Study "Sociology / Society" Essays 661-715

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Social Warfare Essay

… Social Work and Welfare

The fundamental nature of social control can be associated with persuasions over what people are concerned about; what their principles are, and what's imperative to them. Systems of social control have advanced as a mixture of evolutionary human qualities, institutional arrangements, and absolute conspiratorial maneuverings. Truth advancers are devoted to tearing down social control, reaching for true personal liberty, and promoting others to do the same (Social Control, 2007).

The social work occupation encourages societal alteration, trouble resolving in human associations and the empowerment and freedom of individuals to improve happiness. Using theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intercedes at the positions where individuals cooperate with their surroundings. Standards of human rights and social righteousness are essential to social work. The social worker's job is to work beside individuals in order to help them construct resilience, uphold hope and optimism and expand their power and capabilities. Social workers must meet individuals on their own conditions, in their own surroundings at the same time as preserving the professional disconnection needed to help people who utilize services to appreciate, come to terms with or alter their behavior (Chapter 4: The role of the social worker, 2006).

Social workers also have a role as representatives of social control. They must deal with and confront behavior and administer circumstances of danger and indecision. In this function they have statutory powers to act to defend people or communities. They are personally linked with the administration of risk and with the difficult consequences of things going wrong in people's lives. This equilibrium between care and control is possibly the defining characteristic of social work and offers a dynamic pressure which influences workload, precedence's and public awareness of the position (Chapter 4: The role of the social worker, 2006).

Social control theory looks at how the founding of policies and standards within a society provide to uphold a level of conventionality and order. The theory says that social strength depends on the prospects and duties that people hold towards one…… [read more]

Stereotype Threat the Different Social Essay

… I want to seem like a person who doesn't act my age, because to many people I still look like I'm in high school, so it's very important to appear mature and grounded. As for my minority status, it only really matters on paper because I am very mixed race and it is hard to "tell" what I am without asking me. As far as if this is the "real me," I believe it is. I have always been more mature than my age, which I believe it my nature and not anything I've perceived as a stereotype that I need to overcome.

Some personal experience that I have had with stereotypes has to do with my age and dealing with professors at the university. I remember I was having some issues in a math class (another stereotype for women). I was having an issue with the way the professor was grading tests and letting us know what our grade was, and it seemed to be taking forever. I didn't actually know where I stood in the class until almost two months into the semester. Finally, I went to the head of the Math Department to complain, and the lecture I got from the Math Chairman was unbelievable! I really thought I was getting a lecture from my own father with the attitude this man was giving me! I left there feeling so down because I didn't get to express my true disappointment with the way the class was being run. I felt like I couldn't get any results from talking to this man because he was just going to sit there and basically tell me that I was too young to know anything, that I should not complain and respect the math professor I had because "he is the best in my eyes."

In short, I do not think that my experiences with stereotypes have affected me in ways that it has for other groups. I sincerely hope that society can move past these pre-determined notions about people, because as the article points out, it really is detrimental to performance on important tests.

Works Cited

Steele, C.M. (1997). A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613-629.… [read more]

Corporate Welfare vs. Other Welfare Programs Essay

… Corporate Welfare vs. Social Welfare

It has become fashionable to assume that government-supported welfare programs primarily support the poor. It is also often assumed that these welfare programs discourage the welfare recipients from becoming responsible citizens who are willing to work and take care of themselves. But the reality is much more complicated. There are many government programs that benefit the middle class and the top rich. In fact, available data suggests that more money is taken from government revenues that support the rich rather than the poor. Moreover, welfare programs targeting the poor also support the middle class and the rich. So, the welfare programs in the United States are increasingly taking the form of corporate welfare rather than social welfare programs.

Social welfare programs, as defined by Macionis, are "organized efforts by government, private organizations, or individuals to assist needy people considered worthy of assistance" (43). These take forms of cash grants, subsidies, or food distribution programs that benefit the needy persons. In a more religious sense, social welfare may be defined as "food to the hungry, health care to the sick, water to the thirsty, welcome to the stranger, clothing to the naked, presence with the imprisoned, shelter to the homeless" (Wildman). But the welfare systems -- for example, in the United States -- do not function in that manner because of two main reasons. Firstly, the American society places much emphasis on such values as individualism, privacy, and free markets. And secondly, the government is controlled by the affluent people who cherish these values. As a result, the welfare system in the United States may be described as corporate welfare: "governmental benefits given to corporations that are not available to individuals or other groups" (Lauer & Lauer 178).

According to Macionis, government-run welfare programs have three characteristics. Firstly, these programs target people or activities that the public defines as worthy. Sometimes, the public may decide that certain low-income families or poor single mothers are worthy of support. But because of popular objections to social welfare, sometimes the public, or the government…… [read more]

Poverty in America Essay

… Where education and hard work were once "steady paths to economic success," they "no longer lead as far as they once did" (Lindsey).

Both authors pinpoint the cause of poverty to the social class structures created between high society and everyone else. Presently, even those of the middle class are finding it more difficult to break barriers, some of which are even considered living "in poverty" depending on the neighborhood. Most of the class structures and social differences that Iceland and Lindsey point out are the same; that inequality in accordance to relative poverty lie in the fault of social structures in culture, ethnicity, race, and gender. There is still unequal access to economic and educational opportunities for African-Americans, Hispanics, women -- particularly single mothers --, and children. Mostly they are deterred by various tools of inequality; bias, discrimination, and sexual harassment are only some aspects. Children growing up in these types of homes would also lack the proper ties and access to education and economic opportunities, continuing the long-standing tradition of poverty in the country.

Poverty in the U.S. is a result of social structures more so than one of economic severity. Sure, there is a distinct difference between an individual who can pay his or her bills on time vs. one who has to rely on welfare funds to continue on day-to-day activities. But relative poverty is a gray subject matter in and of itself. A neighborhood filled with wealthy inhabitants can perceive someone of middle-class rank to live a life of poverty -- clearly their necessities are different from the middle class. Again, social structure and relative location tend to be a major variable in poverty in America.


Iceland, John. Poverty in America: a Handbook. Berkeley: University of California, 2006. Print.

Lindsey, Duncan. Child Poverty and Inequality: Securing a Better Future for America's Children. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009.…… [read more]

American Culture Is the Result Essay

… The future becomes the goal and the present becomes just something Americans have to get through so they reach the future. This creates a certain amount of impermanence in American society. Because the future will be better, whatever needs to be done, however destructive, can be justified in order to create the future. In this way Americans are destroying the future in order to create the future, thereby creating a never ending journey toward a future that is impossible to achieve. American culture risks being in a constant state of transition, never achieving the goal of permanence, but always moving toward a future that is just out of reach.

The result of this paradoxical society is what George Will described in his article Comfort as "social hypochondria:" a society which is completely dissatisfied with the state of their being, even though it is better than anything that has come before. And he is right, Americans are constantly complaining about the inadequacies and injustices of a society that is wealthier and freer than ever before in human history. But because Americans are fixated on the future and how much better it will be, they must find "wrongs" in the present to "fix," no matter how small or insignificant. And Americans are helped along in their hypochondria by the intellectuals, lawyers, politicians, and media who all profit from the wrongs in society that must be "fixed." American society is change, but if Americans do not decide what they want to change into, the future will never be attained. A vague concept of a brighter future cannot be all that America stands for, if Americans are ever to be rooted in their culture they need a focused goal, something concrete which can be…… [read more]

Organization Policy in Australian Company Assessment

… Organization Policy in Australian Company

Australia is illustrious for its multicultural population and country's steady commitment in holding back equality and insertion of national interest in Australia's multicultural environment. Since 1945, the total number of people migrated to Australia is… [read more]

Selfishness Like Any Other Sort Essay

… What, for example, do we make of suicide? This must be an expression of individual will, yet it is not an activity that the state allows to exist unregulated, and committing suicide is not defined as a right. It is, in fact, a gesture of the individual's abdication from the state, and if we permitted the free exercise of such then it is possible that the state would collapse entirely: no-one considers it a good idea for the American government to encourage suicide. But there are so many different forms of suicide, it becomes hard to say whether suicide represents selfishness in its most socially problematic form. If I may take one ambiguous example, as presented in history and literature, then I would suggest an examination of the case of Giles Corey -- a real-world victim of the seventeenth century Salem witch trials, also depicted in Arthur Miller's classic drama about those trials, The Crucible. The litigious Corey, falsely accused of witchcraft, decides to respond with a form of passive resistance during the trial, refusing to give evidence which may incriminate him. Because of his litigious nature, it can be argued that Corey knows well the legal penalty for his failure to speak: it is the archaic method of "peine forte et dure" which entails physical torture of the subject by piling stones upon his chest in an effort to force testimony. Yet Giles Corey -- in life as in Arthur Miller's play -- refused to speak unto the very end of his life: his only words are the grim invitation for… [read more]

How People We Admire Are Negative or Positive Essay

… ¶ … United States, the so-called "cult of celebrity" means that people who become famous gain a popular following regardless of why they may have become famous. Once they achieve popular notoriety, they become influential models for the rest of society; that is why they are recruited my consumer goods manufacturers as celebrity endorsers of their products. The general public seems to value anything said by almost anybody who is famous even if whatever they happen to be famous for has nothing to do with their intelligence or understanding. The current Twitter phenomenon provides a perfect example: disgrace golfer Tiger Woods, troubled actor Charlie Sheen, and television curiosity "Snookie" each has many times the numbers of Twitter followers as most tenured college professors.

The cult of personality is bad enough when it results in admiration for people who have never done anything particularly worthwhile to justify their admiration by others. It is only that much worse when their celebrity status results in their admiration even after they have been publicly exposed as shameless chronic adulterers, drug users and physical abusers of women, and as drunken fools. In the case of sports stars, their public influence may be completely out of line with anything of value they have ever achieved off the playing field: many of them are sought after for speaking engagements despite the fact that they have nothing of particular value to say about anything outside of their sport. In fact, some of them may have little to say of value even about the sport that made them household names.

By far, the worst modern example of the way that superficial fame dwarfs all other considerations may be the case of O.J. Simpson. In the 1970s, he was one of the nation's best National Football League (NFL) players. After his retirement, he went on to a lucrative career as a celebrity sports commentator and as a highly-paid endorser of consumer products such as shaving cream and luggage; he also served on the Board of Directors of a major company. In 1994, he butchered his ex-wife and another person, a waiter named Ron Goldman, apparently in a fit of jealous rage. He was eventually acquitted in the murder trial when the prosecution failed to prove his guilt. However, he was later found responsible for the deaths of both victims in a civil trial for wrongful death. Today, Simpson is serving a term of incarceration in Nevada in connection with his use of a gun to threaten someone over some of his former belongings that the individual had obtained legally after they were sold off to pay part of…… [read more]

Andrew Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth Essay

… Gospel of Wealth or Justification for Poverty

Just interest on huge scale enterprises is always a substantial return, if a man does not earn this much the business is bankrupt. Men who are extremely skilled in managing in large scale should be pain handsomely for their skill. To Carnegie the fact that there would be a few who rose to such heights as to earn more money than they could spend in their own lifetime is not only inevitable it is a sign of the times and a demonstration of both the success of capitalism and society and be offered the opportunity to learn and be creative. According to Carnegie's acceptance of the concept of Social Darwinism, the combining of a free market society and survival of the fittest, (Norton et. al. 487) he believed that;

"It is a law, as certain as any of the others named, that men possessed of this peculiar talent for affairs, under the free play of economic forces must, of necessity, soon be in receipt of more revenue than can be judiciously expended upon themselves; and this law is as beneficial for the race as the others...." (52)

Without men in society who had exorbitant amounts of money there would be no patrons of the arts and no places where the masses could meet to celebrate the victories of society, i.e. material and manufacture success.

To further this idea and to reassert the moral obligation of those who amass great wealth due to their natural "talents" Carnegie stresses the need for these individuals to, while living use the same "talents" by which they amassed their wealth to dispense of it for the greater good.

"There are but three modes in which surplus wealth can…… [read more]

Welfare Policies From Urban Injustice How Ghettos Happen by David Hilfiker Book Review

… Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen

It is author David Hilfiker's considered, well-researched and respected opinion that most Americans do not have a good understanding of the primary causes of poverty. The author / doctor suggests that the primary causes of… [read more]

Social Dynamics Have Resulted in Disparities Essay

… ¶ … social dynamics have resulted in disparities in individual income in several countries .In Canada for example, it has been noted that there is a decline in the size of the middle class and an increase in the gap… [read more]

East Asian History Essay

… East Asian History

Karl Marx and Max Weber were undoubtedly two of the most important writers in the evolution of social sciences, politics, economics and history of the last 150 years and set the course for new ways in which to analyze almost all tracks of the academic life.

In regards to social history, Karl Marx recreated the methods to understand the past and argued through his new methodological approach that the study of society, economics and history should start from the idea that "It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness." (Marx, 1972) Marx went further and created the classical terms of "production relations" and "class struggle" that went on and became basic principles of the communist regimes that started at the beginning of the 20th century. From a social historical analysis perspective, Marx argued that the foundation of civilization is generation and reproduction of resources that create the social relations and social stratification that, later on, create inter-class conflict and inter-states conflict.

On this idea, Max Weber argued that not all development of societies is connected with economy and production relations and that capitalism was fostered by a religious movement -- Protestantism. (Weber, 2005)

Current social history has gained a lot from these two important philosophers yet the question of validity is permanent. How valid and significant can these two types of analysis be in the modern historiography? Although seen in many circles as outdated and misused too many times, Marxism type of historiography is still a significant as it offers the tools to understand mass movements within a social system, even if these seem reductionist. In a 1971 paper, E.P. Thompson, talking about 18th century social movements, argues that Marxist analysis on history is reductionist as it obliterates "the complexities of motive, behaviour, and function, which, if they noted it in the work of their marxist analogues, would make them protest." (Thompson, 1971) in an attempt to reconstruct the understanding mechanisms of social history, the German sociologist and philosopher Jurgen Habermas argues that what is needed in Marx's legacy for the present is the human element. He argues for a more philosophical and less positivist approach, and also presents the case of the significance of knowledge…… [read more]

Ageism Is the Stereotype of Older Persons Discussion Chapter

… Ageism is the stereotype of older persons and it is something that is pervasive in our culture. In a society where youth and beauty is so admired and coveted, older persons are left to feel worthless and often feel invisible to younger people. When people say, "You look so young," they believe that they are giving a person a compliment because to look young is to be worthwhile. Being and looking young is so much more about just the way one looks. To be young is to embody possibilities, opportunities, attractiveness, and worthiness, among other things. However, for the person hearing, "You look so young," the "compliment" can be taken in one of a couple of ways. While the person may feel complimented, when thinking more profoundly about it, it also tends to say that it's a good thing he or she does look young, or else they'd look old and that would be something not good. We are prejudiced against older people in our culture because it is a collective social perception that young is better than old and this is something that is repeated to us via the media.

An interesting aspect of racism, according to Nelson (2004, x) is that it is unlike other types of stereotyping -- say, racism or sexism -- because the "in-group (the young) will eventually (if they are fortunate) become a member of the out-group (older persons)." Because of this fact, ageism seems quite strange because young people will eventually become a part of a group in which they feel prejudice for . If people were to stop and think about Nelson's statement, they would either adopt another attitude or pray to die young (which seems altogether foolish).

Perhaps ageism is due to the fact that seeing older persons who have lost their beauty, their ability to get around, and sometimes, their ability to function mentally, inspires fear and anxiety in younger people. They don't want to become that person who can't…… [read more]

Equiano's Awareness of His Lowly Status Essay

… ¶ … Equiano's awareness of his lowly status as a slave impel him to turn to a European religion; adopt European (capitalist) business practices; and become an 'individual' in the European and/or Enlightenment sense of that term? Do you think Equiano abandoned his 'roots,' by participating enthusiastically in European wars, religion, and commerce (including the slave trade), etc. Did he 'sell out' to some extent? Obviously, Equiano is a complex character. He was an abolitionist but he also participated in the slave trade and advocated the colonization of Africa (at the end of his memoir).

A former African slave among whites

Olaudah Equiano's autobiography is one of the first to have been written by an African-American and the first important slave autobiography, considering its influence on society as a whole. Although it is difficult to determine the writer's position in regard to the commercial character of slavery and slave-related businesses at the time, it is obvious that ending the institution was among his most praised goals. His choice to get actively involved in the European society is most probably proof of his desire to adapt to a particular community without letting preconceptions guide his behavior.

There have been several cases when Equiano was naively led to believe that it would be best for him to engage in supporting activities apparently meant to improve conditions for African people, only to find that the European society was less interested in investing in programs and more concerned about getting rid of people who were formerly slaves. Giving his rather beneficial relationship with those who owned him, it is very probable that the writer was primarily focused on improving living conditions for African slaves from around the world. Regardless of the motives behind writing the autobiography, it rapidly came to be appreciated by the contemporary society and in addition to the revenues it generated, it is considered to have been one of the main reasons for which the European community (the English community in particular) started to promote abolitionist convictions.

Equiano's choice to profit as a result of the knowledge he accumulated through the years does not necessarily have to be seen from the perspective of a biased anti-slavery individual. It is likely that he recognized the fact that there was little that he as an individual could do for his counterparts being sold and tortured around the world. As a result, he concentrated on bettering his condition, as he knew that capitalism was primarily based on one's influence in society.

In an environment valuing concepts like money, reputation, and social status in general, Equiano needed to do anything in his power to have those around him see him differently. His involvement in the slave business and his determination to support African colonization can be attributed to his concern about improving conditions for slaves. He was aware that it was very unlikely for slavery to be abolished during his lifetime and thus struggled to pave the way for the future.

One cannot blame Equiano… [read more]

Propaganda and Persuasion Term Paper

… After all, what better method for a population to accept a human ruler when convinced there is an afterlife with yet another ruler whom is judging the population on how well they adhere to a doctrine.

Symbolic Interactionists assign roles based on their current involvement in society. A sort of chameleon, the individual will believe in the following adage 'when in Rome, do as the Romans do'. This is to mean that if religion in a given region is the dominant purveyor of social class, status, and is the ultimate dictator of the freedom of human interaction, then visiting individuals and those subject to the will of the majority will ascribe to the status quo if it is a religiously indoctrinated into society. Therefore, action within this framework will limit individual judgment and emotion to remain within the parameters of what is expected based on the subscribed religion.

The Structural Functionalist will view society as a function of interrelated parts, a sort of nexus where parts are integrated into a holistic system of interaction, order, and response. Religion within this framework is seen to have a function for those individuals that do not adopt to any other form of societal influence or personal code/doctrine.… [read more]

Social Stratification Indicate the Determinants Case Study

… Social Stratification

Indicate the determinants of social status and class in the United States

The three primary determinants of social status and class in the United States are money, power, and culture. Of course, while these three qualities are often interrelated, and possessed by the same individuals, they are not necessarily synonymous. For example, Wall Street investment bankers may have money, and political lobbying power, but they do not possess the same level of power as a Senator or Congressperson. While many politicians have used their affluence to catapult them to the higher echelons of power in the U.S., few have the wealth of a Warren Buffett. Conversely, some figures (such as Lady Gaga or John Stewart) might not have formal power or the greatest wealth in the nation, but command a substantial cultural following and media power.

Identify the characteristics of the different social classes in the United States

Class in the United States is usually divided into the poor, middle, and upper classes. The poor have no assets, and are often dependent upon social welfare simply to 'get by.' Existence is a hand-to-mouth affair, and one health or economic crisis can entirely destroy a poor family, financially. The middle class have some assets, but also have some debt, and have slightly more power in terms of their ability to influence people in power in a social fashion and gain a foothold in the upper class (usually through education or investment). However, it is rare that members of the middle class break into the institutions of the elite. The upper class has great wealth and also connections at the nation's major educational, financial, and political centers.

Structure-functionalism and conflict theory on stratification and class

Conflict theory views class conflict as inevitable -- all three classes have mutually competing interests. The upper class wishes to limit access by the middle class to better places to live and go to school, and thus limit the middle classes' occupational advancement. The middle class defines itself culturally 'against' the lower classes' values as a way of protecting its fragile legitimacy. This stands in profound contrast to a functionalist view of how society 'helps' the poor through social welfare programs, and offers opportunities for advancement…… [read more]

Investigating the Life of Welfare Recipients Research Paper

… ¶ … Lives of Welfare Recipients

Investigating the Life of Welfare Recipients

It is a common assumption that more African-Americans are on welfare than any other race. We tend to believe this because of the stereotypes we see in the… [read more]

Construction of Masculinity in Relation to Michael Kaufman's Triad of Men's Violence Essay

… Masculinity

Violence and Masculinity

In his essay, "The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men's Violence," Michael Kauffman asserts that there are three types of violence that society ultimately creates as a part of masculinity, and that all three of these violence types are interrelated and part of the same problem. Kauffman identifies this triad of violence as consisting of violence against women, violence against other men, and violence against themselves, and he goes on to demonstrate many different areas of society -- sports, the military, even industrialization and capitalism -- contribute to the idea that aggression must equal success. This aggression truly comes, in Kauffman's view, from increased repression; this same repression shows up as extreme passivity in women, yet extreme aggression in men. In some senses, it is the very act of repression that causes the specific outlet, as in when a boy is told that expressing emotions of sadness, fear, or even mercy are not "manly" -- the opposite emotions of stoicism, disregard of danger, and the triumph of strength instead reign supreme.

This begins at a very young age in Western society, with the indoctrination of young boys in the sports culture that dominates the way most schoolboys are judged to greater or lesser degrees. Though Michael Messner does not comment on the violence that is an inherent feature of many sports, his makes a compelling case for viewing organized sports as a decidedly gendered institution that sets up a system of ranking and judgment for men in our society, and this certainly could be seen as a precursor to male violence against other men. Judgment is not base don individual performance, that…… [read more]

Discrimination De Facto vs. De Jure Research Paper

… Discrimination de facto vs. de jure

The practice of discrimination involves two dynamic elements. The elements come together to produce discriminatory practices and beliefs. The idea of de facto discrimination is drawn from the behaviors of persons and does not essentially find congruence within the legal framework. De jure discrimination is enshrined and codified in some legal structure and is administered through the court system. The challenge however is that while courts can easily correct de jure discrimination by adjusting laws and removing statutes that are hostile to a particular segment of the society. De facto discrimination may continue long after the legal hindrances are removed. Thus de facto discrimination has a more lasting effect upon society.

De jure discrimination refers to any form of discrimination or inequitable treatment of persons or groups that is founded in the law or supported by government policy or action. The most potent example of de jure discrimination occurs in observation of the Jim Crow laws in the United States.

The Jim Crow laws refer not to a specific individual but the entrenched legal framework of discrimination, degradation, humiliation and depersonalization that occurred in the post slavery era within the United States (Godsil 506). These laws regulated the lives of African-Americans and were inherently racist and segregationist. Thus you have a situation of de jure discrimination.

A major element of the de jure system of discrimination is that the power imbalances between individuals is maintained and supported by judicial and other institutions. This is a serious problem because in such as system individuals are unable to gain adequate redress since the problem is systemic and the possible solutions are unavailable to the powerless. This situation adequately describes the rise of the civil rights movement. The civil rights movement was a response to the problem of not having an adequate avenue to address legitimate discriminatory practices.

One of the major tools of the civil rights movement was non-violent protest. This approach was necessary because the leaders found that the legal system had failed to protect the rights of African-American or to guarantee equality under the law. The ideological stance of the justices on many courts seemed to run counter to the desires of minority groups (Romero 292). The courts were overwhelmingly white, and under those conditions, particularly in the Southern part of the United States it was difficult for a Black person to receive what might be considered a fair trial. The courts were at times unwittingly and in other cases deliberately promoting and supporting a system of entrenched discrimination.

De facto discrimination refers to discriminatory actions that are not part of any legal code by are discriminatory in practice. There is no legal code that can be referenced as a support for the action and it derives its authority from social forces. It can also be considered as discrimination that occurs under the surface of the legal structure. As a part of the mosaic of de facto discrimination a minority group may be prevented… [read more]

Panopticism the Brooklyn Daily Eagle July 29 Essay

… Panopticism

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle July 29, 1900, article "Points-of-View" discuses elements that can be better understood from the perspective of Panopticism. People living contemporary to the article were apparently devoted to restructuring society and shaping it as they considered… [read more]

Welfare Economics Research Paper

… Welfare Economics

In many sectors of the modern world, the success of a nation in raising its standards of living, in achieving socioeconomic equality or in reaching a point of sustainable resource distribution is considered relative to its treatment of its poorest citizens. That is, how a nation addresses publicly, legislatively and fiscally the needs of its most impoverished citizens can often be viewed as a telling indicator as to its broader social and economic progress on the whole. This is an underlying philosophical imperative in the discussion on welfare economics and denotes that for many nations, the public assistance and support given to those in high areas of need is considered a shared responsibility. In yet other nations, particularly those which embrace most aggressively the theoretical aims of free market capitalism, there is a view of welfare as a secondary goal to the overarching interest of general economic growth. These divergent perspectives underscore an ongoing debate with roots in longstanding pertinence to public administration and national distribution of wealth. Indeed, these underline the more general discussion on what is meant by social welfare and how this is evaluated through public channels.

Therefore, we first proceed with a core definition of the concept of social welfare, which our reading reports is the indicator by which living standards are assessed across individual units of the population. As the text by EEA (1994) indicates, "welfare economics is concerned with the welfare of individuals, as opposed to groups, communities, or societies because it assumes that the individual is the basic unit of measurement. It also assumes that individuals are the best judges of their own welfare, that people will prefer greater welfare to less welfare, and that welfare can be adequately measured either in dollars (or some other unit of currency) or as a relative preference." (p. 1)

Here, we come to understand welfare not just as referring to the public support of the poorest individuals but as a way of rating the relative experience of all individuals rich and poor. In this regard, the gaps which are revealed between rich and poor and the distribution of populations across this continuum can be demonstrative of how a nation or society has selected to approach the issue of social welfare. As the EEA text indicates, the approach which is taken to this matter may be shaped by one of a number of critical social theories. The two models which are regarded here as most frequently in circulation are those referred to as the Neo-Classical and New Welfare approaches to social welfare.

The former of these is based on the notion that each individual carries a certain utility in the well-being of a society as a whole and that, therefore, understanding the welfare of a society may best be accommodating by measuring the sum total of utilities represented by individuals. This denotes that the advancement in the utility of any and all members of society is seen as a primary impetus for social welfare. The… [read more]

Individual Versus Established Order Essay

… Social Order and Justice: An Exploration of Adaptability and Applicability

The idea of implied social order dates back to the earliest civilizations. Order and justice were used as concepts to help structure society, and as people began to develop technologically and culturally, the ideas of personal and social order began to diverge to the points they are at today. Personal order and justice may not mean the same thing to everyone as social order and justice. What is good for the individual is not always good for the whole of society, and vice versa. Without a doubt, there have been points in history where social and personal order and justice have converged and diverged. Depending on the situation, order and justice can be defined in many different ways according to different people and different necessities. AS old as the stories may be, there are still many relevant modern-day conclusions that can be draw from both. The parallels that the authors as well as the characters in the stories feel are uncanny and help to drive readers to their own conclusions about the relationship between personal and social justice and order.

Sophecles's Electra is a story about deceit, murder, and personal order and justice. The central character fakes his own death in order to vie for the throne. After his intentions are revealed, and his family finds out he is really alive, they begin to reconstruct their surroundings by killing another person and trying to pass the body as Orestes. In this story, the idea of personal order and justice is explored. Orestes and his partners in the plot lie and deceive his own family members in order to maintain social order. In their own judgment this is justified in order to reach the throne. As Machiavellian as it seems, for Orestes, the ends justify the means. This is one example of how personal justice and order overcome the social morals and order of the day.

The Art of War, written more than two thousand five hundred years ago, is another exercise in personal justice and order. Just as Orestes adapted his story and actions to the changing plot of the story in Electra, author Sun Tzu argues that war strategy is important, but not because…… [read more]

Louis Pojman Do We Deserve What We Earn Essay


According to Louis Pojman's 1999 essay Merit: Why Do We Value It?, society should reward individuals for the extent to which they contribute to the betterment of society and the welfare of the human community. Likewise, society should punish individuals who contribute negatively to the community in proportion to their harmful conduct. Undoubtedly, there is a satisfying element of fairness, or as Pojman refers to it, of just deserts to that dynamic. Indeed, it is entirely consistent with the general proverbial concept of "Karma" as a means of ensuring a far balance of good and evil in human affairs. Since there is absolutely no evidence of any divine or controlled mechanism to implement karma, Pojman's approach would impose that result by direct human action.

Conceptual Criticism

Critics of Pojman's view suggest that the "lottery of underserved" talents and abilities concept to which he refers substantially determine the direction of the lives of individuals and that the most significant differences between the quality that they add to society (or extract from it, as the case may be) are largely out of their control. In that sense, the talented intellectual deserves no more to be rewarded for the completely natural (if not inevitable) course of his life than the petty criminal deserves to be punished for the most natural course of his life.

In principle, none of us is responsible for the mix of talents and limitations that facilitate or inhibit our successful contribution of something of value to our societies, precisely because we are born with them. Many of those influences on the course of our respective lives not attributable directly to biology are associated with elements of our external environment and our family and developmental circumstances. According to that view, the manner in which the individual contributes positively or negatively to society is merely a manifestation of the mathematical or statistical outcome dictated by inputs in the realm of natural (i.e. hereditary and other biological and physiological) attributes combined with the realm of external circumstances into which the individual is born. Since the individual is morally responsible for neither element, it is unjust to excessively reward or (especially) to punish any individual for the quality of his or her contribution to society. The renowned physicist and philosopher Albert Einstein (1879-1955) made precisely that point in explaining some of the reasons he absolutely rejected any notion of a conscious, observing, and judgmental "god" who rewarded and punished human behavior.

"A God who rewards and punishes is inconceivable to [me] for the simple reason that a man's actions are determined by…… [read more]

Darwin's Metaphor the Survival of the Fittest Essay

… Darwins Metaphor: The Survival of the Fitest

Darwin's Metaphor: The Survival of the Fittest

Ever since the beginning of time human communities guided themselves according to the theory relating to how only the fittest survived. While matters were critical in the early ages, the present situation is somewhat different, but the theory can still be applied. In the modern human society, the people who are more successful are typically those who are more capable to perform certain tasks. In contrast, being unqualified means that one is likely to end up in less welcoming conditions.

Canadian and American societies perfectly exemplify the theory that only the fittest survive. Although the term "survive" is not exactly the best to describe the difference between those who make it and those who do not, it nonetheless succeeds in providing a better understanding of human behavior in most circumstances.

Society functions depending on a series of factors, one of them being that the people most likely to become leaders (or simply to become able to sustain themselves) are those who go through great efforts to do so. However, in order to become self-sustainable one first has to have the qualities needed to do so. Luck only accounts for a small part of living, as people have to do the rest, meaning that they have to use their talents in order to achieve success in their enterprise.

When having related to how only the fittest survive, Darwin most probably looked into the animal reign, seeing how an individual had to have a series of abilities in order to continue to exist. In the human society, mental and physical abilities justify an individual's success. When these two are deficient, the individual is most likely to come across difficulties in…… [read more]

Guns, Germs, and Steel Summary of Author Book Review

… Guns, Germs, And Steel

Summary of Author's Thesis

The author's main thesis is that the substantial differences in the development of various societies and peoples throughout the history of mankind is largely a function of natural phenomena such as climate and the availability of particular kinds of plant and animal resources in specific geographic regions. According to Diamond, his research expressly refutes the beliefs, (particularly popular during the European colonial and imperial age) that the very different levels of societal development and sophistication are attributable to inherent differences between people in general or to the supposed intellectual superiority of Europeans over nomadic "bush people" in particular. The author acknowledges that superior technology such as metallurgy (especially in connection with weapons and seagoing transportation) allowed the European explorers to quickly subdue and dominate the peoples of foreign lands. However, he regards those factors as merely the result of more fundamental differences, such as the comparative ease or difficulty of growing edible crops and domesticating indigenous animal species.

Structure Summary

The author provides separate outlines of the major factors that, according to him, are responsible for the different development rates of various societies by virtue of their natural region. He traces the earliest history of Homo sapiens, the connection between natural plant and animal resources and societal development, and the specific ways that abundance and shortage of various types of crops and animal species contributed to the direction and rate of the growth of human societies in different geographical regions. Diamond also traces the way epidemic diseases developed and influenced societies and their interrelations that lead to the dominance of some by others, also for reasons having more to do with biology and immunology than…… [read more]

Statistical Analysis Is Recession Raises Poverty Rate Term Paper

… ¶ … statistical analysis is "Recession Raises Poverty Rate to a 15-Year High" by Erik Eckholm. This article appeared in the New York Times on September 16, 2010. The author provided an exposition of the statistics for poverty provided by the Census Bureau for the year 2009. In his assessment, the author identified key socioeconomic variables that have changed. In the main, the use of the statistical data by the author conformed closely to the appropriate use of descriptive statistics articulated in the course.

The data presented in the article were coopted from the "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009." The report contains data on "income, poverty, and health insurance coverage for the United States. The data were collected as part of the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC).The U.S. Census Bureau conducted the study. The data were collected from fifty states and 100,000 addresses were sampled. The majority of the data were collected in March 2010. The report presented descriptive statistics in the form of text, tables, and charts. The comparative elements of the report were tested statistically, and are significant at the 90% confidence level.

The author made use of descriptive statistics in the form of percentages, and measures of central tendency such as the median. Proportions were also presented in a comparative fashion. Percentages along with actual counts were used to demonstrate that more Americans are living below the poverty line. An example of this usage occurred where the author stated that 14.3% of the American population were living below the poverty line, this percentage represented millions of individuals. Median values were presented for income. The author stated that median income values have not risen between 2008 and 2009. The failure of median income values to rise suggested that the middle class was now stagnating.

The statistics used in this article were employed to support the thesis that poverty is increasing to unprecedented levels for all ethnicities across America. Present levels of poverty were compared to historical highs…… [read more]

Teacher With Respect to Social Order Essay

… ¶ … Teacher With Respect to Social Order

The Teacher's Role in Defining Social Order -- With Power Comes Responsibility

In primitive human societies children were socialized into their communities through a natural process of encountering and relating to adults in their culture (Einstein in Rooney, 2006; Russell, 1961). In modern society, a substantial portion of the early socialization process takes place in the context of formal education, elevating teachers automatically into positions of power and authority both generally and also with respect to the way that young students develop perceptions about various aspects of society, including the social order (Einstein in Rooney, 2006; Russell, 1961). In that regard, teachers may often be the most direct influence, second only to parents, on the way that children learn to view and think about their society (Mooney, 2005; Sagan, 1997). That power can be used to promote socially beneficial and productive concepts and perspectives but it can just as easily be corrupted to infect young minds with immoral and pathological ideas, beliefs, and values (Einstein, 1954; Sagan, 1997).

A classic example of the socially beneficial and productive use of the teacher's role in defining the social order would be the way that fundamental changes in American society in the second half of the 20th century are reflected in contemporary values as expressed, taught, and reinforced throughout education today. Specifically, American social values with respect to civil rights, (especially in connection with race and ethnicity) have changed radically with racial and ethnic equality and mutual respect having been elevated to the highest level of priority in society. Teachers play a tremendous role in promoting those values within education (Feldman, 2005).

The opposite is also true: namely, teachers can misuse their role to promote destructive ideas. Pacifists like Albert Einstein (1954; in Rooney, 2006) wrote passionately about the use of formal educational institutions to inculcate young people…… [read more]

Corporate Social Responsibility Issues Research Paper

… Corporate Social Responsibility

The Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility of Celebrity Endorsements

The world is more transparent than ever before, as consumers demand that celebrities who espouse a given set of values actually live by them (Dodds, 2008). The concept of celebrity addiction or seeking to further fame purely for the self-aggrandizement of their own personal brands is increasingly not tolerated by many members of the public, who reject celebrities seen as duplicitous and false (Choi, Berger, 2010). The connection between a celebrities "brand" or reputation and the socially responsible values they espouse must be aligned with each other if product endorsements are to be believed (Trimble, Rifon, 2006). The credibility of not only the celebrity but also the brand is at stake. For a brand to get the full value of a celebrity endorser, a foundation of trust for that brand must first exist, and the endorsement must be a contributing, not detracting, factor. The intent of this analysis is to explain the factors from a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) standpoint that must guide celebrity endorsements including the monetary levels they encompass. As celebrity endorsements can be over $60M or more as is the case with basketball player LeBron James and Nike for example (Choi, Berger, 2010) the question of whether these funds would be better used to ensure more compliance to CSR initiatives globally for the sportswear manufacturer need to be addressed (Boje, Khan, 2009). The funds spent across the entire group of Nike athletes could be better spent making the lives of thousands of workers in the supply chain better.

The Needs of Many vs. The Celebrity of One

At the center of the CSR debate over celebrity endorsements is the fact that many organizations have supply chains that lack consistency and uniformity of practice on key social responsibility dimensions. Nike, with its long reputation fox child labor and tolerance of unethical supply chain, sourcing and production practices, is a case in point (Boje, Khan, 2009). A study by Boje and Khan (2009) have found that celebrity endorsements actually encourage and promote child labor in 3rd world nations by suppliers who use these endorsements as a means to recruit under-age workers (Boje, Khan, 2009).

Instead of allowing this practice to occur, Nike needs to redefine its CSR priorities and focus first on how to enrich the lives of many suppliers, their employees and members of their supply chains, and partners. Continuing to tolerate a lack of CSR compliance while at the same time investing in celebrity sponsorships undermines trust in a brand (Babiak, Wolfe, 2009). For a CSR program to be effective, celebrity endorsers need to be relied on to strengthen and promote the message of social responsibility, not exist separate or in spite of it…… [read more]

Royal Patronage of 17th Century Natural Philosophers Scientists Term Paper

… Royal Patronage of 17th Century Natural Philosophers (scientists)

During the 17th century, many educated Europeans in France and Great Britain developed a hunger for knowledge and truth seeking. These natural philosophers gave rise to science and to the technological developments… [read more]

Genre Over the Last 60 Years Term Paper

… Genre

Over the last 60 years, television has played a major role within society, where the way various ideas or groups are represented will reflect cultural attitudes and thoughts. As a result, various televisions shows have been utilized to underscore the overall changing nature of cultural trends. Where, each of these different shows represents a microcosm of: the various socially acceptable norms within society at the time. To fully understand how television represents these shifting cultural norms requires examining episodes of: Mary Tyler Moore (Love is All Around), Seinfeld (the Cigar Store Indian), All in the Family (Meet the Bunkers), and I Love Lucy (Job Switching). At which point, there will be an emphasis on: how these shows are the same, different, how cultural groups are represented and how has this changed. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insight, as to how television reflects the changing cultural attitudes and norms within society.

How are the Television Shows the Same?

The basic comedy style format for these different television genres are still the same. Where, the will follow the standard format of showing the relationship between the different characters and the way they interact with one another, as way to generate humor. An example of this can be seen with comparing: All in the Family (Meet the Bunkers) with Seinfeld (the Cigar Store Indian). Where, the episode of Meet the Bunkers shows the unique relationship that the family has, with a whole host of views ranging from: religion to the government. ("Meet the Bunkers") the episode of the Cigar Store Indian; shows the same kind unique relationship that everyone has. With the main theme focused on how the different personalities react to the cigar store Indian. ("The Cigar Store Indian") These two episodes are following a similar format, where the genre is based upon the relationship that the individuals have with each other and the events that are occurring. The different views and how everyone reacts to them is: the basic formula that all of the shows will use.

How are they different?

Each of the shows is different, because they represent a microcosm of the cultural norms / traditions in society. For example, in the episode of I Love Lucy (Switching Jobs) and Mary Tyler Moore (Love is All Around), it highlights the overall changing role of the woman. In Switching Jobs, the woman is expected to be subservient to the man. Where, Lucy and Ethel are unable to work at the candy factory, resulting in them opting to take care of the…… [read more]

Dr. Kings Persona in Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay


In his 1963 Letter from Birmingham Jail, Dr. Martin Luther King represents the African-American community as a whole when he writes his fellow clergymen and indeed all Americans. Starting off and finishing the letter in the first person singular, Dr. King proceeds to switch to the first person plural for much of the meat of the letter. This change in point-of-view adds power to the piece, signaling solidarity and racial pride. The tone of Dr. King's Letter from Birmingham Jail is at once confident, defiant, and at times arrogant. His lyrical prose stands on its own as testimony to the speaker's ethos, but the emotional power of King's writing depends largely on the writer's ability to harmonize anger with hope.

One of the main ways Martin Luther King, Jr. blends anger with hope is by writing with a clear note of confidence. King oozes confidence from the opening paragraph of his Letter, when he states, "Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work," (para. 1). Here, King makes sure to mention that he has secretaries. He places himself in a position of power and thus does not allow his white audience to look down on him as a petty criminal rotting away in an Alabama jail. Similarly, King concludes the Letter from Birmingham Jail by stating simply: "If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me," (para. 48). By saying this, King subtly underscores the defiant tone of the essay.

King's defiance and anger is often expressed as sarcasm in the Letter. Sarcasm enhances the tone of the letter without detracting from the underlying hopefulness. Towards the end of the letter, the author states,…… [read more]

Social Mobility Research Proposal

… Social Mobility


In conducting any type of study, the researcher chooses his or her topic for a variety of reasons. In addition to personal interest, academic viability and applicability is also an important consideration for the choice… [read more]

Rules America? G. William Domhoff's Sociological Analysis Book Report

… ¶ … Rules America?

G. William Domhoff's sociological analysis Who Rules America? argues that the reins of power within America are tightly controlled by the interests of corporations, the financial industry, and members of America's elite 'upper class.' While officially America is supposed to be a classless society, Domhoff argues that the nation is actually polarized in a classic 'haves' versus 'have-nots' conflict. The representatives of labor and other disenfranchised groups (such as women and ethnic and racial minorities) attempt to gain power by pressuring the political system to raise taxes on the wealthy and elite institutions and distribute benefits and opportunities more fairly throughout society. However, conservative and corporate interests (including so-called 'agri-business') attempt to retain their stronghold upon power through deregulation and limiting access to elected and unelected positions within government institutions.

Empirical evidence that Domhoff provides to support his general argument

Argument 1: Wealth distribution

1% of households (the upper class) own one-half of all stocks, financial securities, trust equities, two-thirds of existing business equity, and 36% of all real estate in America (Domhoff 66).

Argument 2: Stability of wealth

1.6% of Americans receive $100,000 or more in inheritance money. Passing on the benefits of being members of an elite from generation to generation is thus a critical part of American economic life. Another 1.1% of the population receives $50,000 to $100,000 in inheritance. Yet the vast majority of Americans, 91.9%, receive nothing (Domhoff 66). These statistics fly in the face of the notion that it is common to be a self-made person in America: most entrepreneurs have the benefit of at least some inherited wealth.

Argument 3: Dominance of elite institutions

1/3 of the individuals who oversee the largest corporate firms in America attended Yale, Harvard, or Princeton, and the rest attended other elite schools (Domhoff 64). Attending an elite institution gives an individual access to social networking opportunities as well as teaches him or her how to behave in elite society.

Argument 4: Concentration of corporate power

15-20% of all corporate directors sit on one or more corporate boards. This also illustrates how economic power held by only a small number of individuals in America: the idea that a small businessperson can 'make it big' is unlikely, given the concentration of corporate wealth and power in the nation (Domhoff 15).

Argument 5: The myth of immigration

While the common ideal of an immigrant may be someone who came over the Atlantic with 'nothing,' contrary to the stereotype, most immigrants came over with at least some inherited wealth (Domhoff 58).

President Obama, his cabinet and Supreme Court appointments (Sotomayor)

President Obama is an African-American who has faced prejudice and discrimination in his life. However, his father pursued PhD studies at Harvard and his mother was an academic. While not of a classically privileged background, Obama has had more advantages than the 'average' person, as well as possesses undergraduate and graduate degrees from two Ivy League institutions (Obama, Biography, 2010). Hillary Clinton, Obama's Secretary of State, is… [read more]

Social Research the Modern Day Consumer Essay

… ¶ … Social Research

The modern day consumer is more pretentious than the consumer of two decades ago and this modification can be attributed to elements such as globalization and market liberalization, increasing competition among product or service providers and… [read more]

Oprah Winfrey Show Essay

… Oprah Winfrey Show

Oprah Winfrey

Television and Oprah

In order to discuss and understand the influence that the Oprah Winfrey show has had on society, not only in America but in many other areas of the world, one first has… [read more]

Pathways to Self-Empowerment Reaction Paper

… Human Resources

Pathways to Self-Empowerment

Self-empowerment is a way or a means to a way that a person can gain strength within their selves in order to overcome obstacles or challenges that they face in their daily life. These problems can be anything from addiction, obsession, and destructive behavior to feeling powerlessness. The first step to self-empowerment is: to know one's self. A person's weaknesses, their characters, their fears, their obstacles, their wisdom, and their strength can be answered by the question that they ask them self: Who am I? Once one knows who they are, they can pick up any area that you want to improve and work on it, and move to the next one and so on (Cheung, n.d.).

There are essentially four levels of empowerment:

Physical Empowerment -- this includes a person's life, their health and their physical environment

Emotional Empowerment -- this consists of a person having emotional balance

Mental Empowerment -- this consists of one having power over the thoughts that are in their head

Spiritual Empowerment -- this consists of a person having alignment with their spirituality (Self-Empowerment Guide, 2009).

When people are born they are given guidelines from society in which to follow. These guidelines indicate which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. A system of rewards and punishments is set up in order to support people to serve and hold up the existing social order. This controlled indoctrination is a necessary part of building a social order that allows a steady and sustainable civilization. If it wasn't for this structure, anarchy would reign. It is the indoctrinated mass who forms the backbone of a society, maintaining the social structure and brings about its values. Yet, this pervasive indoctrination demands a toll on the autonomy of the individual that becomes evident very early in life (Landrum, n.d.).

By the time a person reaches puberty, they have become used to surrendering…… [read more]

Scientific Research Must Be Rooted in Empirical Research Paper

… ¶ … scientific research must be rooted in empirical and objective practices in order for the results to be valid and repeatable. Not all research can be conducted, nor all data analyzed, by quantitative means, however -- that is, by the quantification of the "what" and "how" elements of a given event, trend, phenomenon, etc., and trying to establish the far more elusive and often more pressing "why" (Ereaut 2007). Seeking a deeper truth than that which can be expressed through numbers and hard data might seem to be beyond the strict boundaries of science, yet many highly pertinent questions about the world and society in which the human species live cannot be answered without such investigation (Greenhalgh & Taylor 1997). The many different theories, methods, and instruments of quantitative research have been developed and continuously fine-tuned and debated in order to better provide objective and empirical -- i.e. scientific -- answers to such questions.

Discussion or focus groups are one common means of conducting qualitative research; the selection of a relatively small number of participants and prompting with questions in a fairly unstructured manner can be highly effective at creating dialogue and an in-depth investigation of people's attitudes and beliefs on certain issues (ORAU 2010). Sampling issues need to be addressed in focus groups as well as in all qualitative surveys, as ensuring that an accurate representative population is collected is key to ensuring the validity and applicability of the results of qualitative research (FHI 2003). As scientific validity is the driving force behind the development of qualitative research methods, its preservation in qualitative studies is paramount.

The process of obtaining and analyzing data in a qualitative study must itself be rendered explicit and richly detailed in the communication of that data and/or its findings, as well as in the collection of this data in many instances, so that it can be understood in its proper context and therefore less easily misapplied or misconstrued (Myers 2002). The restrictions and limitations of any particular study, that is, must be given careful attention in any explanation of the results, to avoid the potential that the results could prove misleading. This and other principles of qualitative research can actually be seen in action on an almost daily basis in many environments, as decisions in business and in personal life are explained through a series of observations, analyses, and conclusions (Ereaut 2007). This means that qualitative research is not only necessary; it is entirely unavoidable.

This does not mean that qualitative research is easily or simply carried out, however, and many consideration must be made in order to obtain scientifically valid results. In addition to the sample size and…… [read more]

Deviant Behavior Term Paper

… Thio's Deviant Behavior, Tenth Ed. Chapters Nine through Fifteen Review

Thio begins chapter 9 by exploring the many common types of heterosexual deviance including extramarital sex, pornography, and other internet related sexual deviance. While the last topic is a relatively new occurrence that have stemmed from the rise of computers and the internet, the other two are not. In fact, author Thio also explores the oldest form of sexual deviance, prostitution. Each of these specific topics represent cultural norms, values, and mores and the author does an excellent job of outlining both the cultural and objective threats and concerns surrounding each behavior.

Chapter 10 deals with homosexual deviance. Many societies and individuals consider homosexuality to be deviant in and of itself, but there are specific behaviors outlined by Thio that contribute even further to the deviant image of this population. There are many myths and misunderstandings that shroud the homosexual lifestyle and many people do not understand that sexual orientation is not always a black and white topic. Thio does an excellent job of describing how homosexuality, because of its differences and general unfamiliarity with the core populations of societies throughout history, has not been very well discussed or dealt with, especially in modern times. The author talks about AIDs and HIV in this chapter as well and also helps to explain how homophobia, most often considered a deviant behavior itself, plays a large role in the social definition of how people deal with issues relating to homosexuality.

The next chapter in Thio's book focuses on drug use. Different types of drugs have different usage profiles, and in most cultures, these different types also hold differing deviance values. The social constructs of deviance surrounding drugs is also explored at length. The argument that some drugs are both outlawed and discouraged for both political and cultural reasons is also discussed. Thio uses a comprehensive explanation of the drugs' effects and user profiles to build a foundation in which the reader feels more comfortable assessing for themselves the actual deviant value of specific types of drug use. The author also discusses the War on Drugs and how, after many decades, this war has become a lost cause. The theory behind this political and social move within the U.S. is explored and Thio relates many examples of how the War on Drugs and the laws surround specific types of drug use harm certain parts of the U.S. population but not others. For example, the way that crack users and dealers were punished much more harshly than those that dealt or used powder cocaine, reflecting a specific targeting of a population. Cigarette smoking, as discussed by Thio is a bit of a pseudo-deviant…… [read more]

Media's Stereotypical Portrayal of Blacks and Minorities Term Paper

… Media's Stereotyical Portrayal Of Blacks And Minorities

The debate over representation in any medium dates back to the time of the ancient Greeks. Aristotle posited that among living beings, humans inclined "most towards representation" and learned their "first lessons through… [read more]

Walden My Hope for a Better World Essay

… Walden

My hope for a better world involves a process of deliberation in all affairs, including enjoyment. As it stands, the world moves too quickly. Much like the lives of houseflies, we move about a relatively short period of time,… [read more]

Working Conditions of the "Lowell Mills Girls Essay

… ¶ … Working Conditions of the "Lowell Mills Girls" on Marx and Engels

In the Communist Manifesto Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels frame the history of society as the struggle for class dominance, an uninterrupted struggle between oppressor and the oppressed.

In her autobiography Harriet Robinson recounts the working conditions of the textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts between 1832 and 1848.

The working conditions Robinson describes are indicative of the struggle depicted by Marx and Engel.

Marx and Engels' assert modern Industrial society (1848) is only different from past societies in that now the social order has been reduced down to two classes. They briefly recount the transition from Roman social order; patricians, knights, plebeians, and slaves, into the feudal society of the Middle Ages with lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices and serfs into the bourgeoisie, or those whose income comes from doing business, and the proletariat, those whose income comes from wages.

In her autobiography Robinson speaks of the changes the industrial revolution brought to north east. She describes a labor shortage that attracted farmers, mechanics sons, and lonely and dependent woman from all over New England and Canada to labor in the mills with the promise of high wages offered to workers regardless of class. Furthermore she tells how the wages earned at the mills influenced the character and status of woman integrating people of various backgrounds into a common class,

the proletariat described by Marx and Engels.

Marx and Engels describe the antagonism between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as ongoing and uninterrupted, sometimes overt, sometimes covert.

In Robinson's portrayal of the life of a mill girl in the early 1830's she mentions that since help was too valuable to be mistreated and there was no need to promote the principle of proper relations between employer and employee.

This statement implies that in future times, as the shortage of labor abated, the employers at the mills could and did take advantage of their workers.

Marx and Engels maintain that the executive of the modern estate is in place only to protect the welfare of the bourgeoisie. The rise of the bourgeoisie ended the feudal ties that once bound men and left in its place self-interest and cash payment.

Robinson tells of the one of the first strikes to take place in this country, in the Lowell Mills in 1836. The strike began when it was announced that wages were to be cut. She tells of the great indignation that propelled the workers to strike en mass causing the mills being forced to close down.

The result of the strike was futile. Speeches were made and feelings were vented but the corporation would not come to terms and in the end the workers returned to the mills at the lower wages. Robinson notes that in her opinion the failure of this early attempt to bargain with management seemed to have started a pattern of failure for the issue of many strikes thereafter.

Marx and Engels spoke of this… [read more]

Societal Retrospective Comparison We Do Not Live Essay

… Societal Retrospective Comparison

We do not live in a perfect world; there are significant social problems in almost every human society as well as evidence of injustice, oppression, discrimination, abuse, neglect, and exploitation everywhere, just to name a few of the many types of problems that exist in human communities. However, it is comparatively unproductive to focus on how many problems still exist today instead of working to improve society. From the relatively short perspective of a few years, it is understandable why it may seem that the most significant problems in human society persist indefinitely. Likewise, from the most superficial perspective, it may be understandable that elements of modern social conduct are impolite compared to the social norms that existed fifty years ago.

On the other hand, from a longer perspective, it becomes evident that human societies tend to resolve many of their major problems eventually. In practically every nation on earth, contemporary life is actually much better, by numerous conceptual measures, than it was only a half century ago. Most of those beneficial changes that have improved the lives of so many are attributable to the work of those who worried more about making a positive difference than about criticizing the conditions of their societies. In every generation there are those who merely complain and those who accomplish something toward achieving a better society.


One common criticism of contemporary society is that there is too great a disparity between the so-called "haves" in the First World and the "have-nots" living mostly in the Third World. Some of those living in the First World who focus on the (admitted) disparity in wealth and opportunity among the peoples of various international regions do so as an excuse for the fact that they are simply too lazy and unmotivated to participate productively in society. They sometimes claim to reject traditional career goals as a function of the unfair disparity between those living in their society and those living in others.

In reality, they are simply using that moralistic argument to justify their lack of initiative. If they were genuinely motivated by their perspective about global welfare, they might reject the traditional career path, but they would only do so for the express purpose of devoting themselves to bettering the situations that they cite in their argument against bothering to do something productive. The criticism is patently flawed because in virtually every scenario, the plight of Third World communities is less dire today than it was a half century ago. Even if it were not, the root causes of poverty and human tragedy in the Third World were not caused by the growth of wealth in the First World, notwithstanding whether or not it could (or should) have been a higher priority to help resolve on the part of wealthier communities.

Generally, those who care about global income and opportunity…… [read more]

Industrialization the Purpose of the Present Paper Essay

… Industrialization

The purpose of the present paper is to analyze two documents which present the perspectives of two authors regarding various aspects of the industrial revolution in Britain. The first document is an excerpt from Sybil, or The Two Nations written by Benjamin Disraeli and it focuses on the harsh work and living conditions of the lower class. While his perspective has an almost dramatic tone, Robert Owen's address to the workers of New Lanark (the second document under analysis) is more than positive succeeding to demonstrate that it is possible to significantly improve the condition of this social class.

The novel written by Disraeli was intended to present the conditions in which the working class performed its duties and in which it lived. The industrial revolution has a lot of good consequences such as the creation of a huge number of working positions, but while the middle class was constantly improving its living standard it was not the same with the working class. . (IS this really what Disraeli wanted to do? Disraeli was, after all, a politician.) (this is an undeveloped paragraph) Provide a thesis. An introductory paragraph should provide a "road map" for your readers…it should clearly lay out your thesis or argument and how you plan to develop your thesis.)

The technological and industrial development imposed the division of labour which allowed for the standardization of the work process (organized patterns of worked allowed for a more efficacious production of standardized goods) and everybody, including children, was involved. This had a direct consequence upon the work rhythm and working conditions of the lower class. (It is not clear why you are including this information here.) Disraeli describes the miserable conditions in which children of young age, both boys and girls are forced to work. The description is full of details and rather than workers they seem to be slaves. The two nations that are mentioned in the title are in fact the rich and the poor. In the fragment under analysis Disraeli gives the reader a taste about the latter nation. (This paragraph is confusing. It is not clear that the first few sentences have to do with your description of Disraeli)

The target of the document is represented by a broad audience of all ages. On the one hand it is a historic recording that the followers can benefit from. On the other hand, taking into consideration the fact that Disraeli was a politician, one may assume that the book was a strategic move in order to get support for political moves (perhaps the improvement of these working conditions) or at least draw the attention to the downside of a phenomenon which most perceived as being entirely positive. (What evidence do you have that Disraeli wanted to improve conditions for the workers?) The description has a strong emotional impact and from this we may deduce that the author's goal was to obtain an emotional reaction in his readers. (Source for this…… [read more]

Possessions in the Great Gatsby Article Review

… ¶ … Possessions in the Great Gatsby," the author discusses the "debilitating effects of money and social class on American society" (210). The characters of Jay Gatsby and Myrtle Wilson are used to demonstrate the impossibility of becoming a card-carrying member of high society without having both money and an esteemed social position. Through their deaths at the hands of Daisy and Tom Buchanan, they also demonstrate the physical dangers inherent in interacting with people who are fiscally above the law.

In 1920's America, there are striking differences between the 'old money' and 'new money' members of the upper class. Gatsby is new money. He has recreated himself from a member of the middle class, even changing his name from Gatz to Gatsby so that he will fit into the upper echelon of society. It becomes quickly evident, however, that Gatsby is lacking in social position. He has wealth but he does not have a pedigree to validate his entry into high society.

Gatsby's extravagance and ostentation demonstrate to everyone that he is an upstart rather than a true member of the leisure class. Donaldson claims, "The trouble is that these possessions, which Gatsby shows off like a peacock his plumage, proclaim him as an arriviste" (207). Gatsby has purchased a relatively new home, unlike the ancestral mansions lived in by the inherited rich. He has filled it with period pieces that were purchased more as an act of displaying his wealth than because of good taste or quality. When Tom Buchanan first meets Gatsby, he is able to discount him as serious competition for Daisy's interest on the basis of his suit and car, which are so flashy that they give away his middle-class status. Gatsby wants to be a member of society, but he does not have the breeding, the background, or the manners to be considered a member of…… [read more]

Maryse Conde's View of Western Civilization Term Paper

… ¶ … Tituba, Black Witch of Salem

What Does Conde Think of Western Civilization Consist of?

The characterization of Western Civilization that comes through the narrative of Tituba is an exploitative, unjust, and immensely hypocritical society. The author, through the… [read more]

Deviant and Behavior Essay

… ¶ … Alex Thio's "Deviant Behavior" (2009), Tenth Ed.

The first chapter of Thio's book (2009) deals with defining deviant behavior. While this definition is subjective and depends on the norms, values, and rules of a certain culture or society, it is not uncommon for people to question this definition. The author also goes into detail in this first chapter in outlining some of the major perspectives that social scientists hold regarding deviance. The author gives six different perspectives, all differing on their belief as to what causes deviance and the role of deviance in a society. The first perspective is absolutism, which defines deviance as absolute and real. It uses black and white distinctions to help make the definition quite clear. Secondly the author gives the reader objectivism as a perspective. In this perspective, deviance is objectively viewed as such, and the idea of subjectivity, while relevant, is discredited. Objectivism holds that some deviant behaviors are deviant in all societies and cultures, regardless of differences in norms or values. The third perspective the author talks about in the first chapter is determinism. This states that deviant behavior is a determined aspect of human nature and that all societies will, at one time or another, experience it. These first three perspectives represent the positivist perspectives. This overarching perspective says that deviance is an absolute, and its definition is not governed by any societal or cultural contexts.

The constructivist perspectives show that deviant behavior and the definition of deviance itself is a socially constructed entity. The first of these perspectives is relativism, which says that deviance, and the definition of deviance is a constructed label that is put on a specific type of behavior. The second perspective in this group is subjectivism, which states that deviance is defined differently according to different cultural contexts. Finally author Thio offers the last perspective, voluntarism, which states that deviant behavior, while it is socially defined and constructed, is a voluntary reaction to another outside stimuli. The first chapter is devoted to helping to define and understand these six separate perspectives and helps give the reader the necessary background information with which to evaluate the rest of the book.

The second chapter in Thio's book examines the positivist theories. These theories attempt to explain why deviance occurs. These theories include strain theory, social learning theory, and control theory. The first of these theories is governed by the notion that there is societal strain in different cultures and that these strains push people to act in deviant ways, even though they may get punished for their actions. The other two theories, while independent of each other, explain deviance through a different set of lenses. Social learning theory posits that deviance is often associated with a certain type of person and that if that person builds their identity around deviant acts or attitudes, then they are merely self-actualizing. Control theory states that people will engage in deviant behavior as long as it is regarded as such, and… [read more]

Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth Essay

… Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth

How did the industrial and religious leaders as well as the government justify accumulation of wealth and resources according to Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth during the late nineteenth century?

The age of industrialization and economic growth in America during the nineteenth century is known as the 'gilded age'. This was a time when industrial growth and the accumulation of wealth were combined with the ideals of American individualism and the development of democratic deals. In brief, the dominant social philosophy and worldview of the time was one that favored independence and entrepreneurship. The ethos of the accumulation of wealth must therefore be seen against the background of the emerging ideologies that were to form the foundations of the modern American capitalistic system and which underpinned the rapid economic growth of the country. These were the 'Gospel of Wealth' as well as the rise and popularity of Social Darwinism. These were two social forces that tended to create a perception that supported the accumulation of wealth.

As one commentator notes, in the nineteenth century America had "…become a nation where traditional ideas of democracy were modified by the values of as new industrial and urban society" ( De Santis, 2008, para. 1). This meant the rise of industry and large corporations, which implied large profits and the accumulation of wealth. The effect of the rise of corporations was that they tended to overshadow the smaller entrepreneur with the result that there was a growing disparity in wealth. As America became the wealthiest nation in the world, it also began to change in terms of an increasing divide between the rich and the poor. The country was transformed "… from one of economic democracy with opportunity for nearly all to one of economic plutocracy with great opportunities for only a few" ( De Santis, 2008, para.1 ). This was to lead to economic inequities and increased class differences.

This situation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century's therefore required some form of philosophy or ideology to justify or provide moral validity to the differences in wealth and in the access to resources. The philosophy of Carnegie and his view of the "Gospel of Wealth" were to provide part of this justification. Andrew Carnegie was an industrialist who made his fortune in the nineteenth century through the expansion of the American steel industry. The main principle of his view of social economics is expressed as follows: "…the surplus earned by men of great wealth should be allocated and administered by them, acting as trustees, while they are still alive" (Carnegie, section 1, para.1).

The important moral view of wealth accumulation lies in the fact that it is linked to religious and biblical text. It is seen to be in harmony with the Christian Gospels - which of course provides it with a great deal of validity. This view can be summarized as follows. Being successful through accumulating wealth in the modern world… [read more]

Rousseau on Smith Term Paper

… Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the Theories of Adam Smith

As a renowned Genevois philosopher, I, Jean-Jacques Rousseau feel obliged to comment on the economic theories set forth by my contemporary Adam Smith in an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of… [read more]

Homeless the Disenfranchised Population of People Research Proposal

… ¶ … Homeless

The disenfranchised population of people known as the "homeless" are those who do not have a regular dwelling because they are unable to afford or maintain a permananet address. While there have always been a set of people who live on the fringe of society, the contemporary problem of homelessness, particularly in larger urban areas, has become almost endemic in Modern America. In the United States the Department of Housing and Urban Development defines a "chronically homeless" person as "an unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homess for a year or more, or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years" (HUD, 2010).

I will admit, I had a bias regarding the homeless. I found myself irritated at those individuals standing at major intersections asking for money, and personally fearful when someone would come up to me while I was using an ATM. I felt disconnected from the homeless and somehow thought that it "was their own fault."

One Thanksgiving, though, as a family, we decided to forego our personal celebration and devote our time to bringing Thanksgiving to one of the local homeless shelters. My assignment was to do some research on the homeless and make a presentation to the family. I also had to go "out of my comfort zone" and visit a shelter during the day, hopefully interviewing one or two individuals to help understand their story.

My research showed me that while there are many homeless individuals who do resort to criminal activity to survive, there are a number who have been released from mental institutions, have been forced onto the streets due to medical reasons or unemployment, domestic violence, prison release and an inability fo find work, or even natural diasters and forced addition. One mother of 2 was fleeing an abusive husband, had no resources, so lived out of their car and used the shelter to shower and for meals. She was doing her best to work part-time and keep the children in school. Another gentleman came back from Iraq with…… [read more]

Military Stereotyping the Negative Effects Research Proposal

… Military Stereotyping

The Negative Effects of Military Stereotyping

Stereotypes exist, unfortunately, in all walks of life, in all occupations, organizations, and institutions; for whatever reason, they appear to be a natural and even fundamental part of almost every human society. Though such stereotypes might have been useful many millennia ago in the prehistoric days of humanity's more desperate hunter-gatherer days, they have ceased to serve any useful function in post-agricultural society, where collective effort and esteem and opinion based on an individual's contribution to the community are the most practical, as well as the most ethical (Boyce & Herd 2004). Despite the more practical method of judgment, however, stereotypes not only persist in the larger societal view but are also put to practical and effective, if detrimentally so, use in many different organizations, leading to a degradation in the quality of these organizations.

The United States military, though one of the largest and in many ways most successful organizations (in terms of spread and scope of organizational control) ever to exist, suffers greatly from the stereotypes that persist within the collective and individuals minds of those within the organization (USAI 2009). These stereotypes are based on a multitude of factors, and can affect not only promotions, recognition, and other official achievements within the United States military, but can actually have a strong effect on job performance and individual perspectives regarding capabilities and expectations, as well (Boyce & Herd 2004; Frey 2007). Addressing these stereotypes requires first the identification of the most persistent stereotypes that exist, especially insofar as their practical effects.

Without a doubt, one of the most common and extreme stereotypes that exists in many organizations today, and perhaps especially the United States military, are those based on gender (DeGroot 2001; Boyce & Herd 2004). Women are a distinct minority n the military, especially in certain positions, from which many are explicitly held back due to their gender (Smith 2010). This leads to another common stereotype -- those based on military occupational specialties, or MOS (Smith 2010; USAI 2009). These, as well as the stereotypes of both perceived military acumen and limitations based on awards or the lack thereof, are some of the more common and detrimental stereotypes that exist in the United States military (Frey 2007). The military would be a more efficient and functional organization, both as a whole and in its development of the individuals that comprise the whole, if these stereotypes were diminished or eradicated, as this paper will show.

Awards and Stereotypes

Awards have long been used by many organizations, from businesses to governments, as a form of compensation. Viewing them in this light, however -- specifically and consciously as a form of compensation -- is a relatively new scholarly insight. They have always knowingly been used as a form of positive reinforcement, but seeing them as a replacement for something of substantive value changes the impact that award-giving might have dramatically (Frey 2007). The element that makes awards desirable is their scarcity, and… [read more]

Intercultural Communications -- 2 Questions Research Proposal

… Intercultural Communications -- 2 Questions (300 Words Each)

In what way do ethnocentrism, stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination act as barriers to effective intercultural communication?

Ethnocentrism is a natural tendency in human societies; it is responsible for a strong preference for individuals and institutions sharing the same ethnic, national, and cultural identity (Orbe & Harris, 2007). It creates a barrier to effective intercultural communications as a natural negative consequence that corresponds to the positive elements served by ethnic and cultural unity within individual groups.

In fact, that is precisely why progressive sociological theorists suggest that it is largely impossible to identify with any cultural or ethnic heritage or to bond with others on the basis of a shared ethnicity or culture without negatively impacting relations with other ethnic or cultural groups, by definition. According to this view, there is no such thing as ethnic, racial, or cultural pride that does not automatically cause mistrust of other groups that interferes with effective communications (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2003).

Stereotyping is also a natural consequence of ethnocentrism. It causes individuals from one group to view members of other groups with very generalized expectations of values and behavior and it reinforces negative beliefs that are often either untrue or unfairly attributed to specific individuals based on generalized beliefs about other groups.

Typically, those expectations and negative assumptions generate unfair prejudices against members of minority groups on the part of majority group members (Martin & Nakyma, 2007). Prejudices further inhibit effective intercultural communications by inspiring subjective and biased interpretations of actions and statements that may be completely benign. Under the color of prejudicial interpretation, those biases serve to reinforce erroneous and exaggerated perceptions that continually perpetuate communication barriers.

Ultimately, those barriers often become operationalized in the institutions of society and manifests (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2003). Meanwhile, the perception of unfairness and prejudice within the predominant group on the part of minorities increases their negative perceptions and generates reciprocal negative expectations with respect to predominant social groups.

2) How can communication strategies be used to reduce discrimination or stereotyping among people with differences according to…… [read more]

What Is the Impact of Social and Economic Forces on Individuals and Their Families? Thesis

… ¶ … Social and Economic Forces on Individuals and Families

Inasmuch as culture determines the structure, composition, and nature of families in a society, numerous other factors also play a critical role in changing the dynamics in the family. Both the social environment and economic status or climate that individuals and families belong to determine the individual's and family's nature and dynamics.

Why study the impact that social and economic forces have on the individuals and families? Studying the socio-economic factors that influence society (individuals and families alike) is found to have historically created an impact in determining changes that have happened and will happen to the individual and the family through the years. Changes have happened because of the social factors that give individuals and families their unique nature/characteristic, but these social factors are also mainly motivated by the economic climate of the society when these changes occurred. The United Nations (UN) provide a good example of how families and individuals are understood based on the social and economic climate that the society lived in at a particular point in time. In understanding the nature and dynamics of families (including individuals), UN looked at both social structure and composition, as well as economic variables that could have influenced the maintenance of a family structure, or eventual dissolution, of the family unit in specific societies.

In studying the role of families in international development, the UN, through a publication from the UN University, studied the different variables it looked at in studying families, specifically intra-household or family dynamics.…… [read more]

John Gardner's Grendel and Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon Essay

… John Gardner's Grendel & Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon

John Gardner's Grendel

The Ancient epic poem of Beowulf has a Geatish hero as its protagonist and follows him as he goes to Denmark to fight of a beast by the name of Grendel. In response to the English legend, John Gardner has written a parallel novel describing the life of Grendel, from his early days and until his death. One cannot actually claim that there are differences between the character in the epic poem and the one in Gardner's novel. Gardner has apparently attempted to present the public with the true nature of Grendel, reminding people of how shallow they can be when they label someone. As presented by Gardner, Grendel is an authentic hero that goes through a series of challenges which help him in discovering himself.

By presenting the audience with another representation of Grendel, Gardner has virtually done something which a great number of readers had thought of. A lot of people have gotten tired of reading archetypal legends relating to a hero coming to save people by killing a monster. In spite of the fact that Grendel had been described as being an evil monster in the legend of Beowulf, people have disregarded that fact that the creature did not get the chance of explaining itself, with the general public having already categorized it on the basis of its appearance. On the whole, Gardner puts forward a classical motive present in human society: hatred because of differentiation. When Grendel wants to join people in the hall, they respond violently, attempting to kill it because they do not understand him.

Grendel initially thinks of it and its mother as being one and the same, the thought of them ever separating being far from him. Even with that, at the moment when it gets stuck in a tree, it realizes that it is on his own in this world, with no one being willing to help it when it comes across difficult times. This event makes Grendel understand that it has separated from its mother, being left with no other option than to embrace life in solitude.

Its attempt to join Hrothgar's band is part of his initiation, as he learns that people cannot consider him their equal, even with the fact that he believes that he is very similar to them. This rejection contributed in building his character, influencing Grendel's repulsion towards humans. Even when he is certain that people could never accept its presence it partially feels compassion for them, unwilling to impose his power over them.

In spite of its monstrous appearance, Grendel is very emotional and cannot simply accept that it will never be part of the human community. Thus, it constantly attempts to understand what it is that has humans accept one another, wanting to integrate society by learning its laws. Grendel receives instructions from various sources all across its evolution from the time that it enters the world of humans and… [read more]

Social Contract and Racial Dominance Research Proposal

… The Social Contract and Racial Dominance in America
Mills' essay "Race and the Social Contract Tradition" (2000) makes a
compelling argument about the nature of social power dynamic in America,
evaluating issues related to race, racial identity and the defacto… [read more]

Beyond the Complexity of the Story Itself Term Paper

… Beyond the complexity of the story itself, its sometimes gruesome details and the approach that the author takes in terms of combining different temporal levels rather than using a single temporal line, the story is also interesting because of the way in which the author employs the narrator as the intermediary within the storyline and how the narrator becomes a character himself.

The first notable issue about the narrator that should be discussed here is the use of the pronoun 'we' rather than the usual 'I' for the narrator. This makes him (the paper will refer to the fact that the male is a narrator further below) a collective narrator rather than an individual one. At the same time, the reader understands from that point that he is a member and part of the town, representing and mediating its presence in the relationship between the town collective dimension and the readers. The narrator also makes himself part of the destiny that has surrounded Miss Emily and, in part, accepts the responsibility for the entire town: in part because of their negligence did the events occur and partly because of that did she live in the complete isolation in which she continued her existence.

Parts of the story are also relevant for determining the narrator's age: the fact that he is able to talk in detail about Colonel Sartoris's time, even if he had been dead for about ten years before the members of the council visited Miss Emily to talk about her taxes, shows that he had been a contemporary of the Colonel, although the narrator was probably at a young age then. Following on the same line, all of the events he talks about are sufficiently in detail to mark him as being contemporary for them.

The narrator seems to be…… [read more]

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