman. In a time that youth and beauty are essential for a happy life, Sylvia was going to have this appalling operation and become a woman -- an unattractive woman.

It was this experience that made me realize how powerful the human sex drive is. It is also undeniable, inexplicable, and individual. Sex (which I now understand as gender identity) comes from the inside. Human sexuality embraces what we are, are what we choose to do. Although Sylvia ultimately had her surgery, many transgendered people do not. Although Matthew's father is gay, he had sex with a woman at least once, or Matthew would not be here. I learned at a young age that sexuality is mysterious and joyous and complicated. I learned that honest sexual expression is fundamental to a happy and healthy life.… [read more]


Avoiding a Heteronormative Approach in Counseling Film Review

… ¶ … Trahan and Goodrich's "You Think You Know Me, but You Have No Idea": Dynamics in African-American Families Following a Son's or Daughter's Disclosure as LGBT

One of the recurring themes in studies about women and about the LGBT community is that the white, middle-class experience so heavily influenced activism that it also skewed research. In some ways, this has led society to embrace the idea that some elements of the feminine experience, for example, are universal. This idea is probably the most brilliantly challenged in Sojourner Truth's famous "Aren't I a Woman?" speech, in which she contrasted her life as a female slave who worked in the fields with the domestic sphere of femininity that people of her time used to prevent white women from getting the vote, being able to own property, or being able to engage in any meaningful employment. This contrast between her reality and the idealized version of femininity helped highlight how race could impact one's experience as the member of another marginalized group.

Likewise, it seems clear that race has an impact on one's experience as LGBT. For example, many African-American families adhere to relatively conservative religious beliefs that treat homosexuality as a sin. Given the role that the black church plays in many parts of the African-American community and in the homes of many African-American families, a counselor who fails to deal with the significant religious overtones that are likely to accompany a "coming out" would be ignoring the spiritual needs that many people feel.

Furthermore, an issue that is not directly addressed by Trahan and Goodrich's article is the role that incarceration plays in experienced sexuality in the African-American community. When one factors in the sheer proportion of African-Americans who are incarcerated in American society and the role that homosexual relationships plays in prison life, the reality is that the approach to sexuality in many predominantly African-American communities is both more fluid and more compartmentalized than it would be in a middle-class or affluent white community. Therefore, it is critical for a counselor not to make heteronormative assumptions about sexual identity, which not only include assuming that a partner or spouse is of a particular gender, but also…… [read more]


Sociology of Gender, Power, and the Media and Social Construction Essay

… ¶ … Miss Representation discusses the same issues Barker does in Chapter 9 of Cultural Studies, entitled "Sex, Subjectivity, and Representation." The media is more influential now than ever before, as the documentary points out, because of the fact that there are multiple forms of media available and more media-rich content becoming part of the ways people access, send, and receive information. Contrary to popular belief, the media does not necessarily reflect reality, although it sometimes can and does. The media also shapes reality. This phenomenon is known as social construction, which is discussed in Chapter 9 of Cultural Studies. Focusing exclusively on gender, the chapter addresses matters related to patriarchy and gender inequity. Like Miss Representation, the chapter discusses how gender performativity works. The most important point of convergence between Miss Representation, the film, and Chapter 9, Sex, Subjectivity, and Representation, is the suggestion that gender is taught/socially learned/socially constructed rather than being something people are born with.

Another similarity between the film Miss Representation and Chapter 9, "Sex Subjectivity, and Representation" is the fact that the social construction of gender is important. It is important because the social construction of gender leads to differential power distribution. Differential power distribution refers to the unequal proportion of men vs. women in strategic positions of power in political, economic, and legal life. As the film Miss Representation points out, women occupy relatively few seats in Congress and also comprise very few of the editorial positions or other media positions of power. Thus, a small demographic (estimated to be about 6% of the population) controls the discourse. This 6%, according to Miss Representation, is white males. The establishment beholden to the patriarchal, white male hegemony does not question the validity of the status quo. Rather than question the integrity of a democracy that allows such inequality to fester, the establishment claims that it is nature rather than nurture that ensures men…… [read more]


Saint Augustine's Confessions Research Paper

… On the other hand, to Augustine, Christianity then became associated with abstaining from sexual activity. Augustine associated Christianity with the presence of God's love while paganism became associated with the lack of God's love. And as the lack of God's love was the same as evil, paganism became evil in the eyes of Augustine. If paganism was then evil, then the acts performed while a pagan, such as engaging in obsessive sexual activity, would then have to also be associated with evil. The fact that, like many addicts, the more one satisfied the craving the less satisfied they become also seemed to have had an impact on Augustine. The more sex he had the less satisfied he became with his obsession with sex. He could not achieve the intimacy, goodness, or grace from mindless sexual encounters. In other words God's love and grace could not be found in obsessive sex. The emptiness that Augustine felt as a result of his obsession also became associated with sex in his mind. And if sex was empty and unfulfilling spiritually, then there was no association between sex and God's love. Since God's love is goodness, the absence of God's love, obsessive sex, was therefore evil in the eyes of Augustine.

While Augustine described obsessive sex as being associated with his pagan past and the absence of God, he concluded that it was still a necessary aspect of human life. However, because of the nature of sex to become an overwhelming compulsion, he recommended that sex be performed only in the confines of marriage and only for the purpose of procreation. Augustine seems to view sex as a danger to a person's reason, their faith, and ultimately their soul.

Finally, Augustine's conversion can be seen as a mirror of the transition of the classical world into the Christian one and the change in views about sex as the manifestation of this transformation. Augustine lived at the time when Christianity became the dominant religious belief in the Roman empire and replaced the old pagan tradition. Sex in the traditional pagan belief system was a natural part of life and promiscuous sexual activity held no bad connotation whatsoever. But with the rise of Christianity sexual activity became associated with sin and inherently evil. Therefore Augustine's conversion and his transformative view on sexuality can be seen as two aspects of a single change.

Works Cited

Saint Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine. Trans. Edward Bouverie

Pusey. Web. 12 April 2014.

http://www.dsusd.k12.ca.us/users/christopherg/classic%20novels/augustine-

theconfessions.pdf… [read more]


Women Engage in Extramarital Affairs, Just Like Men Research Paper

… Each of the four women became "actively involved in a relationship outside of their marriage" and in each case the men they were involved with were just friends at the outset. Three of the four women became involved sexually with "either an 'old flame' or friend," and the fourth woman had met a man and they got close and eventually had sex (Jeanfreau, 20).

All four explained that ex-boyfriends, friends and members of their family influenced them as they engaged in marital infidelity; talking with female friends about how exciting it would be to be single again played a role as well (Jeanfreau, 21). "The final component" that led them to cheat on their husbands was "…the positive attention" they received from their partners in their affairs, Jeanfreau explained. "I was more emotionally connected to [the affair partner] than I was to my husband…I could talk to [the affair partner] but most of the time my husband wasn't giving me five minutes a day to talk to him" (Jeanfreau, 21). The other women echoed that sentiment, saying they craved the attention they got from their extramarital affairs.

Online Infidelity -- Women use "Sexting" more than Men

Looking into the scholarly research one finds that women in some cases are more assertive in soliciting sexual involvement than men, but that in other cases men and women are equally drawn to sexual relationships outside the bonds of marriage.

To wit, in the peer-reviewed journal Sexuality & Culture, the authors researched the behaviors of "sexting and infidelity on the Internet" (Wysocki, et al., 2011). Their sample included 5,187 respondents -- all married people searching for sexual partners online -- and using descriptive statistics and "binary logistical regression analysis," researchers found that "…Females are more likely than males to engage in sexting behaviors" (Wysocki, 217). The research also showed that males and females "…are equally as likely to cheat both online and in real life while in a real-life relationship" (Wysocki, 217).

Part TWO: a) The most interesting research that I found was that women do more sexting online (through text message technology) than men to. This is likely true because while men may be more bold in person-to-person solicitations of romance or sex, women have the shield of the virtual online experience, and can tantalize a potential partner with photos of her sexual charms without being face-to-face with the person she is interacting with. If she is turned down, little or no embarrassment is caused. And b) My research surprised me because I always had the feeling that men were more promiscuous than women when it comes to sex outside marriage and relationships. Although I also knew that women do cheat on their husbands, I did not realize that it was so commonplace for women to seek outside sexual gratification.

Works Cited

Buller, D.J. (2005). Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature. Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Jeanfreau, M.M., Jurich, A.P., and Mong, M.D. (2014). An Examination of Potential Attractions… [read more]


Gid the Changing Discourse Term Paper

… GID

The Changing Discourse on GID

The public discourse on homosexuality and gender-orientation differences is one that is in state of steady of evolution. Once treated strictly as anathema and still today even criminalized in many parts of the United States under sodomy laws, homosexuality is increasingly recognized as an alternative lifestyle. Part of this recognition has been the gradual improvement of the medical and therapeutic communities' shared understanding of this orientation. Indeed, the historical treatment of homosexuality and gender-orientation differences as psychiatric disorders has not only contributed to the negative cultural perception of homosexuality but has also prevented many in these demographics from receiving real and meaningful therapeutic support. The impetus to 'cure' homosexuality or gender orientation differences has simultaneously deprived many individuals an opportunity for true psychiatric treatment for depression, anxiety disorders and the host of other conditions that may accompany the experience of cultural exclusion or otherness.

The DSM has long been the source for classifying and understanding a whole catalogue of psychological conditions. And at one juncture, its inclusion of homosexuality registered as a strong statement against the cultural acceptance of sexual orientation differences. But as the literature on this subject demonstrates, the DSM is subject to change as our understanding of certain conditions achieves cultural evolution. To this point, according to the text by Grush (2013), "the DSM-5 incorporates many more changes that have psychiatrists locked in heated debate, but Wiznitzer noted that these tensions will always exist as long as doctors continue to learn more about the human brain. 'Homosexuality used to be in the DSM as a psychiatric disorder; that was two versions ago," Wiznitzer said. "Autism wasn't even in the first two versions of the DSM, it was childhood schizophrenia. Then we changed the criteria over time. Basically anytime you change something, it's always met with resistance.'" (p. 3)

This is evidenced in the present debate, which concerns the removal of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) from the manual. The condition has been replaced by the more sensitively labeled Gender Dysphoria terminology, which implies not that the gender orientation is itself a disorder but that the difficulty of the subject to reconcile gender identity confusion should be treated. Though there has been some resistance from those in the medical and therapeutic communities that still hold the belief that homosexuality and gender identity variants can be 'cured,' the change is largely being met with nuanced discussion.

Indeed, this change is important and potentially highlights a positive path on the discussion of mental health support for homosexual or transgender individuals. In particular, it expands the conversation on treating such individuals separately from their sexually orientation. According to the text by Bryant, this new evolution of the DSM "illustrates the process through which scientific knowledge about gender-variant children was initially constructed and points to the key constitutive role of debates, both among professionals and between professionals and lay critics, in shaping that knowledge." (Bryant, p. 24)

In the past, identification of gender-variant individuals as afflicted by… [read more]


Spring Breakers the Movie Essay

… Where the head scarf rule has been exploited and women have been killed due to it, these religious extremists have been known to be involved in activities like night clubs and watching women dance. In these instances, they don't remember the rules and/or the laws that have been laid down by religion. There is a reason why women are always condemned and that reason is quite obvious.

If this movie was to be criticized, then the people should also go onto criticize porn videos and porn magazines. All these resources are available freely on the internet or In video stores and it shows women in a much more desperate and vulnerable position than the movie did. These sources motivate and actually attract people towards sex. Also, for everyone person, there is a different thing that turns them on. For some men, pretty feet are a seducer. If this is the case, then women can't even go around in open toed shoes because it would attract men and possibly rapists towards them.

Women are born with certain characteristics that give them their feminine touch. Every person is free to express themselves. In expressing themselves, this means they can dress up and act in a way that they want. Surely, that person should remain in their limits and this doesn't permit them to wander around naked in public places. Regardless, calling the movie Spring Breakers as enforcing rape culture is merely blaming women alone for the plethora of rape cases that are reported every year. It is true that women should dress decently, but men should learn to control themselves and not be horny animals at all times. Women should not be portrayed as weak and helpless all that time such that men don't hesitate whilst taking advantage of them.

Works cited

Herman, Diane F. "The Rape Culture." Culture Contemporary, (1984): Print.

Klemmack, Susan H. And David L. Klemmack. "The Social Definition of Rape." Sexual Assault. By Walker, Marcia J. And Stanley L. Brodsky. 1st ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1976. 136. Print.

Long, Heather. "Spring Breakers isn't just a terrible movie, it reinforces rape culture." theguardian. 28th March. 2013. Web. 13th May 2013. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/mar/28/spring-breakers-movie-wild-girls-rape-culture].

Peck, Jamie. "Spring Breakers Doesn't Reinforce Rape Culture." 2013. Web. 13 May 2013. .

Righmeir, Vanessa. "Spring Breakers' Movie Accused of Encouraging 'Rape Culture'." The Minaret. 11th April. 2013. Web. 13th May 2013. [http://theminaretonline.com/2013/04/11/article27578].

Russell, Francey. "The Millions: The Rapist Next Door: On Harmony Korine's Spring Breakers." 2013. Web. 13 May 2013. .… [read more]


Sexual Attraction Subconscious Term Paper

… His goal is sexual gratification, most typically, self-gratification and his thoughts generally are of pleasure rather than intimacy and relationship. Significantly, man's sexual desire precedes any physical sexual interaction." (EIFSRC, p. 1)

In other words, according to this perspective the… [read more]


Prostitution and Human Rights Issues Articles Essay

… Prostitution and Human Rights Issues Articles

Prostitution and Issues of Human Rights Violations

The day in the life of any sex worker most often includes some violation of his or her human rights in some degree or another. Prostitution is… [read more]


Hitchcock's Psycho Social Commentary Term Paper

… Ultimately, Hitchcock's approach to serious issues of gender and gender roles, sex and violence, and Norman's psychological makeup makes it difficult for the audiences to focus on the few and far between tongue-in-cheek moments especially as they appear to be mostly constrained to a single sequence. Hitchcock is able to convey more through the characterizations of Sam Loomis, Marion Crane, and Norman Bates than through the dialogue that takes place between them.

Works Cited

Ager, Rob. "Subliminal Themes in Psycho." Collative Learning. 2007. 21 February 2013.

Bell, Rachael and Bardsley, Marilyn. "Eddie Gein." Crime Library: Criminal Minds and Methods. Web. 21 February 2013.

"The Cult of Domesticity and True Womanhood." Department of History. College of Staten

Island. Web. 21 February 2013

"The Production Code of 1930." University of North Dakota. Web. 21 February 2013.

Psycho. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. United States: Universal Pictures, 1960. DVD.

"Psycho TV series to air on A&E." Chicago Sun-Times. 2 July 2012. Web. 21 February 2013.

"Psycho 'Was My Comedy'." The Sun. 8 February 2013. Web. 21 February 2013.

Rhetorical Outline

Social Commentary in Hitchcock's Psycho

Proposition: Despite Hitchcock's assertion that Psycho was supposed to be a big joke, because of its commentary on and insight into issues of gender sexuality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychology it is difficult to consider the film to be anything but a horrifying thriller.

Audience: Hitchcock enthusiasts, film students, sociologists who wish to see how social issues were portrayed in film and mass media

Goal: Demonstrate film is more serious than tongue-in-cheek as Hitchcock had claimed.

Outline

I. Introduction

a. Alfred Hitchcock was an influential filmmaker.

b. Psycho is one of his most well-known films.

c. Psycho is based on a novel of the same name by Robert Bloch in 1959.

i. Based on true crimes of Ed Gein

d. Hitchcock claims film was supposed to be a big joke.

e. Proposition that Psycho cannot be taken lightly because of social issues it examines.

f. Thesis: Despite Hitchcock's assertion that Psycho was supposed to be a big joke, because of its commentary on and insight into issues of gender sexuality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychology it is difficult to consider the film to be anything but a horrifying thriller.

II. Social commentary on gender and gender roles -- Masculinity, Femininity, and Domesticity

a. Masculinity

i. How is masculinity represented in the film?

1. Sam Loomis and Norman Bates

a. Confident v. insecure

b. Physically fit v. thin

c. Construction industry v. hospitality industry

b. Femininity

i. What is considered to be feminine

1. Cult of Domesticity

a. Purity

b. Submissive

c. Domestic

i. Marion Crane and Norman Bates

1. Not pure v. pure

2. Independent v. submissive to mother

3. Employed outside home v. homemaker/motelier

III. Sex and Violence

a. Limitations imposed by Hollywood Production Code of 1930

b. How sex and violence are depicted in film

i. Intro sequence

ii. Shower sequence iii. Murder of Detective Arbogast

IV. Psychology and Norman's Psyche

a. Schizophrenic or dissociative identity disorder… [read more]


Same Sex Marriage Age Gender Research Paper

… Abraham and Julie also are of the opinion that the same sex marriages will also bring in a change in the social structure that will also benefit the female population.

The third hypothesis of the research is that non-religious people… [read more]


Gay Marriage Term Paper

… Brooks, Devon and Goldberg, Sheryl. "Gay and Lesbian Adoptive and Foster Care

Placements: Can They Meet the Needs of Waiting Children?" Social Work, Vol.

46, No. 2 (April 2001). Retrieved July 11, 2012 from:

http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/images/c/cb/Gay_and_lesbian_foster_parents.pdf

This source was an empirical… [read more]


Ideological Criticism Showtime's Drama Series the L Essay

… Ideological Criticism

Showtime's drama series the L Word, which ran from 2004 to 2009, features a cast of lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered characters, and has been lauded for its representations of non-heterosexual individuals and relationships. The relative dearth of complex… [read more]


Sociology of the Workplace Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… She has only collected qualitative data and discussed the issue of sex and race inequality at work organizations along with providing directions of the areas that need further attention.

Pini, B. (2005). Interviewing Men: Gender and the Collection and Interpretation… [read more]


Gift of Sex Book Review

… Gift of Sex

Clifford and Joyce Penner, clinical therapist and nurse have written a sensitive and forthright guide to understanding sexuality and how it fits into God's design for marriage. This revised and updated version features a new introduction, new… [read more]


Children Raised by Same-Sex Parents Research Paper

… 385)..

The research to date indicates that overall, children raised in same-sex parent households fare just as well as their counterparts in traditional homes, with some minor exceptions that tend to evaporate over time. For example, a meta-analysis by Crowl et al. (2008) investigated differences between children raised by same-sex compared to heterosexual couples across 19 studies in relation to six developmental outcomes. No differences were found between children raised by heterosexual or same-sex parents in the following four areas: cognitive development, psychological adjustment, gender identity, or sexual partner preference. Theses researchers concluded that, "Children raised by same-sex parents fare equally well to children raised by heterosexual parents" (emphasis added) (p. 385).

Notwithstanding this across-the-board generalization, Crowl and his associates (2008) did report some evidence of differences in children's gender development. Differences in gender development of children raised by lesbian or gay parents depended on the following factors: (a) whether boys or girls were being considered, and (b) the type of behavior being measured. Based on the findings developed by Crowl et al. In this regard, Tasker suggests that, "Fatherlessness might remove pressure toward gender conformity that heterosexual fathers impose particularly on sons" (2010, p. 36).

Moreover, the limited research in this area to date indicates that lesbian couples may even provide a more nurturing environment than traditional relationships. For instance, Tasker concludes that, "Where we catch glimpses of difference between families led by lesbian parents and those led by heterosexual couples has been in reports of parenting practices that favor the double maternal involvement in child care that lesbian couples offer" (p. 36). Interestingly, the quality of life for children in same-sex homes can be adversely affected by the legal status of their parents. The limited research in this area to date indicates that lesbian parents in countries where same-sex marriages are legal experience fewer depressive episodes, a finding that is probably related to reduced concerns over their legal status and potential discrimination (Tasker, 2010).

Conclusion

The research showed that same-sex marriages are becoming increasingly commonplace as more and more states in the U.S. As well as other countries legalize these unions. The research also showed that children who are raised by same-sex parents tend to fare just as well as their counterparts in traditional homes, but this does not necessarily means they experience fewer problems in their lives. Indeed, it is reasonable to conclude that researchers could identify significant differences in the prevalence of teasing, bullying or ridicule children of same-sex parents may experience in a given setting, but such research would fail to take into account the overwhelming majority of other same-sex homes where children are nurtured and enjoy the benefits of a two-parent family. In the final analysis, it is also reasonable to conclude that children will fare best in homes where parents love each other and provide a stable home environment regardless of their sexual orientation.

References

Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3),… [read more]


Nagel's Sexual Perversions Term Paper

… It is from this perspective that he relates to his readers the specific weaknesses of exhibitionism or voyeurism. These, he says, are incomplete relationships. Gaining the ultimate satisfaction without any physical sexual attention from another person effectively short-circuits the psychological… [read more]


Gender Identity as an Intercultural Issue in International Cooperations Essay

… Intercultural Communication

Gender identity can be referred to as the inner sense that one has of being a male or female and is usually a feeling that is shaped during early childhood by the parenting system and the societal manipulation. Technically gender identity is distinguished from the biological sex. However for most of the cases, these two are the same. Both the physiological and the social factors contribute to the establishment of identity in the early stages of life, and this is magnified by social factors as the person grows (Dictionary.com, LLC. 2011).

The challenge of gender identity is a common phenomenon in many international corporations due to the diverse ways that the various cultures treat the people from the two genders and the significance that is attributed to the genders in the various communities. Various societies will come up with a way of allocating gender roles which again will differ from one community or society to another. It becomes even trickier for the multinationals to try to embrace the gender roles as dictated by the various and diverse communities that they encounter across different countries.

There are three major factors that pose a challenge to the various multinationals when it comes to handling of intercultural issues and communication especially those involving the male and the female genders. These are diversity in world view, use of language and the non-verbal communication. The no verbal communication involves the use of space and time as well (Becky Mulvaney, 1994). Other areas where there emerges differences in cultural views is the assumed similarity between two culture views, preconceptions and stereotypes, tendency to evaluate, and high anxiety (Laray M. Barna, 1985).

The most significant factor to be considered is the use of language since it is through language that we express our desires and views of the entire world around us. Multinationals find it tricky to adapt to the use of language in various parts of the world. For instance in Britain they may use the word boot to refer to trunk. In the same way, there are countries where the female gender has been attributed the soft spoken and kind in the use of language. If a multinational has to operate in countries like Japan, then the females involved may have to follow the soft spoken and polite language use that is the gender assigned trend by the society. This can go as far as restricting the use of some words to only a given gender and not being allowed among another gender. This is one issue that international corporations have to take into very serious consideration before they send, especially staff from another country.

The issue of the world view is also significant in the daily running of the international corporations. The term world view points to the orientation that cultures expose people to in viewing things like humanity, God, nature, the world and other beliefs that are connected with being. This is a very important aspect that cannot be underestimated since… [read more]


Diversity Awareness Research Paper

… My attitudes toward my own background remain strong, and I am gradually letting go of the mistrust and biases that I have cultivated towards other ethnic groups: especially Caucasians. Now, I have some Caucasian friends, whereas a few years ago I had none.

My racial heritage is African, but after centuries of slavery we now identify more fully with being African-American than with being African. Some day I would like to travel to Africa to get in touch with my ancestral roots. However, most African-Americans have trouble performing any genealogy to the old world. If I teach young children, I would make sure to cultivate each of their interest in genealogy and ancestry because I feel these are important aspects of who we are as individuals. We can never escape our heritage.

I identify with not just one but at least three different minority groups. As a female, we are clearly not in the minority but we have experienced subjugation and oppression by men and the patriarchy. Prejudices against women are akin to prejudices against black people and gays. I identify with each of these minority groups. Because I grew up in a predominantly African-American neighborhood, I felt supported until we ventured out into more mixed or white communities. Then, I felt stared at if not outright uncomfortable. I have not identified with being a lesbian long enough to experience prejudice, but I expect to once I come out more to my family members at home.

More than ever before, I am interacting with people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. I am interacting with people whose political beliefs and worldviews differ from my own. In my youth, most of my friends were African-American. Now, I have Asian and Jewish friends too.

Teacher education students must take a course in which diversity is discussed because teachers help shape the values and beliefs of their students. Although teachers cannot undo whatever prejudices parents have taught children, we are responsible for educating students and enlightening them as best we can. Diversity is a fact of life; in fact, the more exposure we have to diversity, the more likely we are to succeed in the global marketplace. Understanding diversity makes us better communicators, and able to make a difference in the world.

I am grateful for the opportunities to explore my own feelings about diversity. Personal identity construction and communication with others are only some of the areas in my life affected by diversity. As I become a teacher of young students, I am learning more about myself so that I can teach with as few biases and prejudices as possible. I do not want to show favoritism to students because of their background, which is why it helps to unravel these different aspects of myself and be completely honest about who I am.… [read more]


Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu Essay

… 3. Qhawqhat Lahu of Lancang, Southwest China

The Lahu populate a mountainous area of China along a border region adjacent to Burma, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam (Du 523). Subsistence depends on farming hill rice, wheat, and buckwheat, domesticated animals, and… [read more]


Gender in Romeo and Juliet Essay

… " (III, i, 96)

But Romeo and Juliet is a love story, and traditionally when a man fell in love, as with Romeo, he was considered by many to be unmanly, and contrary to the definition of masculinity. For instance, infatuation, or an immature attraction to another, was considered shallow and transitory as exemplified by Friar Lawrence's scolding of Romeo for his infatuation of Rosaline. Because Romeo was clearly infatuated, and behaving in an unmanly way, the Friar chastised Romeo for his lack of strength, "women may fall when there's no strength in men." (II, iii, 85) It would seem that it was unacceptable for a man to dote on, or to be slavishly controlled by woman.

On the other hand, women were seen at this time as physically weak, emotionally unstable, and intellectually inferior. Juliet, at the beginning of the play, conforms to these expectations; mostly because she is just 13 years old and only then reaching the age of maturity where gender roles are expected to be followed. She lives in her father's house, is subject to his jurisdiction and control, and is expected to marry whom he decides. However, during the play Juliet eventually rejects these behavioral norms that she has been raised to observe, and disobeys her father's wishes by marrying Romeo. (II, v,) She demonstrates emotional strength and intelligence, traits that are not traditionally assigned to females.

The play Romeo and Juliet provides numerous examples of how gender is learned through a process of socialization. The setting for the story is Renaissance Italy, a place where traditional gender roles were strictly enforced. By their very actions, the characters of the play demonstrate how their behavior was influenced through socialization, as well as part of the socialization process for other, younger members of society. Men were supposed to be tough, strong, able to endure pain, and to fight well. But when Romeo displays behavior that is considered unmanly, the Friar chastises him for his "womanly behavior." Romeo then goes on to display this manliness when his friend dies, telling his in effect, to "endure the pain and die like a man."

But it is not only masculinity that is expressed by the characters, but femininity as well. Juliet, a young adolescent girl, tries to behave in the manner that society has taught her. She tries to be demure, weak, and intellectually unimpressive, but her natural tendencies force her to reject those values. She is not weak, demure, or stupid, but a robust, intelligent and emotionally strong woman who defied her father, married her true love, and planned an elaborate scheme to get away from her family.

While Romeo attempts to conform to the gender role placed upon him by society, Juliet attempts to break free of those constraints. Romeo tries to be strong and masculine, but fails and eventually takes his own life when he believes that Juliet has died. This is considered the ultimate womanly thing to do, to fall apart over a woman. But… [read more]


Human Sexuality a Person Essay

… The Babylonians saw their sexuality as a practice within their religion -- the "[Babylonian] impersonal provision of sex is conceived in terms of the promotion of nature's fecundity" (Shrage). Medieval French society regarded prostitutes as sought-after ladies, where they became "eligible for marriage, and were desired by men for wives" (Shrage). In a more current study, Shrage mentions a New Guinea tribe called the Etoro that practices a type of "breast-feeding" ritual -- where infants are fed semen for the children's nutritional benefit. Society today, however, would probably find all three acts highly abominable. Sexual activity and prostitution are frowned-upon in public context. It is evident within the words used by society itself to label men and women by relating them to their sexual activeness. A person is either a "homosexual, bisexual, whore, virgin, [and/or] pervert," among other derogatory insults with regards to the person's sexuality (Shrage). A person is no longer a person because he or she has been labeled something less; and here the person becomes an object. Thus high levels of sexuality are heavily frowned upon, to the point where anyone working in the pornographic industry becomes the "bad guy."

This societal banishment of pornography, however, is not unreasonable. Sexual practices are a matter of significant cultural differences between societies, and Shrage points out that the views of "our" society do not match the views of those she mentioned. There is no respect lost after the French courtesans have left their natural "employments," because they are still treated as part of society; the Babylonians made sex impersonal due to the act of spiritual and religious faiths, of superstitions that far transcend the concrete (their bodies did not deter from their belief of soul and salvation); and the Etoro are confined to their traditional beliefs, that their children's rite of healthy passage is through insemination. What, then, are the ethical and moral reasoning that brought forth the industry of pornography? Where are the traditional beliefs, the ingrained roots of displaying the acts of sex so vividly imagined and portrayed?

It is in these sexual practices that we see the true objectification of individuals. Pornography is the "subordination of women…dehumanized as sexual objects, things or commodities"; it is the "distribution of power, about domination and subordination"; and it is a "form of hate speech/literature…[that] lies about or defames women" (Garry). Pornography is part of the major reason for the sexual views of society. This industry allows the acceptance of women as individuals who have no objections to being beaten, raped, and repeatedly subjected to sexual abuse. Men view them as sexual conquests, through their actions and their vocabulary. Women see themselves as merely sexual beings, pieces of meat to be had and paid for. Yet for what price can woman (or man) sell her (or his) body as an object for the merest amounts of degrading screen-time? Surely there is still the moral implication of respect that women deserve; "all woman are full-fledged people," and treating them as slabs… [read more]


Rise of Homosexuality in Media Thesis

… ¶ … Rise of Homosexuality in Media and Its Social Effects

Gay and Lesbian Studies

This paper will look at the rise of homosexual portrayals in televised media, and whether or not the increase has helped inspire a greater social… [read more]

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