"Sociology / Society" Essays

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Statistical Significance in Published Scientific Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

27 (p = 0.03)

X3: F (1, 39)

Interaction (Mind-set x Knowledge base): 7.28 (p = 0.01)

X3: d

0.98

Comparison group

0.74

X4: t (56)

2.59 (p = 0.01)

Comparison group

2.20 (p = 0.03)

X4: F (1,56)

Interaction (Protagonist group x Knowledge base): 5.92 (p = 0.02)

X4: d

0.71

Comparison group

0.59

X5: M (SD)

70.86 (25.21)

55.73 (16.59)

N/A

X5: F (1, 22)

4.61 (p = 0.04)

All reported comparisons with the Difference Mindset groups turned out to be significant. This is interesting because of the diversity of tasks used to measure the contrast between difference-awareness and similarity-awareness. However, the article draws heavily on previous research and is well-grounded theoretically, so the fact that all five experiments showed the effect the authors were aiming for is unsurprising.

Effect Sizes

The authors' choice to report effect sizes strikes me as very honest, although this statistic is more frequently being required by reviewers in the social sciences. The partial Eta2 values for the key comparisons in each experiment varied within a range of 0.04-0.17, with higher values generally obtained for main effects than for interactions. In the social sciences, values for partial Eta2 are generally considered to be minimal at 0.20, medium-sized at 0.50, and large effects at 0.80. It is therefore uncertain whether the effects Todd et al. found can be thought of as statistically valid based on the below-minimal value of all experimental effects.

Study Conclusions

The authors claim that the five experiments presented show "clear and consistent support" for their hypothesis that the difference mindset improves conversational perspective-taking. Speaking as a statistician, I would be hard pressed to let the strength of this claim pass. The significance of their t- and F-tests varies in strength from p = 0.05 (approaching "marginally significant") to p = 0.001 (a solid result). This indicates that the five experiments in the study have different impacts on their subjects, and may in fact operate by different mechanisms. This suspicion is upheld by the consistently low effect size obtained in each experiment. Overall, I am somewhat surprised by the study's appearance in such a high-impact journal, although the rigor…… [read more]


Transforming Conflict Non-Verbal Communication and Stereotyping Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Communication

Prompt (1) -Transforming Conflict: Non-Verbal Communication

Who is Marshall Rosenberg? Please talk about this person.

Dr. Martin B. Rosenberg is the founder and director of educational services for the Center for Nonviolent Communications (the Center for Nonviolent Communications). Rosenberg developed a technique of communications that engenders compassion and minimizes conflict. Nonviolent Communications derives its inspiration from nonviolent resistance, in which peaceful means are used to discover mutually beneficial solutions. Rosenberg proposes nonviolent communications as a means of resolving political conflicts.

Describe the basic premises for genuine dialogue and discuss why it cannot happen in a professional relationship.

Genuine dialogue is totally free and open communications. Each party is as concerned about the needs of the others as with selfish needs. This is why genuine dialogue rarely takes place in a professional relationship. Professional relationships have barriers that cannot be torn down; those barriers are in place to protect the best interests of the organization.

Explain the basic differences between dialogue, debate, discussion and deliberation (thought and reflection)

Dialogue is a two-way communication, characterized by the exchange of ideas. Dialogue may involve questions and answers on behalf of both parties. A debate is more directly confrontational than a dialogue. In a debate, each party has a particular point-of-view. Each party is also trying to persuade the other that their point-of-view is the correct one. A discussion is like a debate in that it centers on one particular subject area, but it is less formal than a debate. Often a discussion takes place in order to focus on solutions to a problem. A deliberation is a more introspective process. When two or more individuals is engaged in a deliberation, they are usually discussing issues in a private rather than in a public arena. Deliberation refers to a slow and deliberate process of communication, generally one focused on a specific area.

The way we communicate is based on jackal language or the game of who is right. Explain this.

Jackal language is self-centered and not conducive to a mutual exchange of ideas. The jackal is a relatively violent animal seeking to satisfy its needs, even if at the expense of others. Many human communications are like jackal language, in which each person is only focused on proving themselves right. Jackal language is egotistical.

Nonviolent communication is life-seeking expression. What are some important communication techniques used towards this effective style of communication?

The most important communication techniques used towards nonviolent communication include listening, compassion, empathy, making objective observations, and refraining from judgement and antagonism.

Write a dialogue between two people in conflict. Then rewrite it where one person is using non-violent communication methods and see how the direction of the argument changes.

Jackal Dialogue

A: I told you…… [read more]


Being a Winner Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Advertisement -- Image Analysis

The text and visual components of this Gatorade advertisement featuring Tiger Woods employs a combination of argument strategies without relying too heavily on any one specific line of argument. In effect, the text consists of multiple elements of hybrids between various aspects of ethos, and logos; there does not appear to be any use of pathos or appeal to emotions.

Moreover, to a large extent, the appeals are implied rather than explicit. Ordinarily, ethos arguments emphasize the moral character of the product or the deliverer of the advertising message; in this case, the ethos element does not relate to the character of Tiger Woods but on his identity and the association between his persona (or "character") as a winner. The visual component relies almost exclusively on the association with Tiger Woods, itself a form of hybrid appeal of argument strategy.

Text Analysis

"Formulated with the right amount of energy to keep you at your peak performance"

This is clearly an appeal to logos by virtue of the logical implication that participation in athletic competition at the highest level possible for any individual requires supplementation with external sources of energy. Impliedly, it is also an appeal to ethos because it relies on the character of the featured celebrity athlete who is presented as an authority on winning at his chosen sport.

"Quench your thirst and replenish the necessary electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals that are lost through sweat."

This is another appeal to logos by virtue of the logical implication that participation in athletic competition at the highest level possible for any individual requires supplementation with external sources of electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals. It relies on the implication that use of the product provides all…… [read more]


Inter-Cultural Usability How Language Affects the Comparing Analyzing and Reporting of Usability Evaluation Results Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (381 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

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Intercultural Usability: How Language Affects the Comparing, Analyzing and Reporting of Usability Evaluation Results

The work of Karasawa and Suga (date unknown) entitled: "Retention and Transmission of Socially Shared Beliefs: The Role of Linguistic Abstraction in Stereotypic Communication" relates that stereotypes have been studied through the lens of social cognition as it relates to psychological processes operating within the individual perceivers." Research has demonstrated that inductive processes take place and that concrete behavioral information associated with different group members through synthesis results in abstract representations of group traits. (Karasawa and Suga, date unknown, paraphrased) Ford and Kotze (date unknown) write in the work entitled: "Designing Usable Interfaces with Cultural Dimensions" that as many arguments exist in opposition to as in support of the accommodation of culture into user interface design." On one side it is argued that "it is necessary to match the subjective cultural profile of the interface to the cultural profile of the users in order to enhance usability and performance." (date unknown) On the other hand it is argued that "the interface design characteristics required to design interfaces to accommodate one side of four of the five…… [read more]


Unemployed and Working Hard Being Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (939 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Unemployed and Working Hard

Being Unemployed is a big struggle and a sad reality for millions of individuals at any point of time. Cyclical unemployment and economic depression drive thousands of individuals who were gainfully employed into a painful and arduous battle to keep themselves and their families afloat. Utilizing the free time to gain new skills, coping effectively with the stressed personal relationships, and coming to terms and being comfortable with a lower standard of living are some of the immediate issues for an unemployed person. The most important part of the survival skills for unemployed people is to manage themselves better during this stressful period. Most importantly, it is necessary to go through this phase with optimism and not to feel ashamed or embarrassed as this is a fairly common phase in everyone's lives at one point of time or another. Realizing that this is only a temporary phase in their lives is important but for most unemployed people every day without a job appears to be long and dragging, leaving them physically and emotionally drained. [Jim Stringham]

As labor market research shows 'finding a new job could easily be one of the most challenging jobs' that require the unemployed person to be at the top of their form. Patience, perseverance, confidence and maintaining a sense of humor during this hard time are critical to be successful in getting a new job. Since losing a job affects many fronts of a persons life such as 'financial situation', 'loss of work friends', 'Change of roles' (from being a family provider to a dependent) and the sense of self-identity, it is normal for an unemployed person to go through the emotions of loss such as shock, denial, sadness, guilt, anger and acceptance. [Jim Stringham] Thus, having a balanced perspective and a positive attitude is important for a smooth transition from this difficult phase of one's life associated with emotions of sadness and resentment to getting back on track.

2. Being unemployed and homeless is one of the most unfortunate circumstances for any person. It might seem paradoxical, but surviving as an unemployed and homeless person is one of the toughest jobs. As per a recent study by the national Law center on homelessness and poverty, an average of 3.5 million Americans are homeless every year. [Simon Wykoff] The first and foremost problem for a homeless person is finding a sleeping place for the night. Since the shelters for homeless people are usually overcrowded, sleeping on the sidewalks and alleys presents a better option for many unfortunate people. However, surviving on the streets requires an entirely different skill set. Since sleeping is a most private and equally the most vulnerable time of a person, it is not unusual for a homeless person to wake up and find whatever cash he…… [read more]


What Is the Purpose of Groups in Social Work Practice? Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (581 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Groups in Social Work Practice

The nature and dynamics governing groups in the social environment is critical in further understanding social work practice, as this discipline is dependent on a multitude of social factors, groups being one of these factors. It is imperative then, that in order to understand how social work practice can be implemented in specific contexts, social workers must not only work with individuals, but they must also work with groups.

This rationale for studying groups in social work practice brings into fore the purpose (or purposes) why groups are a critical element to this field. Davies (1975) provided a clear explication of the purpose of groups in social work (30-31):

…purposes and ethics which are accepted as proper for casework will normally continue to apply when the social worker begins to act as a group worker… what the social worker regards as desirable and legitimate does not automatically alter merely because he has changed his mode of operation… Thus, social work with groups has to be seen as a tactical maneuver intended to help a worker get closer to goals, within a pattern of ethics, which are independently defined.

In this passage from Davies, working with groups in social work practice enables the social worker to work "strategically" -- that is, s/he assumes a different perspective to understand the worldview of the groups the social worker is studying and working with. Assuming a different perspective does not necessarily mean changing one's perspective; as Davies explained, understanding groups using their worldview is just a necessary step towards achieving the social worker's objective or goal. The challenge for social workers is to effectively assume a group's perspective to make objective observations, therefore enabling the social worker…… [read more]


Causal Analysis Argument About the Media Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Media Makes and Breaks Stars

The entertainment industry's public fan base has created an entertainment media monster that is today less concerned with talent than it is about building images that it can then destroy with sensationalism and innuendo. The approach to reporting on the entertainment industry today is not about analyzing acting or music ability or performance, but is instead an approach about creating celebrity for the purposes of destroying celebrities in a way that is destructive to the celebrity's professional and personal life. The entertainment media enjoys an unprecedented control over entertainers: actors, actresses, musicians, and even people who have no real talent or contribution to the industry other than to provide glimpses into the lives of the wealthy for purposes of shocking the public with bad behavior, excessive indulgences, and sexual promiscuity. One need not even have a particular talent, because the entertainment media's goal is build up public interest in any way it can for purposes of destroying the image in a very public way. The media accomplishes this with clever use of photographic images that are often misleading insinuations of the entertainer's behavior or performance that are in synch with the media's goal of building the performing up only to destroy once that performer is at the height of the public's attention. It is a cut-throat process that is not just damaging to the celebrity, but to young people today as it not only degrades the celebrity, but degrades social values and cause young people to become as much a product of media manipulations as the celebrities themselves.

Take, for example, the case of Brittany Spears. Young, blonde, beautiful, and talented enough to create a huge world-wide fan base in her music, from her earliest days Mickey Mouse Club Musketeer, the media followed Spears, emphasizing her every virginal look and word, creating an image of her as an innocent. The photograph below shows Spears with Brittany Spears doll likeness: innocent, clean cut, and an apparent role model for young children.

Online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=images+of+brittany+spears+clean+cut&um=1&ie=UTF-8&ei=VUEcS_jUHsyztgfFppiZBg&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQsAQwAA.

As Spears grew older, began dating another celebrity, Justin Timberlake, the media began to exploit Spears' emerging womanhood and sexuality. ". . . Spears quickly transitioned from a popular virgin into an even more popular Madonna imitator (Shapiro 2005 55)." The images below, found online, show how the media transitioned Spears from virginal, to a sexual young woman, to a hedonistic vamp, and, ultimately, a disturbed young mother.

Online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&um=1&q=images+of+brittany+spears+clean+cut&sa=N&start=126&ndsp=18

Spears, who inarguably amassed a fortune, became the target of exploitation of the media, who presented her as being so deranged, that she lost…… [read more]


Measurement and Precision Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,247 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Measurement and Precision

There are many types of variables that a researcher may want to study. These variables are typically classified into the four levels of measurement (scales) namely nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. The nominal scale is the simplest of the four which divides the population into different categories (e.g. gender, nationality or original hair color). The ordinal scale is the same as nominal but with categories that can be arranged into a specific order such as socio-economic class (basically divided into the upper class, middle class and lower class). The interval scale is the same as the ordinal scale but the specific order (or ranking) of the variable measured has equal-appearing intervals. An example of which is temperature where the difference between 1 degree Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius is the same as the difference between 11 degree Celsius and 20 degrees Celsius. The ratio scale is the same as the interval scale but with an absolute zero measurement which signifies absence of the variable. For example, in measuring distance traveled, zero distance traveled means the entity stayed at its starting point the whole time; as opposed to the interval scale variable temperature, where zero degrees Celsius does not signify absence of temperature (but rather, freezing point temperature).

Defining the levels of measurement of each variable in a research study is important in order to determine the appropriate statistical tests to be used for diagnostics. As a rule of thumb, non-parametric tests are suitable for nominal and ordinal scale variables while parametric tests are fitting for interval and ratio scale variables. Consequently, using the appropriate statistical tests will ensure results relevant to proving the hypothesis and will enable the researcher to yield precise conclusions.

II. Random Sampling

In experimental research design, one of the trickiest things the researcher has to decide on is sampling. Since in statistics, we are always dealing with estimates, a good sample is pre-requisite to an estimate that is closer to the true value. Conversely, a poor sample will give you estimates that are inaccurate and misleading. Thus, the need for a genuine random sample is essential in every research design. Random sampling is a method that gives each member of the population equal chances of being included in the study with the end goal of having a sample that accurately represents the population. There are basically two kinds of random sampling, Simple Random Sampling, or simply, Random Sampling, and Stratified Random Sampling.

With Random Sampling, members of the population are included in the sample if their corresponding pre-assigned numbers is picked via the table of random numbers. Nowadays, there are many variations to this method. You may select the sample by doing a raffle (whether manual or electronic) or you may even use statistical software for the purpose.

Meanwhile, Stratified Random Sampling is also Random Sampling but done within known groups of the population which the researcher wants to explore. For example, among teenagers, the average height of males is to… [read more]


Dismissed: How TV Frames Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Language is also manipulated to be funny and amusing, even at the expense of the characters and their intellect. Think about the puns and pokes of "Married With Children," or the language in "The Simpsons," or "Bevis and Butthead" which is elementary and unintelligent at best. These characters do not read books or magazines, do not seek out entertainment other than television, they drink beer, burp, and their language skills are rudimentary at best. They use this elementary language to represent the educational levels and understanding of the working class, which again, could not possibly match the levels of middle and upper class families.

The lifestyles of these characters are seen as relatively comfortable, even though they are clearly poor. "Married With Children" portrays a family that does not struggle to feed themselves, but has no taste or "class," and has no desire to better themselves. Many of these characters drink, smoke, and/or overeat (this Roseanne and Dan in "Roseanne" and Ralph in "The Honeymooners"), and their lifestyle and point-of-view is portrayed as not as strong and capable as middle class families. Often, these people feel exploited by others, like whites or their bosses, and they all seem to always need more money. However, these families have televisions, they have cars and homes, and they have enough money to feed and clothe their families. In reality, these shows do not represent the reality of the poorest members of the working class, who rarely enjoy the luxuries of cars, home ownership, enough food and clothes, and appliances like televisions. That is another problem with these shows and films. They portray working class people in a negative way, but they do not portray the real conditions of many working class families, and they do that at the expense of the audience and the real American working class.

The documentary certainly has an educational side, because it opens up new ideas and views for the audience, and it makes them think about the power of the American media and advertisers who have so much control over what Americans view on television. Most of the example shows, including shows like "My Name is Earl," which airs currently, are only for entertainment, and they do claim a large share of the audience because they are funny and outlandish, and again, they make the audience feel better about themselves and their lives.

In conclusion, this documentary is an eye opening look at how the media portrays the American working class. If it is lacking anything, it is lacking a view of the real working class people the media is portraying. For example, they do not interview any working class members about their views of how they are portrayed -- most of the people in the film are educators, and they ignore the very class they are discussing. They also do not discuss many other members of the working class, like healthcare workers, law enforcement, and others, who also represent the working class, and are also often… [read more]


Stages of Data Analysis Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (855 words)
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Three Stages of Data Analysis

In all areas of scientific endeavor, the collection and analysis of relevant, objective data is a rather obvious necessity. In the hard sciences such as physics and chemistry, this process is often relatively straightforward -- phenomenon are observed, measurements are taken, and analysis yields possible correlations and causal relationships. This same basic process hold true for the social sciences, but determining what to measure -- and what has been measured -- can itself be a daunting and uncertain task, let alone the analysis of such data for theoretical or practical conclusions and applications. This can be especially true in the field of psychology, where much of the data received will by definition be subjective on the part of the respondent, and which allows for widely different interpretations of such data depending on the theoretical perspective one is working under. For this reason, a clearer understanding of the correct procedure for obtaining and analyzing data is necessary in psychological research.

Getting to Know the Data

The first step in any data analysis, especially in psychological research, is to come to a full and complete understanding of the data (Shaughnessy et al. 2006). This requires cleaning up the data, removing any incomplete entries, impossible figures, and taking careful note of any outliers (Shaughnessy et al. 2006). In this way, the data can be made more uniform, making it more likely to yield accurate interpretative results in further analysis. Different methods can be used to accomplish this clean-up of a data set; stem-and-leaf displays have been found to be especially useful in this regard (Shaughnessy et al. 2006). These displays provide both numerical and pictorial representations of data, making it easy to spot outliers and to see other trends in the data; certain correlatives might even begin to emerge at this point.

Summarizing data is essential not just for the presentation of research and/or findings to peers and colleagues, but also for one's own edification, familiarization, and understanding of the data (Shaughnessy et al. 2006). Such summary can take place numerically, pictorially, or verbally, and often all three methods of presentation and summarization are used for a more complete and effective understanding of the data (Shaughnessy et al. 2006). This enables the researcher and any peers to familiarize themselves with the data from several angles before the true in depth analysis occurs, making this an essential part of the data analysis process in providing the preliminary framework for future analysis (Shaughnessy et al. 2006).

Summarizing the Data

Once the data has been summarily arranged in…… [read more]


Homelessness Due to Unemployment Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,014 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Homelessness Due to Unemployment

Today's buzzword seems to be crisis. Having emerged in the real estate sector and in the context of the credit crisis, the financial challenges soon made their presence felt in all domains. As a result, organizations engaged in multiple strategies with the aim of reducing costs. The most common such course of action has been organizational restructuring through downsizing operations. Countless U.S. citizens lost their jobs, and unable to make payments to the houses purchased, they were executed by the financial institutions. As a result then, the unemployment rate and the number of homeless people exponentially increased throughout the past few months. The official unemployment rate is of 7.6%, following a constantly ascendant trend; the actual rate, considering those so discouraged who stopped their search for jobs, could be around 14% (Fraser, 2009). In Los Angles for instance, 1 out of 10 people is unemployed, the statistics reaching the 1983 peaks. The overall economic status is also impacted as the national gross domestic product decreased to its minimum value since 1982 (Pierson, 2009).

People have been out of jobs for months, even more than a year even, and they find it extremely frustrating to constantly receive letters of refusal from the few interviewing companies. And sadly enough, the economists foresee no real improvements in the near future (Simon, 2003). The loss of jobs implicitly leads to the inability to make the mortgage payments. Banks, suffering the massive consequences of the credit crisis, now no longer reveal flexibility and treat all situations alike. Whenever the borrower is late on the contractual terms of the payments, the bank will take over his house and sell it in order to recuperate the losses. Fact is however, that the prices of the real estate properties have went down so much that the financial institutions are unable to sell the houses to a value near to the credit loaned. The former owners are still left in the street and see how the American dream can soon turn into a nightmare. They become homeless, meaning then that the financial crisis not only increases the numbers of homeless people, but also forces us to look at the problem from a novel standpoint. "As more and more people lose their jobs and homes in the worsening global economic crisis, experts say the face of homelessness is changing" (Daily News, 2008).

But the contemporaneous economic crisis is only a stimulator of homelessness, and in order to best address the problem, its root causes must first be identified. Throughout the past two, two and a half decades, the most prominent reasons to be blamed for homelessness include increasing levels of poverty and the growing prices in the real estate industry, for both purchases and rentals. "Homelessness and poverty are inextricably linked. Poor people are frequently unable to pay for housing, food, child care, health care, and education. Difficult choices must be made when limited resources cover only some of these necessities. Often it is housing, which… [read more]


Philosophers Knowledge Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,746 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Philosopher's Knowledge

Epistemology: A Review and Application to My Current Interests and Studies

Epistemology, or the philosophy and study of knowledge, seeks to explain a great deal of components of human knowledge. For instance, epistemic philosophers want to know what knowledge is and what its essential components, in addition to how knowledge has come to be and where it originates.… [read more]


Homeless, Present Day Issues, and Causes Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,031 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … homeless, present day issues, and causes of homelessness in America. The numbers of homeless people are growing in America, largely because of the mortgage crisis and falling economy, which is putting more people out of their homes and out of work. Homelessness has always been an issue in this country, and America needs to create some new solutions to help solve the homeless problem in the country.

Historically, there have always been homeless people in the country. From indentured servants how came to the country with nothing but their clothing to serve their masters, to the "bums" and "hobos" of the Great Depression, there have always been homeless people somewhere in the country. This older homeless population did not live on the streets. Two researchers note, "The U.S. homeless population of the 1950s and 1960s was typically composed of older men living in cheap hotels and was declining significantly in the 1970s. However, in the 1980s this 'old' homeless population was replaced by a 'new' homeless population" (Baggerly & Zalaquett, 2006). The new population contained more children, ethnicity, and younger people. Since the 1980s, the problem seems to have gotten more attention from the media and the public, perhaps because there were more homeless people than before, or perhaps because people simply became more aware of the homeless population because of the problems they face. The public has become more concerned because homeless people can create slum areas, they can create crime, and some people are just afraid of them. The government has become more concerned because an increase in the numbers of the homeless can create a strain on local shelters and drop-in centers, leading to higher costs to protect and take care of the homeless, especially homeless families and children.

Present day homelessness is being affected by the struggling economy, the home mortgage crisis, and other factors, which means that homelessness is up in many parts of the country, and this has been a trend since the 1990s. A group of researchers note, "It appears that the economic recovery of the 1990s may have had little impact on the extremely poor, from whose ranks homeless individuals and families generally come" (Tompsett, Toro, Guzicki, Manrique & Zatakia, 2006). Thus, it is usually the extremely poor that suffer from homelessness, but currently, even middle class families can be homeless. A reporter writes, "We saw family homelessness began to increase last winter,' says Sally Erickson, Portland's homeless program manager. 'There's definitely a spike in the last six months.' The number of requests for emergency shelter doubled from fiscal year 2007 to fiscal 2008, which ended in June (Koch, 2008). Most experts believe this spike will continue because of the economic crisis. As more people lose their jobs and lose their homes, they will have nowhere to go but the streets and homeless shelters, and that will continue to swell the numbers of homeless people in America.

Several issues can contribute to the homeless population besides job loss and the… [read more]


Treat Students Right by Valuing Their Diversity Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Treat Students Right by Valuing Their Diversity, Meuleners (2001) talks about the value of diversity, the stages people go through in dealing with diversity, and the restraints in accepting diversity. People are different from each other, but when they work together, they conquer greater feats than when each works alone. Dealing with diversity progresses from recognition (awareness of the difference of self vs. other), to tolerance (accepting diversity but not welcoming it), and finally to celebration (embracing diversity and acknowledging that it adds value to life). Though, the journey to celebration of diversity is hindered by insufficient knowledge and reluctance to modify one's own schema, which results to vicious stereotypes indefinitely perpetuated.

A closer look would take one to the realization that diversity is advantageous and so should be welcomed, more so, encouraged. Diversity must be a function of each person having a different function to fill. A…… [read more]


Stereotyping: Impacts on Social Interaction in Daily Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (2,908 words)
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Stereotyping: Impacts on Social Interaction in Daily Life

The objective of this work is to examine stereotypes and to answer the question of "What impact does stereotyping have on our daily relations with others?"

Just as human beings come in all shapes and sizes with many diversified languages, cultures, belief systems and a great variation in talent the range of… [read more]


Albert Einstein as a Celebrity Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,992 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Albert Einstein was a celebrity. Albert Einstein is probably most well-known as a scientist and mathematician - the man who discovered E=mc2 (the theory of relativity) and helped discover atoms, which led to the development of the atomic bomb and the end of World War II. However, Einstein was a celebrity, too, on the scale of a Madonna… [read more]


Herbert Hoover Rugged Individualism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
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Herbert Hoover- Rugged Individualism

Rugged Individualism," Herbert Hoover, October 22, 1928

There is an intended audience evident in Hoover's speech "Rugged Individualism." Hoover gave the speech on October 22, 1928, just before the 1928 presidential election, and the speech was a campaign speech. Therefore, his audience was composed of potential voters. While the date and the fact of the upcoming election help support the idea that the audience was composed of potential voters, those are not the only facts suggesting that the speech was a campaign speech. In fact, the contents of the speech, even read without the temporal context, demonstrate that Hoover was trying to demonstrate that the Republican platform was the appropriate choice in an upcoming election.

This document is very important, because it helps highlight a difference between modern political beliefs and older political beliefs. To modern Americans, the Republican Party is identified as the conservative party. In addition to being politically conservative, Republicans have gained a reputation as social conservatives. This was not the case of the Republican Party during its earlier years, a fact that is well-demonstrated by Hoover's speech. He talks about the progressive nature of the Republican Party and the changes that had been made during the previous 7 1/2 years of a Republican-run government.

One of the most significant changes discussed by Hoover is the fact that the post World-War I period really helped usher in the existence of the American middle class. For modern Americans, the existence of an American middle class is something to be taken for granted. After all, the vast majority of modern Americans are members of the middle class, and pundits warning that the middle class is in danger of disappearing seem like alarmists, because it seems as if the idea of a middle class is synonymous with America. However, Hoover's speech, which revealed the financial transformation that occurred in America after World War I, helped demonstrate how the proper economic conditions were necessary to help create a middle class. From a historical point-of-view, this…… [read more]


Karl Marx and Industrialization the Worker's Product Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Karl Marx and Industrialization

The worker's product confronts him, hostile and alien." -Karl Marx, the Communist Manifesto.

In a way, Marxism can be seen as a reaction to industrialization in the Western world. Before industrialization people lived on farms. Nearly everything they needed, they made for themselves. Their clothing, for instance, they made by first growing the cotton, then spinning the cotton into thread, then weaving the thread into cloth and finally cutting and sewing the cloth into clothing. The left-over scraps they pieced into blankets. It was a lot of work and people didn't own as much stuff as they do now, but they felt a greater connection to the things they did have because they designed and made them themselves. Their work was meaningful because it was to provide something useful that they needed. Those things they had to pay for were made by people they knew. For instance, their dishes were made by a potter. The horse's shoes were made by a blacksmith nearby. This way of life completely changed during the industrial revolution.

Industrialization brought factories and assembly lines where people left their homes to go to work for pay. Workers on an assembly line were assigned one small task which they had to do over and over again all day long. The task presented itself to them on a conveyor belt, they did the task, and it moved on, another taking its place. The boredom of standing in one place for hours on end doing the same thing repetitively was, for some people, agonizing. The worker had no sense that he had designed, created, or completed a product that he could point to and say, "Look, I made that!" The factory system took all the pride…… [read more]


Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted Term Paper

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¶ … New York's Central Park and the original motives behind its creation, while thinking from its' two architect designers point-of-view, Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmstead. Central Park in New York is the first landscaped public park in the country, Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux, two well-known architects of the time, designed the park in 1858, seeing it… [read more]


Measurement Which Is Related to the Social Term Paper

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¶ … measurement which is related to the social research. The extensive area of survey research includes any measurement processes that entail asking questions of respondents. A survey can be in any form, it can be a short paper and pencil response form or it can be a serious one on one in detail interview.

Surveys signify one of the most ordinary types of quantitative and qualitative, social science study. In survey research, the examiner picks a model of respondents from a populace and administers a consistent questionnaire to them. The questionnaire or survey can be written in text that is done by someone being surveyed, an online feedback form, a head to head interview or a telephone interview. By applying surveys, it is likely to gather information from huge or diminutive population. Surveys can be alienated into two extensive groups, the quantitative and the qualitative surveys. Quantitative or questionnaire surveys are typically paper and pencil tools that the respondent complete. Qualitative are done by the interviewer based on what the respondent states. At times, it's tough to notify the distinction amid a quantitative and a qualitative. For example, a number of people think that quantitative always ask small closed ended questions whereas in interviews, questions are always ask wide open ended ones. (Robert Ferber, Paul Sheatsley, Anthony Turner and Joseph Waksberg, 1981).

In Quantitative Survey, when the majority of people think of questionnaires, they consider of the mail survey. There are a lot of benefits to mail surveys. They are comparatively cheap and an easy way to use. One can mail the same written work to a number of people. They permit the respondent to plug it out at their own expediency. But there are some drawbacks as well. Responses from mail surveys are frequently very little. Mail questionnaires are not the finest ways for asking for thorough written replies. A second type of the quantitative survey is the group administered questionnaire. In which a copy of respondents is carried mutually and asked to reply to a prearranged series of questions. Usually, questionnaires were directed in groups for ease. The examiner could provide the questionnaire to those who were nearby and be quite certain that there would be an elevated response rate. If the respondents were indistinct regarding the meaning of a question they could ask over for explanation plus there were a lot of managerial settings where it is comparatively simple to collect the group for example, in a business or a company. In the group of administered questionnaire, each respondent is given few questions and asked to complete it in the room. Every respondent finish the given questions. In this group, the interviewer assists the meeting. People work in a group and pay attention to each other's remarks plus they also respond to the questions. Somebody observes the whole group and makes notes as people don't complete an interview separately. A less recognizable kind of…… [read more]


Amelia Earhart Term Paper

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Amelia Earhart

The World of Aviation, the New World of flight of Amelia Earhart, as revealed by Mary S. Lovell

Lovell, Mary S. The Sound of Wings. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989

The Sound of Wings by Mary S. Lovell is primarily interested in the relationship of the developing cult of celebrity in 1920s America rather than Amelia Earhart's relationship with the world of the air. Perhaps the most astounding development chronicled by Lovell is not the development of the modern aircraft, initially spurned as a kind of dangerous gadget with little application to either transport or military deployment, but the modern publicity machine facilitated by creation the mass media of newspapers, advertising, and international 'lecture circuits.' It was through the development of mass media technology that Amelia Earhart became the legend she is today, although many other women pilots more qualified than Earhart made their names and reputations with daring flights.

Lovell's work chronicles the evolving implications of Amelia Earhart's husband George Palmer Putnam on her career. Putnam emerges in the text as a pure showman, eventually divorcing his first wife, heir to the Crayola empire, to pursue a more lucrative career exploiting Earhart's supposed technical prowess at an aircraft's controls. In fact, Lovell suggests that even before Earhart became an aviatrix, Lovell had already begun to pen the supposed autobiography of Amelia's first flight, which would propel her to world fame. After gaining fame as a pioneer of women's liberation, Earhart was called to speak to countless audiences, and became a tireless endorser of everything from cigarettes to clothes.

Although Lovell includes an appendix delineating the various conspiracy theories that have surrounded Earhart's final disappearance, the technical aspects of the aviator's final flight and disappearance in the South Seas tend to fall to the side as the narrative unfolds. Lovell continually questions Earhart's ability to effectively fly a plane, although not Earhart's apparently genuine enthusiasm for flying. At times, by attributing Earhart's fame solely to Putnam's publicity machine, rather than to the concrete accomplishments of her life, Lowell seems determined to deflate Earhart's legacy, rather than critically examine Earhart's legacy in the history of aviation. Also, although Lovell notes that other women pilots might have possessed more genuine credentials than Earhart, the author's failure to give these women equal textual attention makes Lovell's own text seem to have an anti-feminist tone.

Whatever Earhart's ability, there can be no doubt that Earhart was a tireless advocate for women's rights with the fame she gained. Earhart supported equal rights for women, and did not change her name after marrying, although Lovell believes this was merely because Putnam had decided that changing Earhart's surname would impact and damage the Earhart name 'brand.' Admittedly, however, in Lovell's favor, even Earhart called herself little more than baggage her first famous flight in 1928…… [read more]


Esol What Is the First Step Term Paper

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ESOL

What is the first step in getting a child identified as in need of ESOL services?

The first step in identifying students with limited English proficiency is to screen all students from a non-English language background" whose main language is not English, where English is not spoken in the home as the primary language, or who speak a language other than English in most of their daily social interactions ("Step One: Identification." State of Vermont: Education, 1994).

Explain what the difference is between Deep Culture and Surface Culture. Give 3 examples of each.

Deep culture relates to "the non-tangible aspects of culture such as feelings, emotions, attitudes and rules for interaction. They are not seen at the surface level and they are not taught," while surface culture is merely "the visible aspects of culture such as food art, dress, holidays, language," or what one might call the trappings of culture and cultural difference ("ESL Terminology," ESL Terms, University of Vermont, 2007).

What are stereotypes and why are they dangerous?

Stereotypes…… [read more]


Stereotypes Conflict Resolution Involves a Constructive Approach Term Paper

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Stereotypes

Conflict resolution involves a constructive approach to interpersonal and inter-group conflicts which is directed at helping people with opposing positions work together in order to agree on acceptable compromise solutions for all the parties involved. (Swisher, 1997).

It has been stated that in detention centers implementing conflict resolution means changing the institutions' approach to internal conflicts from a punitive one to one that uses problem-solving methods. In such settings conflict resolution programs are meant to supplement the existing disciplinary policies and procedures (Crawford and Bodine, 1996). Conflict resolution has been recognized to be an effective practice for youth that demonstrated self-destructive, antisocial, or violent behavior. Like most programs designed for adolescents, an effective intervention program is meant to take into consideration the psychological needs and the developmental stage of the youth. In detention centers, but in other settings as well, some of the most important ethical principles that should be taken into consideration when dealing with inter-group conflict among adolescents are diversity and tolerance.

The most common disputes that arise in a juvenile facility setting are: name calling, serious "horseplay," and conflicts over common daily things such as time at the pool table or in the weight room, a chance to watch a favorite television program, the attention of a popular counselor, or access to supplies such as toiletries (Crawford and Bodine, 1996). The effects of these aggressive behaviors are: prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. It has been recognized as a main source of these conflicts the low self-esteem, common among youth in detention centers. The problems become more serious and call for intervention since almost all of the institutionalized young boys are gang affiliated. Therefore, it is important to design interventions for groups, inter-groups and individuals. At an individual level, the most common intervention strategies involve giving youth a chance to take on a positive role, learn verbal skills, and overcome violent tendencies by learning problem resolution strategies, self-control, and decision-making skills.

Research emphasized the role of six principles of effective contact to reduce prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. A counselor in a detention institution should establish, based on research, the following goals:

Break existing negative stereotypes. Such a goal may be accomplished by exposing the youth to different media materials or movies involving stereotyping and discrimination. An information brief about the difference between these concepts may be delivered by the counselor at the beginning. Such an activity will give them the opportunity to consider the other's point-of-view, and to reach mutually satisfactory agreements in which all parties win. At the end, they may be divided in pairs, containing members in different gangs, and may be asked to identify a positive quality in the other person.

Support participants with…… [read more]


Deviance and the Internet Term Paper

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Psychology - Deviance and the Internet

Deviance and the Internet

Deviance is the act or behavior of one, which is out of the context of a social, professional, or other perceived norm. Deviance can be attributed to an individual in correlation to a variety of different categories. In terms of technological based applications and communications, deviance can be ever-present and continually apparent. The internet is a prime example of an area where deviance is displayed. The internet has a plethora of different aspects where one would be full capable of taking advantage of a deviant behavior, act, or expression. The internet allows for individuals to communication in many ways with others who are or will be engaged in internet activity. There are areas where chatting with numerous individuals is possible. There are ways of obtaining information about nearly every conceivable matter. The internet allows an almost unending expanse of open availability to anyone that connects to it. Deviance and the internet are uniquely connected in such expansive ways that the consideration of the two is significant enough to substantiate a concise and in-depth look into the problems that lay within their entire concept.

Search Engine Results:

In searching the internet, I utilized the search options available through Google. Using the phrase; "Cheating, Essays and the Internet," an abundance of websites were displayed with what seems to be an unending source of information about students cheating through the use of the internet and services provided on the internet. An amazing amount of sites also appeared through this search that specifically offered cheating with their essays. There were sites, such as www.gate.netoffering free downloadable essays. There were also sites, such as www.***.comthat charged for essays of any type or subject. All of these sites - free or by fee - offered complete assistance to students looking to have a project finished for them. They claim that no subject, length, or content is beyond their availability. Each site indicated a procedure for obtaining the information from the student in order to provide full on cheating for their assignment.

Who Is Cheating?

Based on the cost of some of these services, I would assume that the individuals that are taking advantage of such services are more likely to be of a higher middle-class to upper-class descent because…… [read more]


Social Sciences Term Paper

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Social Sciences

Why are the social sciences governed by a system of rules? Why is methodology and application important in our pursuit to understand human behavior? How can statistics help to explain social facts? Does common sense play a factor in exploring human beings? Explain.

Like the natural sciences, the social sciences also attempt to explain real, measurable behavior in the world. Even though human behavior may be more difficult to isolate in the laboratory, more subject to multiple exterior influences in the 'field' of lived experience, and less predictable and uniform in its behavior than microbes and molecules, this is all the more reason for studying human behavior in a systematized fashion. It helps make sense of what often seems chaotic and unpredictable, when viewed anecdotally. If social sciences like psychology aspire to be useful and prescriptive, experimental studies and observations must be subject to controls and prove hypotheses with the same rigor as the natural sciences.

Useful research in the social science that makes prescriptive conclusions cannot be purely anecdotal, although case studies have their place within the social sciences. But even in a case study, statistics can support the conclusions of the observer. For example, the proposal that Swedish teenagers growing up in a more open sexual environment are more likely to take responsibility for their sexuality might…… [read more]


Social Science Theories Term Paper

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Social Sciences

Research is the backbone of science, which is defined by its trust in empirical evidence. The social sciences demand different types of experimental designs than the hard sciences. Biology and chemistry often yield cut-and-dry results that can be unequivocally observed, calculated, and replicated. The social sciences are more limited in the ways studies can be designed. Ethical considerations might prevent researchers from being able to test a new pharmaceutical intervention or conduct a study involving children. Moreover, human beings are not robots. Our reactions in different social situations cannot be predicted with complete accuracy. One person's behavior can change dramatically over the course of a few years or even within the same day. Human beings are complex, and the social sciences can only attempt to codify and classify as accurately as a biologist can. However, research remains the core of the social sciences just as it is for any other scientific endeavor. Research helps social scientists formulate theories, and research is also essential for substantiating…… [read more]


Angelina Jolie Term Paper

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Angelina Jolie celebrity can be defined as a person who enjoys a high amount of notoriety, a socially visible individual on whom public attention and admiration, focuses on. Celebrity comes from the Latin word celeber meaning celebrated, famous ("Celebrity"), cherished. In order to be considered a celebrity, one must arouse the public's attention by doing or saying something out of… [read more]


Princess Diana Term Paper

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Speech

The Passion of a Princess

It is rare in today's world for leaders -- true leaders -- to emerge and set standards for how other people ought to be treated. People who take risks are few and far between. Yet, sometimes a person who has been lucky in life has a passion for humanity that is not dampened by the criticism of the media. They take the necessary steps to use any influence they have to help others. Diana, Princess of Wales, was one of those people.

Like any royal or famous wedding, Princess Diana's marriage to Prince Charles brought incredible media attention. It would have been easy for her to casually enjoy her wealth and status like many other famous people. Instead, Diana became interested in how she could help others. Her charity work frequently focused on children, and often on helping those who, without people like her, would live painfully and briefly.

Diana had no intention of ignoring the painful things in the world. In fact, she made incredible efforts to change things for the…… [read more]


Communication Is the Exchange of Information Term Paper

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¶ … Communication is the exchange of information between two people. Ti represents an agreement as to what the meaning and context of words and phrases mean. Language is imprecise and there are many differences in what a particular word means. Some words and phrases change meaning depending on the situation. Others are misused and after some time lose there meaning altogether. Empirical research depends on the ability to isolate that which is being studied. In order to do this it is important to know what is being studied in the first place. Operational definitions clear up any ambiguity in terminology and help to clearly define the hypothesis and parameters of the research study.

Question 2. Quantitative research is the traditional accepted research method. It is used when the data can be easily transformed into a numerical form. Quantitative research gives the researcher better control over the research environment. The end result is dependent upon a decision that is based on statistical analysis and the ability to meet certain criterion. Quantitative research follows a rigid structure that places an emphasis on isolation of the independent and dependent variables (Creswell, 2003). However, the results of quantitative studies may be limited to sample populations that resemble the study population.

This type of research is good for questions that begin, "Is there..." Or "Does." However, they often do not give the insight needed to solve a particular problem. For instance, if one wishes to explore the reasons why someone makes a decision, the data often cannot be assigned a numerical value. Human actions are based on too many variables to allow for quantitative methods to be applied (Berg, 2004). This is where the qualitative study comes into play. The qualitative study takes away some of the control that the researcher has on the project, but it provides more in-depth knowledge. The process typically involves a well-defined observation or coding of essay type answers to look for patterns. Qualitative studies are often more able to be generalized to the population at large because they measure the subject in a real-world setting (Creswell, 2003).

Question 3.

Historical.

This research design has the advantage that it reflects a real-world scenario. One of the key disadvantages is that the researcher has absolutely no control over the experimental process or variables. The researcher must be careful in validity issues. They must carefully consider the effects of second-hand interpretation on the data (Roth, 2005).

Longitudinal. This type of study has the advantage of being able to measure change over time. It is an excellent way to measure cause and effect over a period of time. It has the advantage of being more predictive in nature than other research types. The researcher may or may not have control over the study, depending on the subject matter. Often the researcher cannot control variables as precisely as with the true experimental model.

Case and Field. This type of study has the advantage of observing the subject matter in a real-world situation (Roth,… [read more]


August Wilson and Fatherhood Term Paper

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¶ … Fences by August Wilson [...] his opinion and vision of fatherhood in the story. It will also incorporate what critics think about his vision of fatherhood. August Wilson's opinion of fatherhood in this play is quite cynical. His portrayal of Troy Maxson is at least partially based on his own strained relationship with his stepfather. His hope is… [read more]


Reliability and Validity Trochim (2007) Thesis

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The measure given to children in one school should not differ too greater if it is given to children in a second school. The measure accurately measures the same construct in different locations it then becomes reliable. The author identifies four types of reliability, inter-rater or inter-observer reliability, test retest reliability, parallel forms reliability, and internal consistency reliability.

Inter-rater or inter-observer reliability provides a measure of the extent to which different individuals provide a consistent estimate of the same phenomenon. When behavior is observed, it is very possible that different persons will understand and interpret the behavior differently. In attempting to understand power relations within the prison system multiple observers can be employed to explore how prisoners are treated by guards and the response of the prisoners to the treatment. This particular component is important in qualitative research designs that depend heavily on participant observation, or other methods of data collection that rely on observation by researchers. Test retest reliability is demonstrated when the same test is applied to the same group or a similar group and the results examined. The correlation between the scores is a measure of the reliability of the measurement instrument. Test retest reliability can be seen in the examination of parental influence on delinquency. The parents could be given the same test to establish parental attitudes and its link to juvenile delinquency.

Parallel forms reliability requires that the researcher compare two forms of the same thing. If a researcher was interested in recidivism and created a measure to predict recidivism in inmates the components of the measure could be divided into two parts forming two parallel measures. When these measures are tested on the group, the results should be very similar. Internal consistency reliability looks at how well measures in an instrument measure the same construct. The instrument used to measure recidivism could be examined for internal consistency by not dividing the measures but looking at them in the same questionnaire. The data are collected from the group in a single instance but the measures are tested against each other for consistency.

Random error is the product of factors that influence the scores in a data set in a random manner (Creswell, 1994). These factors may inflate or deflate the values of scores across the data set. Random error does not have the same effect on scores within the data. Random error adds to the variability within the set of data but it does not affect the mean of the data because it essentially negates itself. Systematic error is the result of factors that affect the scores in a data set in an organized manner. Because of systematic error the scores will either all be higher or lower than they should be. This artificial increase or decrease in the set of scores is called bias.

Measurement error can be reduced through a number of approaches the first is the pilot testing of the instrument. The proper training of the interviewers will ensure that there is… [read more]


Social Science Methods a Comparison Term Paper

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Critical social science is distinct in its prescriptive agenda -- it does not see social science as a mere collection of knowledge, but as a tool to empower social change especially among the oppressed. Though it does believe that human behavior is subject to certain laws and influences, it also asserts that individuals can act against these constrictions in order to affect change. In its attitude about the freedom of the human will, critical social science resembles interpretative social science, which sees human behavior as a collection of voluntary decisions. Interpretive social science considers human action as a reflection of underlying systems of meaning within human consciousness, and much of the focus of the interpretive social scientist is on motives and expectations. While the critical approach also focuses on actions as expressions of meaning, it sees this meaning as an illusion perpetrated by cultural power structures in order to maintain their power. The goal of the critical social scientist is to discover these mythological paradigms of meaning in order to dismantle them and promote change in the underlying power structures.

Because of its vision of human behavior and action as constantly evolving and subject to powerful cultural influences which must be acknowledged and resisted, critical social science differs from the positivist and interpretative approaches in that it must also view its own actions as culturally bound and subject to illusion. The critical social scientist must not only examine external human behavior in order to uncover reality and affect change -- he must also constantly examine his own actions and assumptions as a scientist and be willing to acknowledge cultural influences and illusions within his own system.… [read more]


Humanities Importance Capstone Project

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Like Paul's and Muriel's fantasies, the image of Marilyn is mass-produced.

It is also a vision of what many Americans aspire to -- celebrity in popular culture.

Anyone can buy Marilyn's image -- just like Paul and Muriel strive to buy an image of beauty and success.

"In doing so, Warhol moves away from the elitist avant-garde tradition" by critiquing mass culture (Saari 1997).

The emptiness of pop culture and how a person is rendered into a crayon-colored celebrity is embodied in the Marilyn works.

Warhol's tone is parodic, however, and does not critique Marilyn (as Cather does with Paul) or celebrate even the rejection of mass culture, as Muriel does by the end of the film.

Analysis

All three works function as a critique of mass production and celebrity and the excesses of selling an image.

Rather than fostering connections with 'real' human beings, Paul, Muriel, and Marilyn search (and ultimately fail to find) fulfillment in mass-produced cultural images of beauty.

All works contain a certain degree of humor and satire -- Cather satirizes Paul's manner. And attitude and those who regard him as special when they believe he is a rich young man as well as Paul's vague hope that he will somehow avoid detection of his crime.

Muriel is sympathetic because she is overweight, but also parodied in terms of how she dresses and appears on screen.

Marilyn's tragic fate as an object in the eyes of American culture makes Warhol's use of her as a commodity in his art sympathetic. People say they empathize with Marilyn, but continue to buy her image.

However, in Muriel's Wedding the protagonist is shown to be capable of change. Because Muriel, unlike Paul, can reach out to people and make genuine friends, she learns that the life she has idealized in wedding magazines isn't as perfect as she hoped, even after she marries

Warhol, in contrast to the fictional mediums of short stories and films, does not encourage the gazer to identify with Marilyn. Instead, he encourages the viewer to coolly and dispassionately consider Marilyn's fate, how she is used, and how the gazer might desire her -- or desire to be a celebrity like her.

The meaning of a visual work is more equivocal than either a short story or a film -- Warhol's attitude towards Marilyn is very ambiguous.

Reflection

All of these works of art are more relevant than ever before, given that the Internet and reality TV makes it easier to become a 'celebrity.'

Human beings have a desire to express themselves, to be regarded, and to feel valuable.

Paul, Muriel, and Marilyn did not feel as if they were worthy human beings in and of themselves, rather they had to prove their worth by embodying a culture ideal of being 'better' than others, either through the embrace of an artistic lifestyle, beauty, or being a movie star.

There is humor in satire in all of the works in terms of how it reflects the modern… [read more]


Rich Study of How People Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (700 words)
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¶ … rich study of how people in a canon or village bordering North Ireland in Britain experienced terrorist's activities from the IRA during the past 10 years, and whether they feel the threat has slackened or increased.

I would employ a phenomenological approach using the hermeneutic method since this method is best for understanding description of lived experience in regards to methods that include observation, interviews, discussion, and participant involvement. The objective is 'to get into' the subject, understand him or her as best as possible, in order to understand her perspective and interpret him as he does himself. According to Schleirmacher (Crotty, 1998), hermeneutics provides us with an understanding of the world-view of the author as well as of the particular 'controlling idea' driving his ore intentions and of the community in which he or she functions. In this way, it will serve as tool for enabling me to get into the matter addressed in their language (that which they are trying to articulate, as well (according to Schleiermacher) the hermeneutics of their spirit (i.e. that which lies behind their words and which they are unable to articulate).

Method

I will first conduct a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject, as well as investigation the impact of the IRA's activities on their neighboring area in specific and details of the IRAs activities as a whole. I will solely investigate the history of the conflict as well as the manner in which it has been played out and impact on Britain.

I will study 58 individuals living in a town close to N. Ireland with semi-structured interviews touching on sociological and political issues in order to assess whether they felt that level of terrorism has declined or exacerbated during last ten years. The individuals will range from 20 older and will be a demographic range of individuals. They may be a randomized sample or non-probability, such as convenience. Aside from their age range, literacy in English, and normal intelligence levels needed to participate in interview, there will be no other excluding criteria.

All will sign consent forms…… [read more]


Ethical Concerns and the IRB Essay

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The IRBs also work to ensure that each human subject or research participant signs a consent form saying that they agree to the study. Each subject has to consent to the study, and has to have a clear understanding of the information to which he or she is agreeing. Those consent forms must often be kept for a specific period of time, and because they generally carry some personal information, they have to be secured by the researcher. That makes sense for medical trials and other types of experiments, but it does not make sense for surveys and questionnaires. By filling out the survey or questionnaire, the participants are, in fact, giving their consent for that information to be used by the researcher. If they did not consent to the use of their information, they would simply not fill out the survey or questionnaire that was offered to them.

When researchers plan to do studies, they can often find out more and discover new and important information when they are able to do more than just review literature that was written in the past. Unfortunately, there are more researchers focusing on the literature review method today because they do not have to concern themselves with the IRB process if they simply examine existing information. As soon as they decide that current human beings are going to be involved in the study and used for data collection, they have to face the IRB process and regulations. Many of them are simply unwilling to do this, because they fail to see the need for that kind of process when it comes to surveys or questionnaires. By excluding oral history from the IRB review process, the way has been paved for the exclusion of other kinds of oral and written information to be offered for research studies without the need for consent forms and IRB regulations.

Many researchers go into the IRB process with high hopes, because they see it as only part of the process and they are not yet aware of how difficult it can be to work with a review board in order to get approval to continue on with their study. By adjusting the regulations and avoiding the need for the IRB process with studies that use questionnaires and surveys, many more researchers will benefit. The public will also benefit, because research studies can provide them with information that can be valuable to their daily lives - but only if that information is located, analyzed, and released to them in a timely manner. Without the need for the IRB process, that release of information can take place. There are no worries about unethical behavior, because no human subjects are actually used in the study. The researcher is only collecting information that was willingly offered.

References

Part 56 - Institutional Review Board. (1991). Food and Drug Administration (United States).

Pope, T.M. (2009). Multi-institutional healthcare ethics committees: The procedurally fair internal dispute resolution mechanism. 31 Campbell Law Review, 257-331.

Ritchie, D.,… [read more]


Theories You Selected Essay

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While Case's article deals with recidivism in a criminal context, it could be applied to other areas as well. As Dovydaitis points out, the intervention of a health care professional can break the "recidivism" of a sex slave because 28% of them see such a professional at the height of their captivity (Dovydaitis, 2011, 462).

In using the Tangenberg approach to combat trafficking, the theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration has the potential to harness the great power of faith in the war against human trafficking. As they point out, the great social movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were largely powered by religion as a progressive force. For instance, as Tangenberg documents, scholars such as Simon in 1994 have attributed empowerment practice ideology in the context of social workers to Quaker beliefs which found God in every person as the source of this empowerment. As the 19th century progressed and reactive philosophies such as Social Darwinism arose, so did progressive religious forces such as the Social Gospel.

The ecosystems perspective to social work appeared in the 1970s and 1980s. This plus postmodernism in the 1980s and 1990s led to a resurgence of interest in spiritual forces in social work (Tangenberg, 2005, 198). Tangenberg uses such modern examples as the Jackson Center that while faith-based does not proselytize, even it is affiliated with a large Protestant organization (ibid. 204).

As stated earlier, traditional social theory and contemporary social work theory must be used in tandem to have a complete "tool kit." In this way, the social worker can have the best of both worlds in the deliverance of high quality, professional, yet spiritually stimulating service to social work clients in holistic manner that befits… [read more]


Self and Others Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 3

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By participating in the self-examination and highlighting those areas that would be important to this writer as a client in a professional social work relationship if helps to facilitate further assessment and self-evaluation of those potential factors, issues, prejudices, stereotypes, and/or biases that this writer would need to be cognizant of in practice.

Continual self-assessment is very important in being able to 'step on the other side of the aisle' and see professional social work relationships from the client's perspective. In doing so, practitioners are then able to keep issues such as social justice, cultural competence, respect, and the clients' needs as the preeminent factors in a client-practitioner relationship.

Works cited

Webster's Dictionary

Dietz, C., & Thompson, D. (2004). Rethinking boundaries: ethical dilemmas in the social

Worker-client relationship. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 15(2),

1-24.

Epstein, M. (1999). The development and validation of a scale to assess the emotional and behavioral strengths of children and adolescents. Remedial and Special Education, 5, 258-262.

Moule, J. (2012). Cultural competence: A primer for educators. Wadsworth/Cengage,

Belmont, CA.

National Association of Social Workers (1999). Code of…… [read more]


Mental View of New York Through Words Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … mental view of New York through words. It breaks down three aspects of New York by painting a mental picture of the skyline and the harbor, a homeless man, and a photo of Bergdorf's and ascribing New York characteristics to these three images.

New York Descriptive Essay

Massive, crowded, urban, gateway to America, the Big Apple, Gotham City, city of lost souls, and city of dreams; these are all words or phrases often used to describe New York. New York is the original melting pot and the first place that many see as they arrive in America. It has become an iconic image in the minds of many when thinking of America, the last stop for lost souls, and the epitome of excess and high living.

Standing on a rooftop overlooking the city, one sees mile after mile of skyscrapers. The architecture is as varied as the times in which the structures were built. The styles also reflect the various cultures of people who inhabit these buildings and the level of upkeep and maintenance points to the prosperity of the inhabitants. These buildings appear to be built on top of one another because they are so close together and the various heights and juxtaposition make the skyline look like a mountain range of building blocks. When viewed at twilight facing the harbor, one envisions the first immigrants making that first stop at Ellis Island, awaiting their chance at the land of opportunity and one can only imagine what the view from their position on Ellis Island must have been, how imposing, how magnificent, how daunting.

New York, the entrance to the American Dream for many can make or break the dreaming aspirant. As the song goes, "If I can make it there, I'll make it anywhere…," is true for many who are striving for the best of life. Unfortunately, many don't make it. They fall through the cracks for various reasons and become homeless people on the streets of New York, a huge frightening place from their perspective. A city riddled with crime, throngs of strangers never acknowledging one another as walk the streets. Strangers always averting their eyes or staring straight ahead so as to avoid the look from the homeless guy in the wheelchair. How did he come…… [read more]


Updike vs. Petry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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In one passage Petry shows Johnson's frustration, and some of the anger that is building up inside him: "he pushed the cart out on the concrete floor, thinking that if this was his plant he'd make a lot of changes in it."

Petry likens the anger that is building up in Johnson to a "winding sheet." At the end, he beats Mae, and cannot stop himself. "The knowledge that he had struck her seeped through him slowly and he was appalled but he couldn't drag his hands away from her face."

The biggest contrast in these two stories is how the main characters deal with their anger and frustration. They are both dissatisfied, unhappy, and want to change. Sammy has the ability to quit his job. Johnson does not. He cannot survive without it, and this is part of his frustration with the "system." He is a poor black man who is tired of people calling him a "nigger," including Mae, and this finally sends him over the edge. She says, "You're nothing but an old hungry nigger trying to act tough and…." His anger and frustration have nowhere to go for release, so he beats his wife uncontrollably.

Sammy, on the other hand, knows he has a future, and has taken the first step toward it. He leaves the A&P feeling somewhat like a "hero," because he has defended the girls, and stood up for something he believes in. He may not have made the right choice, but at least he took a stand.

We are left feeling that Johnson will never grow, or come to grips with his anger and frustration; he will consistently blame it on his race, and racism. Sammy, on the other hand, will make something of himself, because he is able to grow and learn from his environment.… [read more]


Coding and Data Collecting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Coding and Collecting Data for Qualitative Study Designs

Qualitative research often deals with social phenomenon, leaving its data that is utilized to be incredibly abstract. As a result, the clear cut statistical measurements of quantitative methodologies are not always appropriate for research and data analysis within a social sciences context that deals with these social phenomena. Thus, qualitative data collection and analysis becomes a key feature in contemporary research, which allows researchers to collect more abstract forms of data, and then code it into categories where meaningful concepts can be drawn about the nature of the phenomenon itself.

Data collection becomes an essential, yet difficult task within the context of qualitative analysis. The data researchers encounter in this area of research is often very abstract, and unable to be entirely quantified to fit into the specific needs of certain statistical analysis models. Qualitative data is often collected through survey or interview questions that researchers make sure to remain open ended. In this, participants are allowed greater freedom in expressing their opinions and answers regarding the nature of the questions they are being asked. Yet, this data is notoriously difficult to arrange in any sort of meaningful way were assumptions can be made by the research team. To handle this, many researchers turn towards coding this abstract data into meaningful categories so that they are able to make correlations and understand relationships between core concepts. Coding requires that researchers use frequently used words or concepts to separate answers or participant responses into particular categories. Once these categories have been laid out, researchers can then turn their work on finding the relationships among these categories that help answer the underlying questions driving the research.

One successful coding methodology for qualitative research is the use of grounded theory. This relatively new field of qualitative methodology focuses on taking the abstract and quantifying it to a degree where researchers can categorize and code survey and interview responses as to make meaningful connections between them. There are several rounds of coding that take place…… [read more]